PK !x7j$mahlin_puteshestvie_po_akvariumu.docࡱ> 5@Rbjbj220XX   8 _%#######$&Rg( $ LLL $ 4%###Lf" ##L#### # C 2.##/%0_%#(@#.(# ( #d#LLL $ $ n# 0@: 0284>28G 0E;8= - CB5H5AB285 ?> 0:20@8C<C !>45@60=85  TOC \o "1-3" \h \z \u  HYPERLINK \l "_Toc183635253" ==>B0F8O  PAGEREF _Toc183635253 \h 1  HYPERLINK \l "_Toc183635254" @83;0H05< : ?CB5H5AB28N  PAGEREF _Toc183635254 \h 1  HYPERLINK \l "_Toc183635255" >O ;N1>2L - 0?>=>35B>=K  PAGEREF _Toc183635255 \h 2  HYPERLINK \l "_Toc183635256" !:2>7L ?>42>4=K5 46C=3;8  PAGEREF _Toc183635256 \h 7  HYPERLINK \l "_Toc183635257" -B8 C4828B5;L=K5 :@8?B>:>@8=K  PAGEREF _Toc183635257 \h 13  HYPERLINK \l "_Toc183635258" K C2845;8 25;8:>;5?=>5 7@5;8I5  PAGEREF _Toc183635258 \h 16  HYPERLINK \l "_Toc183635259" >B>A, :>B>@K9 =5 ;>B>A  PAGEREF _Toc183635259 \h 20  HYPERLINK \l "_Toc183635260" 51>;LH>9 ?@820;  PAGEREF _Toc183635260 \h 23  HYPERLINK \l "_Toc183635261" I5 =5 @K1K - H5AB8=>385  PAGEREF _Toc183635261 \h 26  HYPERLINK \l "_Toc183635262"  >?OBL =5 @K1K  PAGEREF _Toc183635262 \h 33  HYPERLINK \l "_Toc183635263" #;8B:8 B>65 8=B5@5A=K  PAGEREF _Toc183635263 \h 36  HYPERLINK \l "_Toc183635264" >42>4=K5 B0=:8  PAGEREF _Toc183635264 \h 38  HYPERLINK \l "_Toc183635265" "@8B>=K, 2>4=K5 ;O3CH:8 8 4@C385  PAGEREF _Toc183635265 \h 41  HYPERLINK \l "_Toc183635266" !=>20 ?@820;  PAGEREF _Toc183635266 \h 46  HYPERLINK \l "_Toc183635267" @02 ;8 1K; 5@>4>B?  PAGEREF _Toc183635267 \h 47  HYPERLINK \l "_Toc183635268" 018@8=B A ;018@8=B><  PAGEREF _Toc183635268 \h 49  HYPERLINK \l "_Toc183635269" =574> 87 2>74CE0  PAGEREF _Toc183635269 \h 52  HYPERLINK \l "_Toc183635270" >@@840& 2 2>45  PAGEREF _Toc183635270 \h 57  HYPERLINK \l "_Toc183635271" !@548 ;018@8=B>2KE  PAGEREF _Toc183635271 \h 60  HYPERLINK \l "_Toc183635272"  K1:0 1>38=8 A84K  PAGEREF _Toc183635272 \h 64  HYPERLINK \l "_Toc183635273" ;020NI85 ;8ABLO 8 682K5 48A:8  PAGEREF _Toc183635273 \h 68  HYPERLINK \l "_Toc183635274" #4828B5;L=K5 @K1K ?@5A=>2>4=KE @8D>2  PAGEREF _Toc183635274 \h 71  HYPERLINK \l "_Toc183635275" '53> =8 A>B2>@8B ?@8@>40!  PAGEREF _Toc183635275 \h 75  HYPERLINK \l "_Toc183635276" #AB@>8< F8E;840@8C<  PAGEREF _Toc183635276 \h 80  HYPERLINK \l "_Toc183635277" >340 D8>;5B>2>5 :065BAO 15;K<  PAGEREF _Toc183635277 \h 82  HYPERLINK \l "_Toc183635278" !;57K ?@5:@0A=>9 "0>  PAGEREF _Toc183635278 \h 88  HYPERLINK \l "_Toc183635279" A:>@:0 8=459A:>3> 1>30  PAGEREF _Toc183635279 \h 93  HYPERLINK \l "_Toc183635280" %0@0F8=84K - 3@>74L 4@03>F5==KE :0<=59  PAGEREF _Toc183635280 \h 96  HYPERLINK \l "_Toc183635281" 84OI85 157 3;07  PAGEREF _Toc183635281 \h 100  HYPERLINK \l "_Toc183635282" 0209B5 >B4>E=5<  PAGEREF _Toc183635282 \h 105  HYPERLINK \l "_Toc183635283" -B8 AB@0H=K5 ?8@0=L8  PAGEREF _Toc183635283 \h 106  HYPERLINK \l "_Toc183635284"  @K1K 1K20NB >4=>;5B=8<8  PAGEREF _Toc183635284 \h 111  HYPERLINK \l "_Toc183635285" CABO:8, > :>B>@KE AB>8B ?>3>2>@8BL  PAGEREF _Toc183635285 \h 115  HYPERLINK \l "_Toc183635286" !>2A5< :>@>B:0O >AB0=>2:0  PAGEREF _Toc183635286 \h 122  HYPERLINK \l "_Toc183635287" @>4>;68< =0H5 ?CB5H5AB285  PAGEREF _Toc183635287 \h 122  ==>B0F8O ;O 0:20@8C<8AB>2 8740=> 8 87405BAO =5<0;> :=83 8 2 =0H59 AB@0=5, 8 70 @C156><. >;LH8=AB2> 87 =8E - @C:>2>4AB20 ?> CAB@>9AB2C :><=0B=>3> 2>4>5<0. =8 @0AA:07K20NB, :0: A45;0BL, >1>@C4>20BL 8 A>45@60BL 0:20@8C<K, :0:8<8 @0AB5=8O<8 8 682>B=K<8 8E 70A5;8BL.  MB8E ?>;57=KE @C:>2>4AB20E > :064>< 2845 @0AB5=8O 8;8 45:>@0B82=>9 @K1:8 ?@82>4OBAO 1>;55 8;8 <5=55 :@0B:85 A?@02>G=K5 40==K5 - @>48=0, @07<5@ 8 D>@<0, >:@0A:0, 18>;>38G5A:85 E0@0:B5@8AB8:8, >A>15==>AB8 @07<=>65=8O. =830, :>B>@CN 2K 45@68B5 2 @C:0E, ?>AB@>5=0 8=0G5.  =59 3;02=>5 2=8<0=85 C45;5=> B><C, :0: 1K;> >1=0@C65=> B> 8;8 8=>5 @0AB5=85, ?>9<0=> 682>B=>5, :0: @0A:@K20;8 CG5=K518>;>38 8 =0BC@0;8ABK;N18B5;8 B09=K >18B0B5;59 ?@5A=KE 2>4>5<>2 <8@0. @83;0H05< : ?CB5H5AB28N #4828B5;5= 8 @07=>>1@075= >:@C60NI89 =0A <8@ 682>9 ?@8@>4K. , 5AB5AB25==>, C <=>38E 2>7=8:05B 65;0=85 1>;LH5 C7=0BL > =5<, ?>7=0:><8BLAO A 682>B=K<8 8 @0AB5=8O<8, =0A5;ONI8<8 =0HC ?;0=5BC. >=5G=>, ;CGH89 A?>A>1 4;O 7=0:><AB20 A >18B0B5;O<8 :>=B8=5=B>2, ?@5A=KE 8 <>@A:8E 2>4 - MB> ?CB5H5AB28O. 0: 3>2>@8; =0H 7=0<5=8BK9 A>>B5G5AB25==8: 8AA;54>20B5;L35>3@0D ..@6520;LA:89: & 687=L ?@5:@0A=0 ?>B><C, GB> <>6=> ?CB5H5AB2>20BL.  A MB8< =5;L7O =5 A>3;0A8BLAO. C 0 5A;8 B0:>9 2>7<>6=>AB8 =5B, :0: 1KBL B>340? 5 >3>@G09B5AL, 5ABL A?>A>1, ?@8 :>B>@>< ?CB5H5AB285 4>ABC?=> ?@0:B8G5A:8 2A5<.  =5 =04> 3>B>28BLAO : 4>;3>9 8 B@C4=>9 4>@>35. C6=> A>2A5< 4@C3>5: ?>A5;8BL C A51O 4><0 3>AB59 87 40;L=8E AB@0=. !>15@8B5, : ?@8<5@C, :>;;5:F8N :0:BCA>2 87 ?CABK=L 8;8, =0>1>@>B, 2K@0I8209B5 A0<K5 2;03>;N182K5 @0AB5=8O B@>?8G5A:8E ;5A>2. >6=> A>45@60BL O@:> @0A:@0H5==KE B@>?8G5A:8E ?B8F 8;8 A>740BL 4><0 ;0=4H0DB=K5 B5@@0@8C<K, 345 A@548 :0<=59 8 75;5=8 254CB A2>N B08=AB25==CN 687=L OI5@8FK, ;O3CH:8 8 4065 7<58.  <>6=> 7025AB8 0:20@8C< A 682>B=K<8 8 @0AB5=8O<8 87 2>4>5<>2 @07=KE :>=B8=5=B>2. K15@8B5 87 MB>3> @07=>>1@078O B>, GB> 20< 1>;LH5 ?> 4CH5, 8 A@07C ?>O28BAO 2>7<>6=>ABL A>25@H0BL A0<K5 C2;5:0B5;L=K5 ?CB5H5AB28O. 0:? ! ?><>ILN :=83, :>=5G=>. =83, @0AA:07K20NI8E > 20H8E ?8B><F0E. 4=> 87 B0:8E ?CB5H5AB289 O 8 ?@54;030N A>25@H8BL. 0209B5 >B?@028<AO 2 ?>42>4=K9 <8@ 70 AB5:;O==K<8 AB5=:0<8 0:20@8C<0. ;O 0:20@8C<8AB>2 8740=> 8 87405BAO =5<0;> :=83 8 2 =0H59 AB@0=5, 8 70 @C156><. >;LH8=AB2> 87 =8E - @C:>2>4AB20 ?> CAB@>9AB2C :><=0B=>3> 2>4>5<0. =8 @0AA:07K20NB, :0: A45;0BL, >1>@C4>20BL 8 A>45@60BL 0:20@8C<K, :0:8<8 @0AB5=8O<8 8 682>B=K<8 8E 70A5;8BL.  MB8E ?>;57=KE @C:>2>4AB20E > :064>< 2845 @0AB5=8O 8;8 45:>@0B82=>9 @K1:8 ?@82>4OBAO 1>;55 8;8 <5=55 :@0B:85 A?@02>G=K5 40==K5 - @>48=0, @07<5@ 8 D>@<0, >:@0A:0, 18>;>38G5A:85 E0@0:B5@8AB8:8, >A>15==>AB8 @07<=>65=8O. =830, :>B>@CN 2K 45@68B5 2 @C:0E, ?>AB@>5=0 8=0G5.  =59 3;02=>5 2=8<0=85 C45;5=> B><C, :0: 1K;> >1=0@C65=> B> 8;8 8=>5 @0AB5=85, ?>9<0=> 682>B=>5, :0: @0A:@K20;8 CG5=K518>;>38 8 =0BC@0;8ABK;N18B5;8 B09=K >18B0B5;59 ?@5A=KE 2>4>5<>2 <8@0.  =0AB>OI55 8740=85 2:;NG5=K 3;02K 87 :=838 B>3> 65 02B>@0 0=8<0B5;L=K9 0:20@8C<. A?>;L7>20= 8 @O4 ?C1;8:>202H8EAO @0=55 AB0B59. A5 MB8 <0B5@80;K >1=>2;5=K 8 @0AH8@5=K. >;55 ?>;>28=K :=838 ?>A2OI5=> >?8A0=8N @07=KE @K1, 8AB>@88 8E ?>O2;5=8O 2 ;N18B5;LA:8E :><=0B=KE 2>4>5<0E, 8E C4828B5;L=K< 18>;>38G5A:8< >A>15==>ABO<. >7=0:><8BAO G8B0B5;L 8 A 4@C38<8 682>B=K<8, =0A5;ONI8<8 0:20@8C<, A =081>;55 8=B5@5A=K<8 8 ?>?C;O@=K<8 2>4=K<8 @0AB5=8O<8. 2B>@ =0455BAO, GB> G8B0B5;L AC<55B 872;5GL 87 :=838 8 ?@0:B8G5A:85 A2545=8O > A>45@60=88 2 0:20@8C<0E @K1 8 @0AB5=89, :>B>@KE <>6=> ?@8>1@5AB8 2 =0H59 7>>B>@3>2;5. #7=05B >= 8 > B5E ?@54AB028B5;OE @0AB8B5;L=>3> 8 682>B=>3> <8@0 ?@5A=KE 2>4, :>B>@K5 ?>:0 >B=>AOBAO : @54:8<, <0;>4>ABC?=K<, 0 ?>@>9 8 =5 >A2>5==K< 2 4><0H=5< A>45@60=88.  MB> B>65 ?>;57=>, ?>A:>;L:C 8AB8==K9 =0BC@0;8AB =8:>340 =5 AG8B05B A2>N :>;;5:F8N ?>;=>9 8 70:>=G5==>9, >= 2A5340 AB@5<8BAO 55 ?>?>;=OBL. 5@>OB=>, G0ABL G8B0B5;59 2>>1I5 =5 7=0:><0 A ;N18B5;LA:8< 0:20@8C<><.  5A;8 C :>3>B> ?>A;5 GB5=8O :=838 2>7=8:=5B 65;0=85 A>740BL A2>9 4><0H=89 2>4>5<, GB>1K 2 A2>1>4=>5 2@5<O =01;N40BL 70 53> >18B0B5;O<8, 02B>@ 1C45B AG8B0BL, GB> =5 7@O B@C48;AO =04 MB8<8 AB@0=8F0<8.  5A;8 B0:>3> 65;0=8O =5 2>7=8:=5B - =5 1540. A5, GB> 2K C7=05B5, 40AB ?@54AB02;5=85 >1 C4828B5;L=>< @07=>>1@0788 682>9 ?@8@>4K. 0AB5=8O 8 682>B=K5 - 687=L - >1@07CNB =0 ?>25@E=>AB8 =0H59 ?;0=5BK B>=:CN ?;5=:C 18>AD5@K. 5 >G5=L ;53:> ?>@20BL, 8A:0;5G8BL, C18BL.  7040G0 G5;>25:0 - 2A53> G5;>25G5AB20 - 15@5GL MBC =56=CN ?;5=:C, :>B>@0O 8 45;05B =0HC ?;0=5BC 682>9. C<0N, B>B, :B> ?@>GC2AB2C5B :@0A>BC 687=8, 55 C4828B5;L=CN A>>1@07=>ABL A B5<8 CA;>28O<8, 2 :>B>@KE >=0 @0728205BAO, =8:>340 =5 ?@8G8=8B, 59 7;>. ! 4>1@><, A ?@5:;>=5=85< ?5@54 25;8G85< 8 <=>3>>1@0785< 687=8 ?@54?@8=8<0; 02B>@ A2>N @01>BC =04 MB>9 :=83>9. 045NAL, GB> 8 G8B0B5;L 1C45B ?CB5H5AB2>20BL ?> 55 AB@0=8F0< A 4>1@K< @0A?>;>65=85< : 682>9 ?@8@>45. >O ;N1>2L - 0?>=>35B>=K 0H5 ?CB5H5AB285 2 <8@ ?>42>4=KE >18B0B5;59 <K =0G=5< A @0AB5=89.  2 ?5@2CN >G5@54L <=5 E>B5;>AL 1K @0AA:070BL > B5E @0AB5=8OE, :>B>@K5 <=5 =@02OBAO 1>;LH5 2A53>. -B> 0?>=>35B>=K - 2>4=K5 B@02K, >1@07CNI85 2A53> >48= @>4, A>AB02;ONI89 F5;>5 A5<59AB2> ?>=>35B>=>2K5 (Aponogetonaceae). B0:, A;CH09B5.  17921802 3>40E =0 >AB@>25 04030A:0@ 68; D@0=FC7A:89 1>B0=8: N5B8"C0@. = 87CG0; @0AB8B5;L=K9 <8@ >AB@>20, A>18@0; >1@07FK @0AB5=89 4;O 35@10@8O, >AB>@>6=> C?0:>2K20; A5<5=0. 4=064K : =5<C ?@8H5; <0;L30H (<5AB=K9 68B5;L) 8 A?@>A8;, =5 =C65= ;8 5<C 4;O :>;;5:F88 :;C15=L. -0:>9 :;C15=L?- C4828;AO 1>B0=8:. -#28@0=4@0=>,- ?>A;54>20; >B25B. N5B8"C0@ 27O; 2 @C:8 =51>;LH>9 G5@=K9 :;C15=L, >1@>AH89 A> 2A5E AB>@>= 10E@><>9 1C@KE :>@=59. -'B> 65 MB> 70 :;C15=L, G5< >= 70<5G0B5;5=?- ?>8=B5@5A>20;AO >= C BC75<F0.  B>B @0AA:070;, GB> =0720=85 C28@0=4@0=> ?@>8AE>48B >B 42CE <5AB=KE A;>2: C28, GB> 7=0G8B - :;C15=L, 8 @0=4@0=> - =5>1@01>B0==K9, 3@C1K9, :>A<0BK9. 5AB=K5 68B5;8 A>18@0NB 53> 8 54OB. ;C15=L 1>30B :@0E<0;>< 8 A0E0@><, =0 2:CA >= A;53:0 =0?><8=05B :0@B>D5;L. -45 65 A>18@05B5 MB8 :;C1=8?- A?@>A8; N5B8. - 2>45,- >B25B8; BC75<5F. -E, 2 2>45! =0G8B, MB> @0AB5=85 2>4=>5.  2 :0:>< 2>4>5<5 O <>3 1K 53> =09B8? -C!- 70A<5O;AO <0;L30H 2 >B25B.- 5AB0 >18B0=8O MB>3> :;C1=O =5 C7=05B =8:B> 87 52@>?59F52. K 45@68< 8E 2 A5:@5B5 4065 4@C3 >B 4@C30, 254L C28@0=4@0=> 54OB 2A5, >= >G5=L 2:CA5=, 0 @0AB5B 2 =5<=>38E <5AB0E.  MB8 <5AB0 8725AB=K 40;5:> =5 2A5<. "0: N5B8"C0@ AB>;:=C;AO A ?5@2>9 B09=>9, >:@C60NI59 C28@0=4@0=>: <5AB> >18B0=8O @0AB5=8O, A:>;L:> >= =8 ?KB0;AO, CAB0=>28BL =5 C40;>AL. -C, E>@>H>,- A40;AO >=,- ?@8=5A8 E>BL ;8ABLO 4;O 35@10@8O. !?CABO =5A:>;L:> 4=59 <0;L30H ?@8H5; A=>20 8 ?>;>68; ?5@54 1>B0=8:>< 1>;LH>9 ;8AB ;>?CE0. >B0=8: A?>:>9=> @0725@=C; ;8AB 8 24@C3& 3;070 53> >:@C3;8;8AL, @C:8 704@>60;8, 0 A5@4F5 - A5@4F5 8AA;54>20B5;O - =58AB>2> 7018;>AL 2 3@C48. 5@54 =8< =0 ;8AB5 ;>?CE0 ;560;8 0::C@0B=>9 :CG:>9 B>=5=L:85 8 87OI=K5 A5B>G:8;8ABLO. 8;:8 =0 =8E H;8 AB@>3> ?0@0;;5;L=>: >4=8 24>;L ;8AB0, 4@C385 - ?>?5@5:, 0 <564C =8<8 - >B25@AB8O, B>G=K5, :0: 2 35><5B@8G5A:>< @8AC=:5. -B> 1K;> =5GB> =>2>5. =>3> 7=0;0 2 B> 2@5<O =0C:0 > @0AB5=8OE, <=>3> @07=KE 284>2 >?8A0=>, => B0:>3> ;8AB0& --B> GB>, >=8 B0: 8 @0ABCB 157 ;8AB>2>9 <O:>B8?- 4@>60I8< 3>;>A>< A?@>A8; CG5=K9. > <0;L30H =5 ?>=O; 2>?@>A0, =5 ?>=O; 8 2>;=5=8O 52@>?59F0 - =5 <>3;0 65 ?>:070BLAO 5<C GC4>< ?@>AB0O B@020 53> @>48=K. N5B8"C0@ ;8E>@04>G=> @01>B0;. = 2KACH8; 8 ?>4H8; : 35@10@8N ;8ABLO, 70@8A>20; 8E.  2A5 2@5<O, >AB02H55AO 4> >BJ5740, ?KB0;AO =09B8 <5AB>, 345 >18B05B MB> GC4>. > 5<C B0: 8 =5 C40;>AL >B:@KBL B09=C. 5@=C2H8AL 2 0@86, N5B8"C0@ <=>38< ?>@078; A2>8E :>;;53. > 1>;LH5 2A53> C4828;> 8E A5BG0B>5 @0AB5=85.  1805 3>4C 2KH;> >?8A0=85 A>1@0==>9 1>B0=8:>< :>;;5:F88. >2>5 @0AB5=85 ?>;CG8;> =0720=85 Uvirandra fenestralis, GB> >7=0G0;> - C28@0=4@0 >:>H5G=0O (>B25@AB8O 8 ?5@5:;048=:8 68;>: ;8AB0 8 2?@O<L =0?><8=0;8 >:>H5G:8). -B> =0720=85 ?@>ACI5AB2>20;> 160 ;5B. 5402=> >= 1K;> 87<5=5=>, 8 B5?5@L @0AB5=85 =07K205BAO 0?>=>35B>= <04030A:0@A:89 (Aponogeton madagascariensis). >;;0=4A:89 1>B0=8: 20= @CEE5= 2KOA=8;, GB> ?5@2>5 >?8A0=85 C28@0=4@K ?>O28;>AL @0=LH5 1805 3>40. #4828B5;L=>5 @0AB5=85 1K;> >?8A0=> 8@15;5< 2 11< 3>4C $@0=FC7A:>9 @52>;NF88 (MB> ?@81;878B5;L=> A5=BO1@L 1802 - A5=BO1@L 1803 3>4>2). 8@15;L =0720; 53> C28@0=4@>9 <04030A:0@A:>9, 0 ?> ACI5AB2CNI8< 2 1>B0=8:5 ?@028;0< 459AB28B5;L=K< O2;O5BAO A0<>5 ?5@2>5 284>2>5 =08<5=>20=85. 01>B0 8@15;O 4>;385 3>4K 1K;0 =58725AB=0 H8@>:><C :@C3C 1>B0=8:>2. # 0=3;89A:8E 1>B0=8:>2 =5 1K;> 70ACH5==KE ;8ABL52 C28@0=4@K. > :=830 N5B8"C0@0 C =8E 1K;0. =8 ?>:07K20;8 55 :064><C, :B> >B?@02;O;AO 87 >=4>=0 =0 04030A:0@, 8 ?@>A8;8 ?@8257B8 MB> @0AB5=85. 5<=>3> 0=3;8G0= 5748;> 2 B5 2@5<5=0 =0 40;5:89 >AB@>2.  B5, :B> 5748;, 1K;8 40;5:8 >B 1>B0=8:8. =8 >15I0;8 ?@8257B8 C28@0=4@C, =>& BCB 65 701K20;8 >1 MB><.  50E 3>40E XIX 25:0 0=3;8G0=5 2A5 5I5 =045O;8AL 70?>;CG8BL C28@0=4@C, 2A5 5I5 ?>:07K20;8 @8AC=>: N5B8"C0@0. >:070;8 53> 8 8725AB=><C ?CB5H5AB25==8:C 8;LO<C -;;8AC. -C GB> 6,- A:070; >=,- ?>AB0@0NAL. ">;L:> A:>?8@C9B5 @8AC=>: 2 =5A:>;L:8E M:75<?;O@0E. @81K2 2 "0=0=0@825, -;;8A ?>:070; @8AC=>: 402=> 682H5<C =0 >AB@>25 D@0=FC7A:><C CG5=><C >65. 4=0:> 8 >= =5 7=0; <5AB0 >18B0=8O @0AB5=8O. -;;8A ?>:07K20; @8AC=:8 7=0:><K<, >AB02;OO C =8E :>?88, => <5AB0, 345 @0AB5B ;535=40@=0O A5B>G:0, 5<C B0: 8 =5 C40;>AL CAB0=>28BL. ">340 -;;8A >1@0B8;AO : <0;L30H0<. 4=8 8A?C30==> :0G0;8 3>;>2>9, 4@C385 :820;8: 0, @0=LH5 <=>3> C28@0=4@0=> 1K;>.  ?>B>< =0ABC?8;8 3>;>4=K5 3>4K, 8 <=>3> 53> AJ5;8. "@5BL8 ?5@53;O4K20;8AL - 284=> 1K;>, GB> >=8 7=0NB 7025B=K5 <5AB0, => =5 E>BOB 8E >B:@K20BL. 0:>=5F, :>340 0=3;8G0=8= C65 >BG0O;AO 2K?>;=8BL ?@>AL1C ;>=4>=A:8E :>;;53, >= 2AB@5B8; G5;>25:0, :>B>@K9 A>3;0A8;AO 4>1KBL MB> @0AB5=85. 0;L30H CH5; =0 ?>8A:8, 0 -;;8A >AB0;AO 640BL @57C;LB0B>2. @>H5; 45=L, 4@C3>9, B@5B89& -;;8A C65 =5 640; <0;L30H0, :>340 B>B ?@8H5; 8 A>>1I8;, GB> @0AB5=8O >= 2845;, => 4>AB0BL 8E =52>7<>6=> 8770 1>;LH>3> :>;8G5AB20 :@>:>48;>2. -04> 640BL, ?>:0 A?045B 2>40 8 GC4>28I0 C?;K2CB 87 @CGLO 2 @5:C,- A:070; BC75<5F.  >?OBL ?>BO=C;8AL =545;8 >6840=8O. >=G8;AO A57>= 4>6459, =0G0;>AL 60@:>5 B@>?8G5A:>5 ;5B>.  2>B >4=064K, >B:@K2 425@L =0 ABC:, -;;8A C2845; 7=0:><>3> <0;L30H0.  @C:0E >= 45@60; A25@B>: 87 ;8ABL52 ;>?CE0. -;;8A @0725@=C;, 8 ?5@54 53> 3;070<8 ?@54AB0;8 420 ?@5:@0A=KE M:75<?;O@0 C28@0=4@K.  1854 3>4C -;;8A 4>AB028; MB8 @0AB5=8O 682K<8 2 >=4>=. &5;K5 4=8 B>;?8;8AL 1>B0=8:8 C 10AA59=0, 345 @>A;8 C28@0=4@K. ?8A0=85 @0AB5=8O ?>O28;>AL 2 1>B0=8G5A:8E 6C@=0;0E @O40 AB@0=. #G5=K51>B0=8:8 AB@5<8;8AL ?>?0ABL =0 04030A:0@, GB>1K 87CG0BL @0AB5=85 =0 <5AB5.  87CG0BL 1K;> GB>. >G5<C C MB>3> @0AB5=8O B0:85 ;8ABLO? # <=>38E 2>4=KE @0AB5=89 2 ?@>F5AA5 M2>;NF88 2>7=8:;8 <5;:>@0AA5G5==K5 ;8ABLO 8 C25;8G8;0AL ?>25@E=>ABL A>?@8:>A=>25=8O @0AB5=89 A 2>4>9. '5< 1>;LH5 ?>25@E=>ABL, B5< 0:B82=55 ?@>E>4OB ?@>F5AAK 4KE0=8O, 0 4=5<, ?@8 A25B5, 8 ?@>F5AAK 0AA8<8;OF88.  2A5 65 =8 >4=> @0AB5=85 <8@0 =5 ?>2B>@O5B C4828B5;L=CN D>@<C ;8AB0 C28@0=4@K. 0 04030A:0@5 8 1;87;560I8E >AB@>20E 2AB@5G0NBAO H5ABL @07=>284=>AB59 @5H5BG0B>3> @0AB5=8O. > 2A5 >=8 ?>2B>@ONB BC 65 AE5<C ;8AB0, @07;8G=K B>;L:> >G5@B0=8O ;8AB0 8 @8AC=>: 68;>:. >B0=8:8 >?@545;ONB ?@8=04;56=>ABL @0AB5=89 : 284C, @>4C 8 A5<59AB2C =5 AB>;L:> ?> ;8ABLO<, A:>;L:> ?> F25B:0<. 5H5BG0BK5 @0AB5=8O ?@8=04;560B : @>4C ?>=>35B>= (Aponogeton). O4>< A =8<8 2 B5E 65 2>4>5<0E @0AB5B 4@C3>9 284 0?>=>35B>=0 - A. ulvaceus (;8ABLO 53> =0?><8=0NB <>@A:CN 2>4>@>A;L C;L2C). > C =53> =5B 8 =0<5:0 =0 ;8ABLOA5B>G:8. I5 420 <04030A:0@A:8E 0?>=>35B>=0 - A. boivinianus 8 A. bernierianus - 8<5NB C4828B5;L=K5 3>D@8@>20==K5 ;8ABLO, 2AO ?;0AB8=:0 ;8AB0 2 O<:0E 8 A:;04:0E.  2A53> : @>4C ?>=>35B>= ?@8=04;568B 1>;55 40 284>2 @07=KE 8 4>2>;L=> AE>68E ?> B8?C ;8AB0 2>4=KE @0AB5=89 87 788, D@8:8 8 2AB@0;88. > =8 C >4=>3> 87 =8E =5B ;8ABL52A5B>G5:. #28@0=4@0 ?>O28;0AL 2 5B5@1C@3A:>< 1>B0=8G5A:>< A04C 2 :>=F5 ?@>H;>3> 25:0. > 4> A8E ?>@ >=0 ?@>4>;605B 704020BL 70304:8 1>B0=8:0<.  1>B0=8G5A:8E A040E <8@0 B0: 8 =5 =0CG8;8AL ;53:> 2K@0I820BL MB> @0AB5=85. "@C4=> A>E@0=8BL 53> 8 2 ;N18B5;LA:>< 0:20@8C<5. "@51C5BAO <O3:0O (15 65AB:>AB8), 565=545;L=> A<5=O5<0O =0?>;>28=C 2>40.  AB0@>9 0:20@8C<=>9 2>45 @0AB5=85 1KAB@> ?>38105B. A25I0NB 0:20@8C< ;0<?>9 =0:0;820=8O 87 @0AG5B0 25 B =0 10 4<2 ?;>I048 ?>25@E=>AB8 (?@8 3;C18=5 =5 1>;55 30 A0=B8<5B@>2). #28@0=4@0 ?5@8>48G5A:8 B@51C5B ?>:>O 8 A1@0AK205B 2A5 ;8ABLO.  MB>B ?5@8>4 (4> B@5E <5AOF52) :>@=528I0 =04> A>45@60BL 2 >B45;L=>9 10=:5 ?@8 B5<?5@0BC@5 1012 !. >A;5 B0:>9 ?0C7K @0AB5=85 ?@>AK?05BAO 8, ?5@5A065==>5 2 0:20@8C<, 1KAB@> 70F25B05B. &25B:8 2A5E 0?>=>35B>=>2 A>1@0=K 2 :>;>A:8 8 2K=>AOBAO : ?>25@E=>AB8 2>4K =0 4;8==>< F25B>=>A5. > <=5 =8:>340 =5 4>2>48;>AL 2845BL :>;>A>: C28@0=4@K =04 2>4>9, GB>1K <>6=> 1K;> :8AB>G:>9 >AB>@>6=> >?K;8BL 55 <5;:85 F25B>G:8, :0: MB> >1KG=> 45;0NB ?@8 F25B5=88 4@C38E 0?>=>35B>=>2. K, =025@=>5, C65 @5H8;8, GB> 8 A5<5=0 MB>3> @0AB5=8O O B>65 =5 AC<5; ?>;CG8BL? 8G53> ?>4>1=>3>! !5<5=0B> :0: @07 8 1K;8, E>BO 42CE:>;>A:>2>5 A>F25B85 8 =5 4C<0;> ?>4=8<0BLAO : ?>25@E=>AB8 2>4K. > :0: 65 B0:? 04 2>4>9 F25B:8 0?>=>35B>=>2 (>=8 8<5NB =56=K9 70?0E 8 A;04:89 =5:B0@) >?K;ONBAO =0A5:><K<8.  :B> 65 >?K;O5B 8E ?>4 2>4>9? 8:B>. 5H5BG0BK5 0?>=>35B>=K >1KG=> @0ABCB 2 1KAB@KE @CGLOE 8, E>BO >=8 @0A?>;030NBAO =0 =51>;LH>9 3;C18=5, 0 8E ;8ABLO AB5;NBAO ?> B5G5=8N, 2KAB028BL A>F25B85 =04 2>4>9 =0 B>=:>< 381:>< F25B>=>A5 =0 AB@5<=8=5 =5 2A5340 C405BAO. >B C28@0=4@0 8 ?@8A?>A>18;0AL: 55 F25B:8 <>3CB @072820BL ?;>4K 8 157 >?;>4>B2>@5=8O. "0:>5 O2;5=85 =07K205BAO 0?><8:A8O, 8 >=> E0@0:B5@=> 4;O <=>38E @0AB5=89, 682CI8E 2 ?@>B>G=KE 2>40E. !5<5=0 C28@0=4@K, :>B>@K5 <=5 C4020;>AL ?>;CG0BL, 8<5;8 :@0A82K5 G5E;8:8 A25:>;L=>3> F25B0. 5@2K5 ;8AB8:8 8<5NB A?;>H=CN ;8AB>2CN ?;0AB8=:C, ?>B><, =0 A;54CNI8E, >B25@AB89 AB0=>28BAO 2A5 1>;LH5 8 1>;LH5. "> 65 A0<>5 ?@>8AE>48B A ;8ABLO<8, ?>O2;ONI8<8AO =0 :>@=528I5 ?>A;5 ?5@8>40 ?>:>O. 5@5AK;0NB >1KG=> :>@=528I0 8<5==> 2 ?5@8>4 ?>:>O - 157 ;8ABL52 8 :>@=59.  157 2>4K. 4=064K <>9 7=0:><K9 8EB8>;>3 87 $@0=F88 .0<0@: ?@8A;0; ?>AK;:C A B0:8<8 :>@=528I0<8 ?@O<> A 04030A:0@0 2 5=8=3@04 2 D0=5@=>< OI8G:5 A 4@525A=K< C3;5<. !>B@C4=8F0 1>B0=8G5A:>3> A040, ?@8=O2H0O ?>AK;:C, @5H8;0, GB> 8<55B 45;> A :;C1=O<8 153>=88, 8 ?@>2>@=> 2KA048;0 :;C1=8 =0 :0@0=B8==CN 3@O4:C. / AC<5; ?@85E0BL B>;L:> G5@57 =5A:>;L:> 4=59, >BKA:0; :>@=528I0 2 E>;>4=>9 75<;5 (55 B5<?5@0BC@0 2 45:01@5 =5 ?@52KH0;0 10 !) 8, 701@02 8E, ?><5AB8; 2 0:20@8C<. A:>@5 >=8 ?@>A=C;8AL 8 AB0;8 2K?CA:0BL ;8ABLO.  MB> =5C4828B5;L=>: 2 3>@0E @CGL8 G0AB> 2 ACE>9 ?5@8>4 >AB0NBAO 157 2>4K, 0 =>G8 =0 04030A:0@5 1K20NB E>;>4=K<8. #28@0=4@0 - 25;8:>;5?=K9 8=48:0B>@ G8AB>BK 2>4K. !> 2@5<5= @CAA:>3> 0:20@8C<8AB0 ..0<1C@35@0, ?>:0702H53> =0 2KAB02:5 2 A5<845AOBKE 3>40E ?@>H;>3> 25:0 A>@>: 25;8:>;5?=KE M:75<?;O@>2 MB>3> @0AB5=8O, >=0 :C;LB828@>20;0AL 2 5B5@1C@3A:>< (5=8=3@04A:><) 1>B0=8G5A:>< A04C 4> A5@548=K H5AB845AOBKE 3>4>2 =K=5H=53> AB>;5B8O.  1955 3>4C 2<5AB5 A ;N18B5;5< 2>4=KE @0AB5=89 ..0=:>2K< <K ?>:070;8 =0 2KAB02:5 ?>;C<5B@>2CN C28@0=4@C A G5BK@L<O >B@>AB:0<8. > 1>;LH5 =0 2KAB02:0E 0:20@8C<>2 >=0 =5 ?>O2;O;0AL. 0AB5=85 =5 2K45@60;> 2A5 C25;8G820NI53>AO 703@O7=5=8O ;04>6A:>9 8 =52A:>9 2>4K ?@><KH;5==K<8 8 A5;LA:>E>7O9AB25==K<8 AB>:0<8 8 ?>AB5?5==> ?>381;>.  E>BO O =5>4=>:@0B=> ?>;CG0; 53> 2 ?>AK;:0E, ?@82>78; 8770 @C1560, A>E@0=8BL 53> C4020;>AL =5 1>;55 42CE ;5B. > @5H5BG0BK5 0?>=>35B>=K - =5 548=AB25==0O B@C4=0O 7040G0 4;O 0:20@8C<8AB0. O4>< A C28@0=4@0<8 2 @5:0E 04030A:0@0 @0AB5B 5I5 1>;55 :0?@87=K9 8E @>4AB25==8: - 0?>=>35B>= 5@=L5 (A. bernierianus), > :>B>@>< O C65 C?><O=C;.  @O45 :=83 > 2>4=KE @0AB5=8OE ?>4 MB8< =0720=85< >H81>G=> >?8AK20NB >4=C 87 @07=>284=>AB59 C28@0=4@K. >4@>1=> O @0AA:070; >1 MB>< 2 :=835 > 0;;5O< 384@>A040 (.: 84@><5B5>8740B, 1984). ?>=>35B>= 5@=L5 - MB> :@C?=>5 (1 <5B@ 8 1>;55) @0AB5=85 A 1>;LH8< :>;8G5AB2>< A8;L=> 2KBO=CBKE 65AB:8E 8 2>;=8ABKE ;8ABL52. 8AB>20O ?;0AB8=:0 2AO ?>:@KB0 1C3>@:0<8 8 O<:0<8 - B0:0O :>=AB@C:F8O B>65 C25;8G8205B ?>25@E=>ABL 0AA8<8;OF88. A;8 C @5H5BG0BKE 0?>=>35B>=>2 =0 >4=>< F25B>=>A5 <>65B 1KBL >B 42CE 4> G5BK@5E F25B:>2KE :>;>A:>2, B> C MB>3> 0?>=>35B>=0 8E G8A;> 4>AB8305B 45AOB8.  @5:0E 04030A:0@0 2AB@5G0NBAO 420 ?>42840 4C@C4C@0 (B0:>2> <5AB=>5 =0720=85 @0AB5=8O): >48= - A C7:8<8 ;8ABLO<8 4;8=>9 >B 11 4> 50 8 H8@8=>9 23 A0=B8<5B@0, 4@C3>9 - A B0:8<8 65 4;8==K<8 ;8ABLO<8, => H8@8=>9 610 A0=B8<5B@>2. !>E@0=8BL MB8E :@0A02F52 2 :C;LBC@5 ?>:0 =5 C405BAO. 8HL >4=064K 8725AB=K9 =5<5F:89 384@>1>B0=8: .0DD@0B AC<5; 4>18BLAO 4065 F25B5=8O 8 >1@07>20=8O A5<O=. > ?>765 2A5 @0AB5=8O ?>381;8. 5A:>;L:> <5=55 A;>65= 2 :C;LBC@5 >18B0NI89 2 B5E 65 <5AB0E 0?>=>35B>= >828=L8 (A. boivinianus), 8;8, :0: 53> 745AL =07K20NB, @>=4@0. 8ABLO C =53> B>65 2KBO=CBK5, 4;8=>9 4> 50 8 H8@8=>9 68 A0=B8<5B@>2, 8E ?>25@E=>ABL 2 1C3>@:0E 8 O<:0E.  0:20@8C<5 ;8ABLO ?>AB5?5==> B5@ONB A2>N 1C3@8AB>ABL, => 2A5 @02=> >=8 >G5=L :@0A82K. "> 65 A0<>5 ?@>8AE>48B A A. capuronii (2>@0=40).  0:20@8C<5 B5<=>75;5=K5 1C3@8ABK5 ;8ABLO A :@0A=K<8 G5@5H:0<8 ?>AB5?5==> A<5=ONBAO =56=>75;5=K<8 A ?>;C?@>7@0G=>9 ?;0AB8=:>9 8 A8;L=>9 2>;=8AB>ABLN ?> :@0O<. I5 >48= 87 <04030A:0@A:8E 0?>=>35B>=>2 - A. longiplumulosus (689>) >1@07C5B 2 0:20@8C<5 425 D>@<K - A B>=:8<8 2>;=8ABK<8 ;8ABLO<8 8 A ;8ABLO<8, ?>:@KBK<8 1C3>@:0<8 8 O<:0<8. "0:>9 AB@C:BC@>9 ;8AB0 ?@8@>40 =045;8;0 0?>=>35B>=K, 682CI85 =0 AB@5<=8=0E. "0: 65 CAB@>5= ;8AB 8 C 02AB@0;89A:>3> A. bullosus (:C;LB828@>20=85 53> 2 0:20@8C<0E B>65 ?>:0 CA?5E0 =5 8<5;>), 8 C @0AB5=89 87 4@C38E A5<59AB2. > 2 AB>OG59 2>45 :><=0B=KE 2>4>5<>2 MB8 0?>=>35B>=K ;81> ?>3810NB, ;81> ?@8A?>A01;820NBAO, => 2K3;O4OB A>2A5< 8=0G5. ->B B515 8 @07!- 2>7<CB8BAO G8B0B5;L.-  :0:85 65 0?>=>35B>=K <>6=> A>45@60BL 2 >1KG=>< 0:20@8C<5? 0G=5< B>65 A <04030A:0@A:>3> 2840, 8 O C65 C?><8=0; > =5<,- 0?>=>35B>= C;L2>284=K9 (A. ulvaceus). 3> A25B;>75;5=K5 =56=K5 ;8ABLO 2 <O3:>9 2>45 4>AB830NB 4;8=K 40 A0=B8<5B@>2 ?@8 H8@8=5 810.  1>;55 65AB:>9 2>45 ;8ABLO AB0=>2OBAO <5=LH5, O@G5, :@0O 8E 2>;=8ABK5. 0AB5=85 :C;LB828@C5BAO 2 =0H59 AB@0=5 A 1956 3>40. 07<=>605BAO A5<5=0<8 ?@8 ?5@5:@5AB=>< >?K;5=88: 420 M:75<?;O@0 4>;6=K 70F25AB8 >4=>2@5<5==>, B>340 <O3:>9 :8AB>G:>9 ?5@5=>AOB ?K;LFC A >4=>3> A>F25B8O =0 4@C3>5 (2 :>;>A:5 C F25B:>2 A=0G0;0 ?>O2;ONBAO ?K;L=8:8, ?>B>< ?5AB8: 3>B>2 ?@8=OBL ?K;LFC, 8 55 A 25@E=8E F25B:>2 >4=>3> @0AB5=8O ?5@5=>AOB =0 =86=85 F25B:8 4@C3>3>). 7@54:0 MB>B 284 @07<=>605BAO 8 4@C38< A?>A>1><: =0 F25B>=>A5 >1@07CNBAO 4>G5@=85 @0AB5=8O. >A:28G ..5:@0A>2 70257 5I5 >4=C @07=>284=>ABL C;L2>284=>3> 0?>=>35B>=0. 1KG=> C :>@=528I0 8<55BAO >4=0 B>G:0 @>AB0, 0 C MB>3> - @0ABCB =5A:>;L:> @0AB5=89, :>B>@K5 70B5< =04> >AB>@>6=> @0745;8BL, @07@5702 :>@=528I5 =>6=8F0<8. A5 @07=>284=>AB8 MB>3> 0?>=>35B>=0 8<5NB O@:> 2K@065==K9 ?5@8>4 ?>:>O: @>AB >AB0=02;8205BAO, ;8ABLO ?>:@K20NBAO 1C@K<8 ?OB=0<8 8 ?>AB5?5==> >?040NB. >@=528I5 >AB05BAO =52848<K< 2 B>;I5 ?5A:0. 45AL ;N18B5;N 0:20@8C<0 =04> ?@>O28BL >AB>@>6=>ABL, GB>1K =5 2K1@>A8BL A?OI89 :;C15=L ?@8 G8AB:5 0:20@8C<0. '5@57 35 <5AOF52 0?>=>35B>= =0G8=05B 1KAB@> @0AB8, 2K1@0AK20O ?> ;8ABC 2 ACB:8.  <>8E 0:20@8C<0E :>@=528I0 ?@>AK?0NBAO >1KG=> 2 :>=F5 ;5B0, ?5@8>4 2535B0F88 8 F25B5=8O 4;8BAO 34 <5AOF0. B>@>9 @07 1KAB@K9 @>AB =0G8=05BAO 78<>9. "0:0O ?5@8>48G=>ABL 2 687=8 MB>3> 0?>=>35B>=0 8<55B 8 A2>8 =5C4>1AB20. >340 =0G8=05BAO 2535B0F8O, ?@8E>48BAO C18@0BL 87 0:20@8C<0 4@C385 @0AB5=8O, GB>1K >A2>1>48BL ?@>AB@0=AB2> 8 >15A?5G8BL >A25I5==>ABL 0?>=>35B>=0<.  ?> >:>=G0=88 2535B0F88 0:20@8C< =04> 2=>2L 70A06820BL G5<=81C4L, 8=0G5 >= >AB05BAO A>2A5< 157 75;5=8. 07C<55BAO, ?@8 @07<=>65=88 @07@570=85< :>@=528I0 ?>;CG8BL A5<5=0 ?CB5< ?5@5:@5AB=>3> >?K;5=8O >B @0745;5==KE 0?>=>35B>=>2 =5 C405BAO - 254L MB> F25BCB =5 420 @07=KE, 0 >4=> 8 B> 65, B8@068@>20==>5, @0AB5=85. >@074> 1>;LH5 @0A?@>AB@0=5= 2 =0H8E 0:20@8C<0E A. crispus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echinatus, G0AB> 55 ?CB0NB 8 A A. ulvaceus). =0 <>65B >1@07>2K20BL :@0A82K5 1;5ABOI85 1C@>:>@8G=52K5 ;8ABLO A 75;5=>9 F5=B@0;L=>9 68;:>9.  ?>A;54=55 2@5<O 2 2@>?5 ?>?C;O@=K 381@84K MB>3> 2840, 2K2545==K5 2 E>7O9AB25 0=A0 0@B0. 081>;55 8725AB5= 87 =8E 0?>=>35B>= :><?0:B=K9 A H8@>:8<8 ;8ABLO<8, :>B>@K5 >1@07CNB :@0A82CN @>75B:C. 1 MB>< 381@845 20= @CEE5= 2 A2>59 <>=>3@0D88 ?>=>35B>=K (1991) ?8H5B, GB> >= >G5=L ?>4E>48B 4;O <0;5=L:8E 0:20@8C<>2. .0@B ?>40@8; <=5 B0:>5 @0AB5=85. !=0G0;0 >=> 25;> A51O 2 A>>B25BAB288 A> A2>8< =0720=85< 8 ?@54AB02;O;> A>1>9 =51>;LHCN @>75B:C =0 4=5 0:20@8C<0, 0 ?>B><& 2K<0E0;> 4> <5B@0 ?@8 >3@><=KE H8@>G5==KE ;8ABLOE. C<0N, GB> :><?0:B=>ABL 7028A8B >B 65AB:>AB8 2>4K 8 AB5?5=8 >A25I5==>AB8. B>@>5 45B8I5 .0@B0 7=0G8B5;L=> :0?@87=55 2 :C;LBC@5. -B>B 0?>=>35B>= 1>;LH5 ?>E>48B =0 <04030A:0@A:8E :@0A02F52 A 1C3@8ABK<8 ;8ABLO<8. = O2;O5BAO 381@84>< A. madagascariensis 8 A. ulvaceus. AB0B8, 2 =0H8E 0:20@8C<0E B>65 5ABL >48= 0?>=>35B>= A 4>2>;L=> A;>6=K< E0@0:B5@>< - B0: =07K205<K9 :@0A=K9 :@8A?CA: 4;8==K5, 70>AB@5==K5 =0 :>=F0E 8 2>;=8ABK5 ?> :@0O< ;8ABLO 8<5NB :@0A=>:>@8G=52CN >:@0A:C A O@:>75;5=>9 F5=B@0;L=>9 68;:>9. >ABC?8; >= 2 ?>AK;:5 >B .;55@ 2 1967 3>4C.  A>?@>2>48B5;L=KE 4>:C<5=B0E =0CG=>3> =0720=8O =5 8<5; - B0: 8 =0?8A0=> 1K;>: :@0A=K9 0?>=>35B>=. > MB> =5 381@84, 0 @54:89 284 A. loriae, @>48=0 :>B>@>3> 0?C0>20O 28=5O. 0AB5=85 >G5=L BC3> @07@0AB05BAO (<>65B 4>AB830BL 60 A0=B8<5B@>2) 8 4>2>;L=> @54:> >1@07C5B =0 :>;>A:5 A5<5=0. "@C4=> 2K@0AB8BL 8 <>;>4CN ?>@>A;L, 4065 5A;8 A5<5=0 >1@07>20;8AL, A>7@5;8 8 ?@>@>A;8.  2>B A;54CNI89 284 2AB@5G05BAO C 0:20@8C<8AB>2 G0AB> 8 @07<=>605BAO ;53:> - MB> 2>;=8ABK9, 8;8 682>@>4OI89, 0?>=>35B>= (A. undulatus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rigidifolius (;0=:89FK 7>2CB 53> :5:0BLO, :>:0B8). 0= @CEE5= >?8A0; MB> @0AB5=85 2 1962 3>4C, => 8 A53>4=O >=> @54:> 2AB@5G05BAO 2 ?@>4065.  =0H8< 0:20@8C<8AB0< MB>B 0?>=>35B>= ?>?0; 2 1967 3>4C. = CA?5H=> :C;LB828@C5BAO: @07<=>605BAO >B@>AB:0<8 8 45;5=85< ?>;7CG53> :>@=528I0. >60;C9, O =5A:>;L:> C2;5:AO, @0AA:07K20O > <>8E ;N18<KE 0?>=>35B>=0E. >@0 ?5@59B8 8 : 4@C38<, =5 <5=55 8=B5@5A=K< @0AB5=8O<. !:2>7L ?>42>4=K5 46C=3;8  1957 3>4C, @0AA<0B@820O :0B0;>3 >4=>9 70@C156=>9 D8@<K ?> ?@>4065 2>4=KE @0AB5=89, O >1=0@C68; A=8<:8 =5402=> 22575==KE 87 B@>?8:>2 @0AB5=89. / BCB 65 ?>A;0; ?8AL<> MB>9 D8@<5 A ?@>AL1>9 ?@8A;0BL 1>;55 ?>4@>1=>5 >?8A0=85 MB8E 284>2. 0:>2> 65 1K;> <>5 87C<;5=85, :>340 A?CABO <5AOF O ?>;CG8; :>=25@B, 2 :>B>@>< 2 ?>;8MB8;5=>2>< ?0:5B8:5 ;560;8 2A5 B@8 8=B5@5ACNI85 <5=O @0AB5=8O - 8 2A5 682K5. !59G0A MB8 @0AB5=8O 682CB 2 0:20@8C<0E <=>38E =0H8E ;N18B5;59, 0 B>340 :064>5 CB@> O A?5H8; : A2>8< =>2>A5;0<: :0: >=8 A51O GC2AB2CNB, ?>H;8 ;8 2 @>AB? # :064>3> @0AB5=8O <>6=> @07;8G8BL >A=>2=K5 53> G0AB8: :>@=8 (8=>340 :>@=528I5 8;8 :;C15=L), AB515;L, ;8ABLO =0 G5@5H:0E 8 F25B:8 =0 F25B>=>6:5. 5@ECH:0 AB51;O - A0<>5 =56=>5 <5AB>, 745AL D>@<8@CNBAO <>;>4K5 ;8AB8:8, MB> 8 5ABL B>G:0 @>AB0 @0AB5=8O. # <=>38E 2>4=KE @0AB5=89 MB0 =56=0O G0ABL =0 =>GL 70:@K205BAO 25@E=8<8 ;8AB8:0<8 - B0: @0AB5=8O ?@8A?>A>18;8AL : ?>=865=8N B5<?5@0BC@K =>GLN. > C ?@8A;0==>3> 2 :>=25@B5 ?0?>@>B=8:0 87 "08;0=40 - <8:@>7>@8C<0 (Microsorium pteropus) =5 A@07C C40;>AL >1=0@C68BL MBC B>G:C @>AB0. !=0G0;0 @0AB5=85 =5 ?>4020;> ?@87=0:>2 687=8, 2A5B0:8 ?5@5AK;:0 - 1>;LH0O B@02<0 4;O =53>.  ?>B>< 24@C3 :0: ?>H;> 2 @>AB, 40 A> 2A5E AB>@>= - 8 A?@020, 8 A;520, 8 225@E, 8 2=87& >B 8 =0948 B>G:C @>AB0. 0 5I5 A=87C :064>9 2098 (B0: =07K20NBAO ;8ABLO C ?0?>@>B=8:0) ?>O28;AO 1C3>@>:, 0 87 =53> - =>2K9 :CAB8:. A:>@5 0:20@8C< 25AL 70@>A =>2K< ?0?>@>B=8:><, 40 =5 ?@>ABK<8 @0AB5=8O<8, 0 B@5EMB06=K<8: >B ;8ABL52 =86=53> MB060 @>A;8 225@E 4>G5@=85 :CABK, 0 >B =8E =0G8=0;8 687=L 5I5 <5=LH85 :CAB8:8. 8:@>7>@8C< ?> ?@02C <>6=> =0720BL 682>@>4OI8< @0AB5=85<. >AB0B>G=> >4=>3> :CA>G:0 2098, GB>1K 2A:>@5 2K@>A F5;K9 ;5A>: <0;5=L:8E :CAB8:>2. 07 C6 <K 703>2>@8;8 > ?0?>@>B=8:5 <8:@>7>@8C<, C<5AB=> 7040BL 2>?@>A: 0 2AB@5G0NBAO ;8 4@C385 ?0?>@>B=8:8 A@548 2>4=KE @0AB5=89, ?>?C;O@=KE C ;N18B5;59 0:20@8C<0? :07K205BAO, 2AB@5G0NBAO, 8 8E =5 B0: C6 <0;>. C 2>B E>BO 1K <0@A8;8O. >4 0@A8;8O (Marsilea) =0AG8BK205B >:>;> 70 284>2, >18B0NI8E 2 >A=>2=>< 2 B@>?8:0E.  C<5@5==>9 7>=5 2AB@5G05BAO A@02=8B5;L=> =5<=>3> 284>2, =0 B5@@8B>@88 =0H59 AB@0=K - B@8. 0@A8;8O - =51>;LH>5 @0AB5=85 A B>=:8< AB5;NI8<AO AB51;5<:>@=528I5<. 8ABLO >G5@54=K5, ?@>ABK5, =0 4;8==KE G5@5H:0E, >BE>4OB 225@E >B :>@=528I0. 5:>B>@K5 284K 8<5NB =8B5284=K5 ;8ABLO, C 4@C38E @072820NBAO ;8AB>2K5 ?;0AB8=:8. >;LH8=AB2> 284>2 8<55B G5BK@5E;>?0AB=K5 ;8AB>2K5 ?;0AB8=:8, >B40;5==> =0?><8=0NI85 ;8ABLO :;525@0 (2 5@<0=88 <0@A8;8N =07K20NB 2>4O=K< :;525@><). !8<<5B@8G=> =0?@02;5==K< 225@E ;8ABLO< 2=87 >B :>@=528I0 84CB ?CG:8 :>@=59. 0@A8;88 >18B0NB 2> 2;06=KE, ?5@8>48G5A:8 70;8205<KE 2>4>9 ?@81@56=KE =87<5==>ABOE, =0 1>;>B0E, ?> 15@530< 2>4>5<>2, @072820NBAO 8 2 ?>3@C65==>< ?>;>65=88, ?@8G5< ;8ABLO <>3CB 1KBL :0: 2 2>45, B0: 8 =04 2>4>9. =>340 <0@A8;88 >1@07CNB ?;020NI85 ;8ABLO, ?@8G5< 4;8=0 G5@5H:>2 2 MB>< A;CG05 4>AB8305B 7080 A0=B8<5B@>2. 1KG=> @0AB5=8O @072820NBAO =0 ?5AG0=KE 8 8;8ABKE 3@C=B0E, 2 :>B>@KE 70:@5?;ONBAO :>@=O<8. >4C ?@54?>G8B0NB G8ABCN, AB>OGCN 8;8 A;01>?@>B>G=CN. !B51;8 ?0?>@>B=8:0, @0ABCI53> =0 15@53C, <>3CB AB5;8BLAO C ?>25@E=>AB8 2>4K, =5 70:@5?;OOAL :>@=O<8 =0 4=5 2>4>5<0 8 >1@07CO =042>4=K5 8 ?;020NI85 ;8ABLO. >;=>ABLN ?>3@C65==K5 @0AB5=8O 7=0G8B5;L=> 70<54;ONB A2>9 @>AB, 0 8=>340 ?5@56820NB ?5@8>4 ?>:>O.  C<5@5==>9 7>=5 8 AC1B@>?8:0E 2> 2@5<O 25A5==53> @07;820 @5:, G0AB> 5I5 4> =0G0;0 ?5@8>40 2535B0F88, <0@A8;88 >:07K20NBAO ?>;=>ABLN ?>3@C65==K<8 2 2>4C.  B@>?8G5A:>9 7>=5 MB> ?@>8AE>48B 2 A57>= 4>6459, :>340 C@>25=L 2>4K 2 2>4>5<0E ?>4=8<05BAO =0 13 <5B@0. 0@A8;88 E>@>H> @07@0AB0NBAO =0 ?5AG0=>< 3@C=B5 0:20@8C<0. @C?=K5 284K (=0?@8<5@, =0H0 G5BK@5E;8AB=0O . quadrifolia 8 02AB@0;89A:0O . drummondii) <>3CB 4>AB830BL 2KA>BK 4050 A0=B8<5B@>2; >=8 >1@07CNB ?;020NI85, 0 ?>@>9 8 =042>4=K5 ;8ABLO.  <5;:89 284 . crenata <>65B ?>:@KBL A2>8<8 ;8AB8:0<8 2A5 4=> 0:20@8C<0, ;8AB8:8 MB>3> 2840 >1KG=> 8<5NB G5@5H:8 4;8=>9 =5 1>;55 610 A0=B8<5B@>2 (2<5AB> G5BK@5E;>?0AB=KE ;8ABL52 @0AB5=85 1>;LH59 G0ABLN >1@07C5B G5B25@BCH:C - 2A53> >4=C ;>?0ABL, A>E@0=ONICN BC 65 D>@<C, GB> 8 C ;>?0AB59 ?>;=>3> ;8AB0). I5 >48= ?0?>@>B=8:, 2AB@5G0NI89AO 8 2 B@>?8G5A:8E, 8 2 =0H8E ?@5A=KE 2>40E, =0 MB>B @07 ?;020NI89 - A0;L28=8O (@>4 Salvinia). !0;L28=88 @07@0AB0NBAO =0 ?>25@E=>AB8 AB>OG8E 8 <54;5==> B5:CI8E 2>4, 8=>340 >1@07CO ?;>B=K5 70@>A;8, 70:@K20NI85 4>ABC? A25BC 2 2>4>5<. "0:85 ?;>B=K5 ?>25@E=>AB=K5 :>2@K 87 A0;L28=88 (>A>15==> G0AB> >=8 >1@07CNBAO 2 B@>?8:0E) 254CB : 87<5=5=8O< 2 M:>;>38G5A:8E E0@0:B5@8AB8:0E 2>4>5<>2: ;8H5==K5 A25B0, A;01> @072820NBAO ?>3@C65==K5 2>4=K5 @0AB5=8O; 2>4=K< =0A5:><K< 8 8E ;8G8=:0< 70B@C4=O5BAO 4>ABC? : ?>25@E=>AB8 2>4K 8 0B<>AD5@=><C 2>74CEC.  B> 65 2@5<O 70@>A;8 A0;L28=88 A;C60B E>@>H8< C1568I5< 4;O <0;L:>2 2 ?5@2K5 =545;8 8E @0728B8O. !0;L28=8O - @0AB5=85 A B>=:8< 3>@87>=B0;L=K< AB51;5< 4;8=>9 1015 A0=B8<5B@>2. !B515;L =5A5B <CB>2:8 ?> B@8 ;8AB0 2 :064>9. 20 87 MB8E ;8ABL52 - H8@>:85, ?;0AB8=G0BK5, ?;020NI85 - @0A?>;030NBAO =0 ?>25@E=>AB8 2>4K. "@5B89 ;8AB - =5>1KG=K9, >= >BE>48B >B AB51;O 2=87 8 ?> 2=5H=5<C 284C =0?><8=05B ?CG>: :>@=59. 0AB>OI8E :>@=59 @0AB5=85 =5 8<55B. ;020NI85 ;8ABLO >20;L=K5, F5;L=>:@09=85, A>45@60B 2>74CH=K5 ?>;>AB8 - 0M@>:0<5@K. >25@E=>ABL ?;020NI8E ;8ABL52 ?>:@KB0 >A>1K<8 72574G0BK<8 2>;>A:0<8, >15A?5G820NI8<8 55 =5A<0G8205<>ABL. A;8 ?;020NI85 ;8ABLO A0;L28=88 ?>3@C78BL 2 2>4C, 2>;>A:8 C45@6820NB C ?>25@E=>AB8 ;8AB0 ?C7K@L:8 2>74CE0 8 ;8AB8:8 1;5ABOB, :0: A5@51@O=K5. 5A<0G8205<>ABL ?>25@E=>AB8 ?;020NI8E ;8ABL52, =5>1E>48<0O 4;O =>@<0;L=>3> 4KE0=8O @0AB5=8O,- 206=>5 ?@8A?>A>1;5=85. A;8 2>;=>9 8;8 42865=85< @K1K A0;L28=8O >:07K205BAO ?5@525@=CB>9 C ?>25@E=>AB8 2>4K, ?C7K@L:8 2>74CE0 ?>72>;ONB 59 1KAB@> 25@=CBLAO 2 =>@<0;L=>5 ?>;>65=85.  B@>?8G5A:8E 2>4>5<0E, 345 <5AB=K5 284K A0;L28=88 8=>340 @07@0AB0NBAO ?@8 1>;LH>9 ?;>B=>AB8 @0AB5=89 =0 ?>25@E=>AB8 2>4K, G0ABL ;8ABL52 =5<8=C5<> B5@ONB A2O7L A 0B<>AD5@>9 8 >:07K20NBAO ?>3@C65==K<8. > >=8 =5 381=CB 4> B5E ?>@, ?>:0 2>;>A:8 C45@6820NB =0 25@E=59 AB>@>=5 ;8AB0 2>74CH=K5 ?C7K@L:8. >7<>6=>, 72574G0BK5 2>;>A:8 ?@54>B2@0I0NB ?>540=85 ;8ABL52 2>4=K<8 <>;;NA:0<8. '8A;> 8 AB@>5=85 72574G0BKE 2>;>A:>2 O2;ONBAO E0@0:B5@=K<8 ?@87=0:0<8 2840. >;>A:8 @0A?>;>65=K =0 >A>1KE A>A:0E, AB@>5=85 :>B>@KE C @07=KE 284>2 B>65 =5>48=0:>2>.  1;03>?@8OB=KE CA;>28OE ?0?>@>B=8: 1KAB@> @07@0AB05BAO ?> ?>25@E=>AB8 2>4K. 0: 8 1>;LH8=AB2> 2>4=KE @0AB5=89, A0;L28=8O 2 ?5@8>4 2535B0F88 1KAB@> @07<=>605BAO. 5;LG09H85 >1;><:8 AB51;O @07=>AOBAO B5G5=85< 8 >18B0B5;O<8 2>4 8 87 =8E >1@07CNBAO =>2K5 70@>A;8. "@>?8G5A:85 284K A0;L28=88 G0AB> A>45@60B 2 0:20@8C<0E, => @0AB5=8O =8:>340 =5 4>AB830NB B0:8E @07<5@>2, :0: 2 ?@8@>4=KE CA;>28OE. !0;L28=88 =C6=0 <O3:0O 2>40 (4> 10 65AB:>AB8) B5<?5@0BC@>9 >B 20 4> 30 !, A8;L=>5 >A25I5=85. !;54C5B >B<5B8BL, GB> ?@8 ACE>< :><=0B=>< 2>74CE5 ?;020NI85 ;8ABLO ?0?>@>B=8:0 65;B5NB, ?>4AKE0NB 8 @07@CH0NBAO.  0:20@8C<5 65, ?;>B=> ?@8:@KB>< :@KH:>9, 2>74CE, =0>1>@>B, G@57<5@=> 2;065= 8 ;8AB>2K5 2>;>A:8, =0<>:=C2, CB@0G820NB A?>A>1=>ABL C45@6820BL ?C7K@L:8. 8ABLO ?>AB5?5==> ?>:@K20NBAO 2>4>9 8 381=CB. ?B8<0;L=K9 20@80=B - 70:@KBL 0:20@8C< :@KH:>9, => 42064K 2 ACB:8 ?@8>B:@K20BL 4;O ?@>25B@820=8O. I5 >48= ?;020NI89 ?0?>@>B=8: - 07>;;0 (Azolla filiculoides). 0AB5=85 =5 ?@52KH05B 2,5 A0=B8<5B@>2, ;8AB>G:8 - 0,51 <8;;8<5B@. @8 BI0B5;L=>< @0AA<>B@5=88 284=>, GB> ;8AB>G:8 07>;;K @0A?>;>65=K 2 420 @O40 =0 25@E=59 AB>@>=5 AB51;O. 064K9 ;8AB A>AB>8B 87 42CE ;>?0AB59. 5@E=OO - 1>;55 :@C?=0O, A25B;>75;5=0O, ?>:@KB0 70I8B=K<8 2>;>A:0<8, @0A?>;0305BAO =0 ?>25@E=>AB8 8 >15A?5G8205B @0AB5=8N ?;02CG5ABL. 86=OO ;>?0ABL ?>3@C65=0 2 2>4C, 7=0G8B5;L=> 1;54=55 ?> >:@0A:5 8 >G5=L E@C?:0 ?> AB@>5=8N.  >B;8G85 >B A0;L28=88 07>;;0 8<55B <=>3>G8A;5==K5 :>@=8, >BE>4OI85 >B AB51;O 2 420 @O40. =B5@5A=0O >A>15==>ABL 07>;;K - 55 A8<18>7 A A8=575;5=>9 2>4>@>A;LN 0=015=>9. 5@E=85 ;>?0AB8 ;8AB>G:>2 07>;;K 8<5NB ?>;>AB8, 2 :>B>@KE 8 ?>A5;O5BAO 0=015=0. 8B8 2>4>@>A;8 1C@=> @072820NBAO 2 MB8E ?>;>ABOE 8 2K45;ONB >A>1K9 A5:@5B, :>B>@K9, 2 A2>N >G5@54L, A?>A>1AB2C5B CA8;5==><C @>ABC ?0?>@>B=8:0. >7<>6=>, ?@>4C:BK 2K45;5=8O 2>4>@>A;59 A>45@60B =5>1E>48<K5 ?0?>@>B=8:C 3>@<>=K. 0?>@>B=8:8, A>45@60I85 2 ?>;>ABOE ;8ABL52 @07@>AH85AO 2>4>@>A;8, ?@8>1@5B0NB 3>;C1>20B>75;5=CN >:@0A:C. 0<5G5=>, GB> 2 8A:CAAB25==KE CA;>28OE @0AB5=8O 2 A8<18>75 ;53G5 ?5@5=>AOB 78<=55 A>45@60=85, B>340 :0: :C;LBC@0 ?0?>@>B=8:0 157 2>4>@>A;59 ?5@578<>2K205B A B@C4>< 8 1>;LH8=AB2> @0AB5=89 381=5B.  5AB5AB25==KE CA;>28OE 07>;;0 2AB@5G05BAO, :0: ?@028;>, B>;L:> A 2>4>@>A;LN.  1970 3>4C O ?>;CG8; ?>AK;:C A 2>4=K<8 @0AB5=8O<8 >B C65 7=0:><>3> G8B0B5;N 20= @CEE5=0. !@548 682KE @0AB5=89 O C2845; 420 ?0?>@>B=8:0 87 ?;0AB<0AAK (A59G0A 70 @C156>< <=>385 D8@<K 8E 45;0NB 4;O 0:20@8C<8AB>2 8 8=>340 =0AB>;L:> B>G=>, GB> <>6=> >?@545;8BL =5 B>;L:> @>4, => 8 284 @0AB5=8O) - D8;83@0==0O @57L10 ;8AB2K, 1;5ABOI0O B5<=>75;5=0O 55 ?>25@E=>ABL& 0:>2> 65 1K;> <>5 87C<;5=85, :>340 ?;0AB<0AA>2K5 @0AB5=8O >:070;8AL 682K<8! "0: 2 =0H8 0:20@8C<K ?>?0; 5I5 >48= ?0?>@>B=8: - 1>;L18B8A (Bolbitis heudelotii), > :>B>@>< B>340, 2 O=20@5 1970 3>40, <=5 1K;> =8G53> =5 8725AB=> 4065 ?> ;8B5@0BC@5.  2@>?C >= 1K; 22575= 2 682>< 2845 2 1959 3>4C. 0AB5=85 H8@>:> @0A?@>AB@0=5=> 2 B@>?8G5A:>9 0?04=>9 D@8:5. !=0G0;0 >=> 1K;> >?8A0=> :0: =075<=K9 ?0?>@>B=8:, ?>A5;ONI89AO ?@58<CI5AB25==> =0 3=8NI8E AB2>;0E 45@52L52 2> 2;06=KE ?@81@56=KE ;5A0E. ">;L:> 2 =0H5< AB>;5B88 1K;8 >1=0@C65=K M:>;>38G5A:85 D>@<K 1>;L18B8A0, @0ABCI85 2 @CGLOE 8 @5:0E =0 3;C18=5 1>;55 >4=>3> <5B@0. G5284=>, MB>B ?0?>@>B=8: - 0<D818>=B, >18B0B5;L ?5@8>48G5A:8 70;8205<KE 7>= B@>?8G5A:>3> ;5A0, => >B45;L=K5 3@C??K @0AB5=89 70A5;8;8 8 ?>AB>O==> 70?>;=5==K5 2>4>9 =878=K, @CA;0 @5:. 5;5=K9 AB515;L ?0?>@>B=8:0 480<5B@>< 4> >4=>3> A0=B8<5B@0, 3>@87>=B0;L=K9, 25B2OI89AO, ?> 1>:0<, 8=>340 8 A25@EC, ?>:@KB 7>;>B8AB>65;BK<8 @O40<8 ?@>4>;3>20BKE G5HC5: 8 B5<=K<8 1>;55 8;8 <5=55 3CAB> @0A?>;>65==K<8 2>;>A:>284=K<8 G5HC9:0<8. "0:8<8 65 G5HC9:0<8 ?>:@KBK G5@5H:8 ;8ABL52. 8ABLO 42064K?5@8AB>A;>6=K5, B5<=>75;5=K5 8;8 8=B5=A82=>75;5=K5, A;53:0 ?@>A25G820NB, 4>2>;L=> 65AB:85. 07<5@K 8E :>;51;NBAO 8 <>3CB 4>AB830BL (A G5@5H:><) 4;8=K 60 A0=B8<5B@>2 ?@8 H8@8=5 ;8AB>2>9 ?;0AB8=:8 20 A0=B8<5B@>2. '5@5H:8 ;8ABL52 84CB 225@E >B AB51;O 2 420 @O40, :>=5F <>;>4>3> ;8AB0 70:@CG5= A?8@0;L=>, ;8AB>2K5 ?;0AB8=:8 2 2>74CE5 @0A?>;030NBAO =0:;>==>, 2 2>45 <>3CB 70=8<0BL 3>@87>=B0;L=>5 ?>;>65=85. >@=8 3CABK5, B5<=>1C@K5.  ?5@8>48G5A:8 70;8205<KE @09>=0E ?0?>@>B=8: @0AB5B =0 AB2>;0E 45@52L52, =0 C?02H8E AB2>;0E 8 :CA:0E 45@520, =0 :0<=OE.  2>45 =0 3@C=B5 =5 C:>@5=O5BAO, ?@54?>G8B0O :0<=8, :>@O38.  ?>3@C65==>< ?>;>65=88 3>@87>=B0;L=K9 AB515;L ?0?>@>B=8:0 25B28BAO. 535B0B82=>5 @07<=>65=85 - >1@07>20=85 4>G5@=8E @0AB5=89 =0 ;8ABLOE ?0?>@>B=8:0 - 2AB@5G05BAO @54:>. > =0 ;8ABLOE, >B45;5==KE >B >A=>2=>3> :CAB0, >1@07CNBAO <>;>4K5 @0AB5=8O; :0: 8 C <8:@>7>@8C<0, >=8 @0ABCB A =86=59 AB>@>=K ;8AB0. @8 :C;LB828@>20=88 1>;L18B8A0 A;54C5B A>1;N40BL >?@545;5==K5 CA;>28O: =5 ?>3@C60BL :>@=8 8 AB515;L 2 3@C=B (2 :@09=5< A;CG05 ?@860BL :>=FK :>@=59 :0<=5<, => ;CGH5 C:>@5=8BL @0AB5=85 ?@8 ?><>I8 =8B:8, @578=:8 =0 :0<=5, :>@O35); =5 ?5@542830BL 8 =5 ?5@5A06820BL @0AB5=85 157 =04>1=>AB8; :@C?=K5 M:75<?;O@K A @0725B2;5==K<8 AB51;O<8 8 A G8A;>< ;8ABL52 1>;55 30 @5:><5=4C5BAO 45;8BL. >;L18B8A <54;5==> 0::;8<0B878@C5BAO 2 =>2>< 2>4>5<5, => 70B5< =0G8=05B @0AB8 8 ?>AB5?5==> 4>AB8305B 4050 A0=B8<5B@>2. -B>B ?0?>@>B=8: - 25;8:>;5?=>5 C:@0H5=85 4;O 0:20@8C<0. C 8 =0:>=5F, H8@>:> @0A?@>AB@0=5==K9 2 0:20@8C<0E ;N18B5;59 F5@0B>?B5@8A (Ceratopteris cornuta), >18B0NI89 2 2>45, ?> 15@530< B@>?8G5A:8E 2>4>5<>2 8 =0 A8;L=> C2;06=5==KE =87<5==>ABOE 2A5E :>=B8=5=B>2. !B515;L :>@>B:89, B>;ABK9, 25@B8:0;L=K9, ;8ABLO ?5@8AB>@0745;5==K5, ?5@LO 1>;55 8;8 <5=55 @0AA5G5==K5, ;8ABLO @0A?>;030NBAO @>75B:>9 ;81> =0 ?>25@E=>AB8 2>4K, ;81> (2 ?>3@C65==>< A>AB>O=88 8 =0 ACH5) =0?@02;5=K 225@E =0:;>==> 25@H8=0<8 >B F5=B@0. >@=520O A8AB5<0 A8;L=> @0728B0, :>@=8 B>;ABK5, 25B2OI85AO, 15;>3> 8;8 A;53:0 :@5<>2>3> F25B0. &25B ;8ABL52 A25B;>75;5=K5, C ?;020NI8E D>@< B:0=8 A>45@60B >1H8@=K5 0M@>:0<5@K, ?>MB><C A=87C ;8ABLO 8<5NB A25B;>75;5=CN A A5@51@8ABK< >BB5=:>< >:@0A:C. '5@5H:8 B>;ABK5, <OA8ABK5, A> <=>65AB2>< 0M@>:0<5@.  ?>3@C65==>< ?>;>65=88 ?0?>@>B=8: 4>AB8305B 2KA>BK 7080 A0=B8<5B@>2, =0 <5;:>2>4L5 ;8ABLO @072820NBAO =04 2>4>9.  >@0=65@5OE 1>B0=8G5A:>3> A040 !0=:B5B5@1C@30 =042>4=K5 ;8ABLO F5@0B>?B5@8A0 4>AB830;8 4;8=K 120 A0=B8<5B@>2 ?@8 H8@8=5 4> 60. >;>4K5 ;8ABLO ?>O2;ONBAO A> A?8@0;L=> 70:@CG5==>9 25@ECH:>9; G5< 1>;55 @0728B> @0AB5=85, B5< 87@570==55 ;8ABLO. 1KG=0O >:@0A:0 - A25B;>75;5=0O; 2 7028A8<>AB8 >B 8=B5=A82=>AB8 >A25I5=8O >=0 <>65B <5=OBLAO 4> :@0A=>20B>9 8 :>@8G=52>:@0A=>9. 8ABLO >G5=L ;><:85. # ?>3@C65==KE @0AB5=89 ?> :@0O< ;8ABL52 8<5NBAO >A>1K5 ?>G:8, :>B>@K5 ?@8 1;03>?@8OB=KE CA;>28OE =0G8=0NB @07@0AB0BLAO 2 <0;5=L:85, 4>G5@=85, @0AB5=8O. =>340 :@C?=K5 :CABK 1C:20;L=> CAK?0=K 2?>;=5 @0728BK<8, A ;8ABLO<8 8 3CABK<8 :>@=O<8, <>;>4K<8 @0AB5=8O<8. @8 <0;59H5< 42865=88 2>4K 4>G5@=85 :CAB8:8 >B@K20NBAO 8 70B5< C:>@5=ONBAO 2 4@C38E <5AB0E 2>4>5<0. =B5@5A=>, GB> =0 AB0@KE ?>1C@52H8E ;8ABLOE ?>G:8 G0AB> A>E@0=ONBAO 682K<8 8 2 1;03>?@8OB=KE CA;>28OE 24@C3 ?>O2;ONBAO A25B;>75;5=K5 70@>A;8 <>;>4KE @0AB5=89. "0:>9 65 A?>A>1=>ABLN >1;040NB 4065 A>2A5< <0;5=L:85 :CA>G:8 ;8AB0, 206=> B>;L:>, GB>1K 2 =8E A>45@60;8AL :;5B:8 ;8AB>2>3> :@0O. 8ABLO ?0?>@>B=8:0 8 8E G0AB8 ;53:> ?@8;8?0NB : ;N1><C >?CI5==><C 2 2>4C ?@54<5BC, B5;C 682>B=>3>, ?5@LO< 2>4>?;020NI8E ?B8F. 5C4828B5;L=>, GB> @0AB5=85 H8@>:> @0A?@>AB@0=8;>AL ?> 2A59 B@>?8G5A:>9 7>=5.  0:20@8C<0E 2AB@5G0NBAO 425 ?>42>4=K5 D>@<K MB>3> ?0?>@>B=8:0 - !. cornuta 8 !. thalictroides 8 >4=0 ?;020NI0O - !. pteridoides - A H8@>:8<8, A;01>87@570==K<8 ?> :@0O< ;8ABLO<8, ;560I8<8 =0 ?>25@E=>AB8 2>4K 8;8 ?>4=8<0NI8<8AO =04 =59. @8?>4=OBK5 =04 2>4>9 ;8ABLO 8=>340 >1@07CNB A?>@K, => @0AB5=85 G0I5 @07<=>605BAO 4>G5@=8<8 :CAB8:0<8. 0?>@>B=8: E>@>H> ?@8A?>A>1;5= : <5=ONI5<CAO C@>2=N 2>4K 2 B@>?8:0E: ?@8 2KAKE0=88 2>4>5<>2 >= C:>@5=O5BAO 8 @0AB5B 2> 2;06=>< 8;5. @8 ?>4J5<5 C@>2=O 2>4K C:>@5=5==K5 @0AB5=8O ?;020NI59 D>@<K >:07K20NBAO 2 ?>3@C65==>< ?>;>65=88, => >=8 A>25@H5==> =5 <>3CB 68BL ?>4 2>4>9 8 A1@0AK20NB :>@=8. A2>1>482H85AO AB515;L 8 ;8ABLO 1;03>40@O >18;8N 0M@>:0<5@ 2K=>AOBAO =0 ?>25@E=>ABL. 5@E=85 AB>@>=K ;8ABL52 1KAB@> >1AKE0NB, @0AB5=85 2=>2L @0728205B <>I=CN :>@=52CN A8AB5<C 8 >1@07C5B =>2K5 ?;020NI85 ;8ABLO. "0:8< >1@07><, MB>B ?0?>@>B=8: <>6=> >B=5AB8 : B8?8G=> ?;020NI8< @0AB5=8O<, ACI5AB2CNI8< =0 3@0=8F5 42CE A@54 8 =5 70:@5?;5==K< =0 B25@4>< AC1AB@0B5. A5 B@8 D>@<K F5@0B>?B5@8A0 ?>;L7CNBAO 1>;LH>9 ?>?C;O@=>ABLN C ;N18B5;59. -B8 45:>@0B82=K5 @0AB5=8O ?@8 >18;88 A25B0 8 B5<?5@0BC@5 2>4K 2228 ! 1KAB@> @0ABCB 8 ?>MB><C ?@83>4=K 4;O 1>;LH8E 0:20@8C<>2. !25B 25@E=89, A8;L=K9. @8 A>;=5G=>< >A25I5=88 >B ?@O<KE ;CG59 =0 ;8ABLOE @0AB5=89 @072820NBAO 2>4>@>A;8, :>B>@K5 2=54@ONBAO 2 @KE;CN B:0=L 8 1KAB@> 8E @07@CH0NB. =>340 A>;=F5 >168305B ;8ABLO, 8 =0 =8E ?>O2;ONBAO :>@8G=52K5 ?OB=0. 0?>@>B=8:8 =C640NBAO 2 <O3:>9 2>45. @8 65AB:>AB8 2KH5 5 ;8ABLO ?>:@K20NBAO 15;>20B>9 :>@>G:>9 2K?02H8E 2 >A04>: A>;59 :0;LF8O, ?>@K ?>25@E=>AB=KE B:0=59 70:C?>@820NBAO 8 ;8ABLO 381=CB. ;O ?;020NI59 D>@<K =5>1E>48< 2;06=K9 B5?;K9 2>74CE, => 1>;LH>5 A>45@60=85 ?0@>2 2>4K ?@82>48B : B><C, GB> :0?;8 ?5@5AB0NB A:0BK20BLAO A ?>25@E=>AB8 ;8ABL52 8 >=8 703=820NB (B0: 65, :0: C A0;L28=88). =>340 ?0?>@>B=8:8 AB@040NB >B ?>@065=8O B;Q9. @030<8 O2;ONBAO 8 2>4=K5 <>;;NA:8, 2K540NI85 <O3:85 B:0=8 ;8ABL52. 0: C65 >B<5G0;>AL, ?0?>@>B=8:8 1KAB@> @07<=>60NBAO 4>G5@=8<8 :CAB0<8. -B8 <>;>4K5 @0AB5=8O ;53:> ?5@578<>2K20NB ?@8 ?>4A25B:5 M;5:B@>;0<?0<8. '8B0B5;L, 25@>OB=>, ?><=8B, GB> 2 =0G0;5 3;02K :@><5 <8:@>7>@8C<0 C?><8=0;>AL 5I5 > 42CE @0AB5=8OE, ?@8A;0==KE 70@C156=>9 D8@<>9. > ?@5645, G5< > =8E @0AA:070BL, ?>72>;N A515 =51>;LH>5 >BABC?;5=85. 87=L 2 2>45 =0;>68;0 >B?5G0B>: =0 <=>385 @0AB5=8O. >;LH8=AB2> 87 =8E ;53G5 @07<=>60NBAO >B@>AB:0<8, G5< A5<5=0<8.  8725AB=>5 :0=04A:>5 @0AB5=85 M;>45O (Elodea canadensis) 8 2>>1I5 =8:>340 =5 @07<=>60;>AL 2 2@>?5 A5<5=0<8. => ?>?0;> A;CG09=> 2 =3;8N 2 XVIII 25:5 - 2A53> =5A:>;L:> 25B>G5: 65=A:>3> @0AB5=8O (=0 @>48=5, 2 0=045, M;>458 40NB 65=A:85 8 <C6A:85 F25B:8 =0 @07=KE @0AB5=8OE).  :>@>B:89 A@>: M;>45O @0A?@>AB@0=8;0AL ?> 2A5< :0=0;0<, 70B>=0<, ?@C40< =3;88. >B>< >=0 ?5@5:>G520;0 2 2@>?C 8 B5?5@L =0ABC?05B =0 2>4>5<K !818@8, 0;L=53> >AB>:0. @8 MB>< 2A5 M:75<?;O@K 52@>?59A:>9 8 0=3;89A:>9 M;>458 - B>;L:> 65=A:85, 1C@=>5 @0728B85 @0AB5=8O ?@>8AE>48B 2535B0B82=>. >AB0B>G=> 1@>A8BL 2 0:20@8C< 25B>G:C M;>458, E>@>H> >A25B8BL 55, 8 2A:>@5 ?>;CG8BAO ?KH=0O 70@>A;L. I5 1>;LH59 682CG5ABLN >B;8G05BAO 8=489A:0O 2>4O=0O 725740 (Hygrophila polysperma). # MB>3> @0AB5=8O F5;0O 70@>A;L <>65B 2>7=8:=CBL =5 B>;L:> >B 25B:8, => 8 >B ;8AB0. 0 GB> B0< ;8AB! 07@56LB5 53> =0 68 G0AB59 - 87 :064>3> ?@8 O@:>< >A25I5=88 1C45B @0AB8 A=0G0;0 :>@5H>:, 0 ?>B>< 8 :@>E>B=K9 :CAB8:. @>?CAB8B5 :CAB 383@>D8;K G5@57 >2>I5@57:C - 8 >?OBL =094CBAO :CA>G:8, A?>A>1=K5 40BL 687=L =>2K< @0AB5=8O<. 83@>D8;0 - ?>8AB8=5 15AA<5@B=>5 @0AB5=85!  0:20@8C<K <>A:28G59 . polysperma ?>?0;0 2 ?OB845AOBK5 3>4K 8 A B5E ?>@ H8@>:> @0A?@>AB@0=8;0AL ?>2AN4C.  =5402=> MB>B 284 383@>D8;K ?5@568; :0: 1K 2B>@>5 @>645=85 - ?>O28;0AL 8=B5@5A=0O <CB0F8O, ?>;CG82H0O =0720=85 <@0<>@=0O: <>;>4K5 ;8AB8:8 @0AB5=8O :@0A=>20BK5 A> A25B;>75;5=K<8 68;:0<8, >1@07CNI8<8 >@838=0;L=K9 @8AC=>:; :@0A=K9 D>= ?>765 <5=O5BAO =0 75;5=K9.  B5?5@L 25@=5<AO : ?8AL<C. <5AB5 A <8:@>7>@8C<>< 2 ?0:5B5 >:070;8AL 5I5 420 @0AB5=8O 87 "08;0=40 - =><0D8;0 (Hygrophila corymbosa) 8 A8==5<0 (. difformis). #4828B5;L=>5 @0AB5=85 MB0 A8==5<0: =0 >4=>< AB51;5 <>3CB @0AB8 >4=>2@5<5==> @07=K5 ;8ABLO! # <>;>4>3> @0AB5=L8F0 ;8AB8:8, :0: <>=5B:8, ?KH=K9 :CAB C:@0H5= <=>65AB2>< >3@><=KE <5;:>@0AA5G5==KE ;8ABL52. >G5<C <5;:>@0AA5G5==K5 - <K 7=05<, 0 2>B ?>G5<C ;8ABLO AB>;L =5>4=>@>4=K? >3;O48B5 =0 A8==5<C A25@EC. A5 ;8ABLO @0A?>;>65=K B0:, GB> =5 70B5<=ONB 4@C3 4@C30. !?;>H=K5 1>;LH85 25@E=85 ;8ABLO A>2A5< 70:@K;8 1K A25B 4;O =86=8E, 5A;8 1K C @0AB5=8O =5 2K@01>B0;>AL 2 E>45 M2>;NF88 @07=>5 8E AB@>5=85. @> A8==5<C 2 HCB:C <>6=> A:070BL - MB> @0AB5=85 A =0AB@>5=85<. ?@>G5<, =0AB@>5=85 5ABL C 2A5E @0AB5=89, 40 2>B ?>=OBL 8E B@C4=> - E>@>H> 8< 8;8 ?;>E>. !8==5<0 C<55B @0AA:07K20BL > A2>5< =0AB@>5=88 8 45;05B MB>& ;8ABLO<8. 5;> 2 B><, GB> ?KH=K5 <5;:>@0AA5G5==K5 ;8ABLO - MB> ?@87=0: 74>@>2>3> @0AB5=8O. 5@5A048B5 A8==5<C. K@>AH85 ?>A;5 MB>3> ;8ABLO 1C4CB 8;8 :@82K5, 8;8 >20;L=K5, 157 A5G5=8O. #102LB5 A25B - ;8ABLO A8==5<K A:06CB, GB> 8< AB0;> EC65. 7<5=G82>ABL MB>3> @0AB5=8O >B@065=0 8 2 53> =0CG=>< =0720=88 (difformis - @07=>@>4=0O). !8==5<0 - 4>2>;L=> 25@=K9 ?>:070B5;L >1I53> :0G5AB20 CA;>289 4;O @0AB5=89 0:20@8C<0. A;8 59 E>@>H>, 7=0G8B, E>@>H> 8 1>;LH8=AB2C >AB0;L=KE @0AB5=89 A> A25B;>75;5=K<8 ;8ABLO<8; 5A;8 65 GB>B> =5 =@028BAO, =5 A;54C5B ?>425@30BL MB><C 8 4@C385 @0AB5=8O. 5402=> ?>O28;0AL <CB0F8>==0O D>@<0 A8==5<K: <>;>4LN ;8ABLO 2 F5=B@5 15;K5, 15;>20BK5 8 68;:8, A;>2=> :B>B> 1@K7=C; 15;8;0<8 =0 ;8AB. =48:0B>@>< :0G5AB20 >A25I5=8O <>6=> AG8B0BL 8 =><0D8;C (;N18B5;8 0:20@8C<0 ?@>720;8 MB> @0AB5=85 ;8<>==8:><, >G5284=>, 8770 H8@>:8E ;8ABL52, =0?><8=0NI8E ;8ABLO ;8<>=0). A;8 =><0D8;0 =5 A1@0AK205B =86=85 ;8ABLO =0 AB51;5, 7=0G8B, >A25I5==>ABL 2>4>5<0 4>AB0B>G=0O.  25@E=85, <>;>4K5, ;8AB>G:8 ?@8 B0:>< >A25I5=88 :@0A=>20BK5.  B@>?8G5A:8E 2>4>5<0E ?@>87@0AB05B <=>3> 284>2 383@>D8;. @><5 8=489A:>9 2>4O=>9 72574K, 2A5 MB> :@C?=K5 @0AB5=8O A ;8ABLO<8 4;8=>9 4> 20 A0=B8<5B@>2. !060BL 8E =04> =5?;>B=>: >48= M:75<?;O@ ?@8 E>@>H5< @0728B88 B@51C5B ?;>I048 3040 A0=B8<5B@>2. "0: =07K205<0O :>@8<1>703@C??0 8<55B @O4 20@80=B>2 A H8@>:8<8 ;8ABLO<8 (C ;8<>==8:0 H8@8=0 4> 10 A0=B8<5B@>2, C 4@C38E 20@80=B>2 ?><5=LH5) :@0A=>20B>9, B5<=>75;5=>9 8 A25B;>75;5=>9 >:@0A:8. Hygrophila angustifolia (C7:>;8AB=0O) 8<55B 4;8==K5, => >G5=L C7:85 (H8@8=0 =5 1>;55 1 A0=B8<5B@0) ;8ABLO. 5402=> 2 2@>?C ?@8257;8 5I5 425 @07=>284=>AB8 C7:>;8AB=>9 383@>D8;K, ?@8G5< >4=0 87 =8E >1@07C5B =5 ?0@C AC?@>B82=KE ;8ABL52, 0 <CB>2:C 87 B@5E.  =0H8E 0:20@8C<0E 2AB@5G05BAO ?>;CG5==0O 87 @078;88 :>D59=0O 383@>D8;0 (Hygrophila sp.) - A@02=8B5;L=> =51>;LH>5 @0AB5=85 A C7:8<8 ;8ABLO<8, <>;>4K5 - :>D59=>3> F25B0. B;8G8B5;L=0O >A>15==>ABL MB>3> @0AB5=8O - 2>;=8AB>87@570==K5 :@0O ;8AB0. AB@5G0NBAO 383@>D8;K A 75;5=>9 ;8AB2>9 8 28H=52K< AB51;5<; A ?;>B=K<8 =51>;LH8<8 ;8ABLO<8, :@0O :>B>@KE 87@570=K 7C1G8:0<8, :0: C :@0?82K. 7 >4=8E 383@>D8; <>6=> >1@07>20BL 2 0:20@8C<5 8=B5@5A=K5 8 @07=>>1@07=K5 ?>42>4=K5 46C=3;8. 07 C6 <K 701@0;8AL 2 46C=3;8 87 4;8==>AB515;L=KE 2>4=KE B@02, :0:>2K<8 O2;ONBAO 383@>D8;K, 40209B5 5I5 =5<=>3> ?>1@>48< E>BO 1K ?> >?CH:5 MB>3> 8=B5@5A=>3> ;5A0. >B 70@>A;8 ;N428389. E 2 0:20@8C<0E =5A:>;L:> 284>2. 5:>B>@K5 8<5NB ;0=F5B=K5 ;8ABLO, 4@C385 - >20;L=K5 8 4065 @><1>284=K5. # @O40 284>2 D>@<0 ;8AB0 7028A8B >B >A25I5=8O: ?@8 =54>AB0B>G=>< - ;8ABLO ;0=F5B=K5, ?@8 A8;L=>< - @><1>284=K5. 5:>B>@K5 ;N428388 >G5=L :@0A82K, 25@E=OO AB>@>=0 ;8ABL52 8=B5=A82=>75;5=0O, =86=OO - ?C@?C@=0O. > <=5 E>G5BAO @0AA:070BL > =081>;55 >@838=0;L=KE 2840E. >B Ludwigia arcuata 87 N6=KE HB0B>2 !(: 55 ;8AB8:8 C7:85, ;8=59=K5, =0 :>=F5 70>AB@5==K5, 0 3;02=>5 - ?@8 E>@>H5< >A25I5=88 >@0=652>@>7>2K5. @838=0;L=K 8 ?;020NI85 284K (@0=55 >=8 1K;8 >B=5A5=K : @>4C Jussiea): =0 ?;02C 8E 45@60B 3C1G0BK5 A5@51@8ABK5 ?>?;02:8 =0 4>102>G=KE :>@=OE. G5=L :@0A82>5 A>G5B0=85: 28H=52>:@0A=K5 ;8AB8:8, 0 <564C =8<8 A5@51@OBAO =0?>;=5==K5 2>74CE>< :>;10A:8 ?>?;02:>2; C 4@C3>3> ?;020NI53> 2840 MB8 ?>?;02:8, :0: D0A>;8=K. 4=064K O ?>;CG8; 2 ?>AK;:5 87 @078;88 A0<K9 =0AB>OI89 2>4=K9 >@5E 2@>45 G8;8<0 87 =0H8E 2>4: 4;8==K9 AB515;L, C:>@5=ONI89AO 2 3@C=B5, 0 =0 25@ECH:5 AB51;O @>75B:0 @><1>284=KE ?;020NI8E ;8ABL52 =0 274CBKE G5@5H:0E - 2 =8E B>65 4;O ?;02CG5AB8 8<5NBAO 0M@>:0<5@K. 0AB5=85 ?@8H;> 157 MB8:5B:8, 8 O 1K; 2 ?>;=>9 C25@5==>AB8, GB> MB> N6=>0<5@8:0=A:89 284 2>4O=>3> >@5E0.  B>;L:> ?>B>< 2KOA=8;>AL, GB> MB> B>65 >48= 87 284>2 ;N428388 - Ludwigia sedioides 87 @5:8 8>C0?>@5.  2>B F5;0O 3@C??0 0;LB5@=0=B5@. 8ABLO C =8E >B @>7>2KE 4> 28==>?C@?C@=KE. 081>;LH55 @0A?@>AB@0=5=85 2 =0H8E 0:20@8C<0E ?>;CG8;0 Alternanthera reineckii (?C@?C@=>;8AB=0O).  A0<0O :@0A820O, E>BO 8 7=0G8B5;L=> 1>;55 :0?@87=0O 2 :C;LBC@5,- Alternanthera (Telanthera) lilacina A 28==>:@0A=K<8 ;8ABLO<8.  E>BO @0AB5=85 >1@07C5B =04 2>4>9 F25B:8, 1>B0=8:8 2A5 5I5 A?>@OB, A0<>AB>OB5;L=K9 MB> 284 8;8 ?>4284 ?@54K4CI53>. @0A=>20B>:>@8G=52K5 0D@8:0=A:85 0<<0=88 (Ammania senegalensis) A C7:8<8 ;0=F5B=K<8 ;8AB8:0<8 ?>:0 =5 >G5=L @0A?@>AB@0=5=K 2 0:20@8C<0E, B0: :0: 4>2>;L=> B@C4=K 4;O A>45@60=8O.  5I5 >4=> :@0A=>5 ?OB=> 2 ?>42>4=KE 46C=3;OE - 8=489A:0O Rotala macrandra A ?C=F>2K<8 >:@C3;K<8 ;8AB>G:0<8 157 G5@5H:>2, >=8 3CAB> ?>:@K20NB B>=:85 25B2OI85AO AB51;8.  @O4>< 75;5=>5 :@C652> 87 B>=G09H8E 83>;LG0B>@0AA5G5==KE ;8ABL52 - MB> ;8<=>D8;0 (Limnophila aquatica), 8;8, ?>AB0@><C, 0<1C;8O. !B515;L C MB>9 B@02K B>65 4;8==K9, >1KG=> ?@O<>9, => 53> ?>GB8 =5 284=> 70 3CAB>9 :@C652=>9 A5BLN. 8<=>D8;0, :0: 8 2A5 =0720==K5 2KH5 B@02K,- @0AB5=85 1>;>B=>5. A5 >=8 AB0@0NBAO 4>@0AB8 4> ?>25@E=>AB8 8 2K9B8 70 ?@545;K 2>4=>9 A@54K, GB>1K >1@07>20BL F25B:8. !B515;L ;8<=>D8;K, 2K94O 87 2>4K, B5@O5B 2AN A2>N ?@5;5ABL: <5;:>@0AA5G5==K5 ;8ABLO =C6=K 2 2>4=>9 A@545, GB>1K C25;8G8BL ?>25@E=>ABL 0AA8<8;OF88.  2>74CH=>9 A@545 MB0 =04>1=>ABL >B?0405B, 8 ;8ABLO AB0=>2OBAO ?;>B=K<8, ;0=F5B=K<8, A 7C1G0BK<8 :@0O<8. @0A82> ?>42>4=>5 :@C652> ;8ABL52 :01><1. 01><10 :0@>;8=A:0O (Cabomba caroliniana), H8@>:> @0A?@>AB@0=5==0O C =0H8E 0:20@8C<8AB>2, 8<55B =53CABCN ;8AB2C, 0 @565 2AB@5G0NI0OAO :01><10 2>4O=0O (!. aquatica) >1@07C5B B0:>5 3CAB>5 :@C652>, GB> :@0A=>20B>3> AB51;O, :0: C ;8<=>D8;K, ?>GB8 8 =5 284=>. -B> >G5=L :@0A820O :01><10: =86=OO AB>@>=0 ;8ABL52 A5@51@8AB>@>7>20O, 0 :>340 25@ECH:0 AB51;O =0 =>GL 70AK?05B, A<K:05B ;8AB8:8, >=0 AB0=>28BAO :@0A=>20B>9. 0: >B;8G8BL ;8<=>D8;C >B :01><1K? 54L 8 B5 8 4@C385 1K20NB 8 A 3CAB>9 ;8AB2>9, 8 A C<5@5==>9.  >B;8G8BL ?@>AB>: C :01><1 ;8ABLO ?0@=K5, AC?@>B82=> @0A?>;>65==K5. 0: 1K =8 3CAB8;>AL =56=>5 :@C652> 83>;>G5:, G5@5H:>2 C ;8ABL52 2 :064>< C7;5 1C45B 2A53> ?0@0. @0240, C =5:>B>@KE :01><1 2AB@5G0NBAO 2 <CB>2:5 8 B@8 ;8AB0. # ;8<=>D8;K 65 2 :064>< C7;5 6- 10 ;8ABL52, 8E =5B@C4=> ?>AG8B0BL B>65 ?> G5@5H:0<. 01><1K, 4>AB83=C2 ?>25@E=>AB8, =8:>340 =5 ?>:840NB 2>4=CN A@54C - MB> =5 1>;>B=K5, 0 ?>4;8==> 2>4=K5 B@02K. > ?@8 B><, GB> AB515;L >AB05BAO 2 2>45, =0 53> 25@ECH:5 ?5@54 F25B5=85< ?>O2;ONBAO ?;020NI85, =5 A<0G8205<K5 A25@EC ;8ABLO, >G5=L ?>E>685 =0 ;8ABLO& :C2H8=>:. 8G53> C4828B5;L=>3> 2 MB>< =5B: A5<59AB2> 01><1>2K5 - 1;8609H89 @>4AB25==8: A5<59AB20 8<D59=K5 (C2H8=:>2K5). ?@>G5<, :0@>;8=A:0O :01><10 8770 AB>;5B=53> :C;LB828@>20=8O 2 0:20@8C<0E CB@0B8;0 A?>A>1=>ABL 4020BL ?;020NI85 ;8ABLO - :0: 2848B5, :C;LB828@>20=85 2 :><=0B=KE 2>4>5<0E 2=>A8B A2>8 87<5=5=8O 4065 2 ?@8@>4C @0AB5=8O. 0@>;8=A:0O :01><10 C A51O =0 @>48=5 2 5AB5AB25==KE 2>4>5<0E >1@07C5B ?;020NI85 ;8ABLO, 0 C =0A 2 0:20@8C<0E 70F25B05B 8 157 =8E. 01><10 2>4O=0O A@02=8B5;L=> =5402=> :C;LB828@C5BAO 2 0:20@8C<0E, 8 ?;020NI85 ;8ABLO C =55 5I5 ?>:0 ?>O2;ONBAO. >6=> 1K;> 1K @0AA:070BL 8 > <04030A:0@A:>9 384@>B@8E5 - B>65 A 83>;LG0B>@0AA5G5==K<8 ;8ABLO<8. > @0725 2 >4=>9 3;025 @0AA:065HL > 2A5E ?>42>4=KE B@020E? -B8 C4828B5;L=K5 :@8?B>:>@8=K "5?5@L ?>7=0:><8<AO A >1H8@=K< ?;5<5=5< :@8?B>:>@8= (@>4 Cryptocoryne). ?@>G5<, E>GC :>5GB> ?>OA=8BL. ;O 0:20@8C<8AB>2 :@8?B>:>@8=K, 459AB28B5;L=>, 2B>@0O ?>A;5 0?>=>35B>=>2 <=>3>G8A;5==0O 3@C??0 2>4=KE @0AB5=89. > =5 4;O 1>B0=8:>2: :@8?B>:>@8=K - 2A53> ;8HL >48= 87 110 @>4>2 A5<59AB20 @>84=K5 (30A505). G5=L @07=>>1@07=>5 A5<59AB2> - >B 45@52L52 4> B@02.  =5A:>;L:> @>4>2 87 MB8E AB0 45AOB8 - B@02K 1>;>B=K5 8 2>4=K5. ;O 1>B0=8:>2 MB> :0?;O 2 <>@5. >MB><C 2 :0?8B0;L=KE B@C40E > @0AB5=8OE <K G0AB> =5 =0E>48< 4065 C?><8=0=8O > :@8?B>:>@8=0E. 0B> 2 A?5F80;L=KE :=830E > 2>4=KE @0AB5=8OE >=8 70=8<0NB A>;84=>5 <5AB>. 5@2K5 :@8?B>:>@8=K ?>O28;8AL 2 0:20@8C<0E 2 =0G0;5 MB>3> AB>;5B8O. > :>=F0 ?OB845AOBKE 3>4>2 2 =0H59 AB@0=5 2AB@5G0;8AL 2A53> 420 2840. 0B5< - :0: ?;>B8=C ?@>@20;>: >B 70?04=KE D8@< 8 ;N18B5;59 AB0;8 ?>ABC?0BL 2A5 =>2K5 8 =>2K5 284K.  N=E5=5 ?@8>1@5;0 8725AB=>ABL D8@<0 .;0AA0, :>B>@0O 70=8<0;0AL @0A?@>AB@0=5=85< 8A:;NG8B5;L=> =>2KE 8 @54:8E :@8?B>:>@8=. / =5 A;CG09=> ?>4G5@:820N, GB> =>2K5 284K : =0< ?>ABC?0;8 A 0?040, 81> =0H8E CA?5E>2 2 >1=0@C65=88 =>2KE 2>4=KE @0AB5=89 ?@0:B8G5A:8 =5B *. 0 @C1565 5060E 3>4>2 2 B@>?8:0E @01>B0;> =5<0;> A1>@I8:>2 =>2KE 8 @54:8E @0AB5=89, 2 B>< G8A;5 8 2>4=KE. =>385 87 MB8E ;N459 - C2;5G5==K5 M=BC780ABK A2>53> 45;0. >B0=8:8 G0AB> C25:>25G820;8 8E 8<5=0 2 =0CG=KE =0720=8OE @0AB5=89: 1>;L18B8A %5945;0 (A1>@I8:), ME8=>4>@CA ;55@ (A1>@I8F0, 2;045;8F0 1>;LH>9 D8@<K 2>4=KE @0AB5=89), :@8?B>:>@8=0 ;0AA0 (2;045;5F D8@<K). *  1991 3>4C =0:>=5F 1K;0 >?8A0=0 ?5@20O >B5G5AB25==0O :@8?B>:>@8=0. >A:>2A:89 1>B0=8: .!5@51@O=K9 A>1@0; 2 &5=B@0;L=>< L5B=0<5 =58725AB=K9 284, :>B>@K9 >?@545;8; :0: Cryptocoryne annamica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n, n, 4n 8 B. 4. #25;8G5=85 ?@>8AE>48B =0 >4=> G8A;>, =0?@8<5@ 18. ">340 2n = 36, n = 54, 4n = 72. ;O >B45;L=KE 284>2 :@8?B>:>@8= MB> 1C45B 2K3;O45BL B0:: !. crispatula - MB> 2n = 36, => 8 n = 54. 4=0:> ?>4 n, >:07K205BAO,- 402=> 8725AB=0O =0H8< 0:20@8C<8AB0< !. balansae A 4;8==K<8 :@0A82K<8 1C3@8ABK<8 75;5=K<8 ;8ABLO<8.  ?>;8?;>84=K9 @O4 !.cordata 2>H;8 =01>@K 87 34, 68, 85 8 102 E@><>A><, 0 MB> 8725AB=K5 C =0A 284K :@8?B>:>@8= - !. blassii, !. siamensis, !.kerri. ?@545;ONI8< 4;O 2840 O2;O5BAO =08<5=LH55 G8A;> =01>@0, 7=0G8B, 2A5 MB8 284K, :@><5 !. crispatula 8 !. cordata, 4;O 1>B0=8G5A:>9 A8AB5<0B8:8 =5 ACI5AB2CNB. @0240, /:>1A5= 2 A2>8E ?>A;54=8E :=830E ?>H5; =02AB@5GC ;N18B5;O< 0:20@8C<0 8 225; 42>9=K5 =0720=8O: !. crispatula var. balansae.  2 A0<>< 45;5, :>340 A<>B@8HL =0 A=8<:8 F5;>3> @O40 20@80=B>2 !. crispatula A @07=>9 D>@<>9 ;8ABL52, =8:>340 =5 ?>4C<05HL, GB> MB> 2A5 @0AB5=8O >4=>3> 2840. "0: 8 A 4@C38<8 :@8?B>:>@8=0<8, =0?@8<5@ !. wendtii (>=0 8<55B H5ABL D>@<). A5 284K :@8?B>:>@8= 2 7028A8<>AB8 >B CA;>289 ACI5AB2>20=8O @0745;ONBAO =0 3@C??K. ;8==>;8AB=K5, :0: ?@028;>, @0ABCB =0 B5G5=88, B0:>2K !. retrospiralis, !. crispatula var. balansae, C. aponogetifolia (55 ;8ABLO ?>E>68 =0 ;8ABLO 0?>=>35B>=>2 5@=L5 8 >828=L8). >A;54=OO 2K7K205B <=>3> A?>@>2, B0: :0: 2 ?@8@>4=KE CA;>28OE (=0 $8;8??8=0E) 2AB@5G05BAO 55 =075<=0O D>@<0 - !. usteriana. =5 A B@C4>< C40;>AL 70AB028BL MBC :@8?B>:>@8=C @0AB8 157 2>4K 2> 2;06=>9 B5?;8F5.  B@C4=>AB8 ?5@52>40 55 2 =075<=CN D>@<C 3>2>@8; <=5 8 @0AB5=852>4 87 5AA0C .0@B.  2>B .(5;59:>2A:89 2 ;02=>< 1>B0=8G5A:>< A04C AB@0=K CA?5H=> A?@028;AO A MB>9 7040G59. 075<=K5 D>@<K 8<5NB 8 2A5 4@C385 4;8==>;8AB=K5 284K. >, :>=5G=>, 2 2>45 0:20@8C<0 >=8 >A>15==> 25;8:>;5?=K. 5B@>2K5 !. balansae 2845; O C <>A:28G0 .!.><0@>20, ;5=8=3@04F0 ..0<8=0, ?>;CB>@0<5B@>2K5 !. aponogetifolia - 2 5@;8=5 8 0<1C@35. G5=L :@0A820 8 >1=0@C65==0O 2 1978 3>4C =0 0;8<0=B0=5 8 B>;L:> 2 1985 3>4C =0CG=> >?@545;5==0O !. hudoroi - >=0 ?>E>60 =0 !. aponogetifolia.  MB>9 65 3@C??5 >B=>AOBAO 284K A 1>;55 :>@>B:8<8, => B>65 ;8=59=K<8 ;8ABLO<8 - :@8?B>:>@8=0 A?8@0;L=0O (!. spiralis) 8 !. albida. =8 8<5NB 1>;55 ?;>B=K5 8 C:>@>G5==K5, E>BO B>65 C7:85 ;8ABLO 8 4>2>;L=> ;53:> ?5@5E>4OB 87 >4=>9 A@54K 2 4@C3CN. >@>9 MB8 :@8?B>:>@8=K @0A?>;030NBAO 8 =0 ACH5, 8 2 2>45 >4=>2@5<5==>, B0: GB> 70@>A;8 =5 ?@5@K20NBAO =0 3@0=8F5 42CE A@54. !. albida =0 15@53C <>65B 1KBL 8 75;5=>9, 8 :>@8G=52>9, 8=>340 >15 D>@<K @0ABCB 2?5@5<56:C.  2>45 >=0 G0I5 2A53> 1K205B O@:>9, :@0A=>:>@8G=52>9, A <5;:8<8 28H=52K<8 HB@8E0<8 =0 ;8ABLOE. A5 3@C??K :@8?B>:>@8= O ?5@5G8A;OBL =5 A>18@0NAL, =07>2C ;8HL =5:>B>@K5 (/:>1A5= 2K45;8; 29 3@C??). @C??0 Beckettii - MB> A@02=8B5;L=> =5:@C?=K5 @0AB5=8O (2KA>B>9 4> 40 A0=B8<5B@>2) A ;0=F5B=K<8 ;8ABLO<8. 1KG=> ;8ABLO >:@0H5=K 2 :>@8G=52>:@0A=>20BK5 B>=0 @07=>9 8=B5=A82=>AB8, :@0O - 1>;55 8;8 <5=55 2>;=8ABK5. !N40 >B=>AOBAO !. walkeri (C =0A @0A?@>AB@0=5=0 ?>4 =0720=85< !. lutea), 2A5 D>@<K !. wendtii, !. parva, !. nevillii, !. undulata, !. E. willisii. -B8 @0AB5=8O, 682CI85 2 B8E8E ?@>B>G=KE 2>40E 8 ?> 15@530<, ?@54?>G8B0NB =5 >G5=L 70B5=5==K5 <5AB0.  0:20@8C<5 8< B>65 =C65= A25B 8 =52KA>:89 C@>25=L 2>4K (=5 1>;55 40 A0=B8<5B@>2). @8?B>:>@8=K 3@C??K Griffithii - :@C?=K5 @0AB5=8O 2KA>B>9 4> 50 A0=B8<5B@>2 A 1>;LH8<8 H8@>:>A5@4F5284=K<8 ;8ABLO<8.  5AB5AB25==KE CA;>28OE @0ABCB ;81> 2 =878=0E, 70;8205<KE 2 ?5@8>4 4>6459, ;81> 2 AB>OG8E 2>4>5<0E, B8E8E 70;82G8:0E @5:.  =0H8E 0:20@8C<0E 87 MB>9 3@C??K 2AB@5G05BAO !. purpurea (C =0A 55 7=0NB ?>4 =0720=85< !. griffithii).  3@C??5 Cordata ?@8=04;560B :@0A82K5 A 28H=52>:@0A=K<8 ;8ABLO<8 !. blassii, !. siamensis (?>;8?;>84K 2840 !. cordata). ABL 3@C??K, A>AB>OI85 2A53> 87 >4=>3> 2840,- !. affinis, !. ciliata. A5 284K 8 @07=>284=>AB8 :@8?B>:>@8= ?@82O70=K : :>=:@5B=K< 0@50;0< - <5AB0< @0A?@>AB@0=5=8O. 4=0 !. ciliata =5 ?>4G8=O5BAO MB><C ?@028;C: 425 55 D>@<K (C7:>;8AB=0O 8 H8@>:>;8AB=0O) @0A?@>AB@0=5=K 2AN4C, 345 >18B0NB :@8?B>:>@8=K - >B =488 4> $8;8??8=. >A5;O5BAO >=0 4065 2 CABLOE @5:, 70;8205<KE 2 ?@8;82K >:50=A:>9 2>4>9. A5 ?5@5G8A;5==K5 :@8?B>:>@8=K <>3CB 68BL 2 0:20@8C<5. > 5ABL 8 B0:85, :>B>@K5 2 ?>3@C65==>< A>AB>O=88 ACI5AB2>20BL =5 <>3CB, =0?@8<5@ !. versteegii, !. lingua. 0 @>48=5 ?>GB8 2A5 :@8?B>:>@8=K @0ABCB 2 >G5=L <O3:>9 2>45. =0G8B, 8 2 0:20@8C<5 =C6=0 B0:0O 2>40? 5B, =5 =C6=0.  <O3:>9 2>45 ?>:070B5;L @ ?>AB>O==> :>;51;5BAO, 0 :@8?B>:>@8=K B0:8E :>;510=89 =5 ;N1OB. CGH5 2A53> 45@60BL 8E 2 2>45 65AB:>ABLN 8 8 2KH5, GB> A45;05B 1>;55 ?;02=K<8 87<5=5=8O ?>:070B5;O @. 5 2K=>AOB @0AB5=8O 8 ?@8<5A8 ?@><KH;5==KE AB>:>2 2 2>45. !>45@60BL :@8?B>:>@8=K O ?>A>25B>20; 1K 2 >B45;L=>< 4>AB0B>G=> ?@>AB>@=>< 0:20@8C<5; A2>8<8 2K45;5=8O<8 >=8 ?>AB5?5==> ?>43>B>2OB ?>4E>4OICN 4;O A51O 2>4C. !>2<5I0BL 8E <>6=> A C65 7=0:><K<8 =0< 383@>D8;0<8, ;8<=>D8;0<8, 10@:;0959 8 :@8=C<0<8, > :>B>@KE @5GL 2?5@548.  3;02=>5, =5 A;54C5B @57:> <5=OBL 871@0==K9 @568< A>45@60=8O.  5I5 >4=0 C4828B5;L=0O >A>15==>ABL :@8?B>:>@8=, A2O70==0O A 8E GC2AB28B5;L=>ABLN : :0G5AB2C 2>4K. 4=064K O 2;8; 2 100;8B@>2K9 0:20@8C< A =52A:>9 2>4>9 ?>;B>@0 ;8B@0 <>A:>2A:>9. '5@57 G0A <>9 ?@5:@0A=K9 O@:>75;5=K9, :@0A=K9, :>@8G=52K9 :@8?B>:>@8==8: ?@52@0B8;AO 2 ?CABK=N A :;>G:0<8 75;5=>20B>9 A;878. @>87>H5; D878>;>38G5A:89 H>:, 8;8 :@8?B>:>@8=>20O 1>;57=L. K720BL 55 <>65B =5 B>;L:> 87<5=5=85 E8<8G5A:>3> A>AB020 2>4K, => 8 ;N1>5 1KAB@>5 87<5=5=85 CA;>289 A>45@60=8O, =0?@8<5@ CAB0=>2:0 =>2>3> ?;0D>=0 A M;5:B@>;0<?0<8. @8 H>:5 381=CB 2A5 ;8ABLO. # A8;L=KE @0AB5=89 :>@=528I5 >1KG=> A>E@0=O5BAO 8 2 87<5=82H8EAO CA;>28OE <>65B >1@07>2K20BL =>2K5 ;8ABLO. A;8 65 CA;>28O =5 ?>4E>4OB, :>@=528I0 B>65 1KAB@> @07@CH0NBAO, 8 B>340 C6 :@8?B>:>@8=0 ?>38105B >:>=G0B5;L=>. K20NB 8 <54;5==K5 ?@>F5AAK A1@>A0 ;8ABL52. =>340 MB> ?@>8AE>48B 2 @57C;LB0B5 3>;>40=8O @0AB5=89: 07>B0 8 :0;LF8O 2 0:20@8C<5 4>AB0B>G=>, 0 65;570 8 D>AD>@0 =5 E20B05B. > A1@>A ;8ABL52 2>7<>65= 8 2 @57C;LB0B5 70=>A0 70@07=>3> 701>;520=8O. =D5:F8>==K9 A1@>A ;8ABL52 2K7K205B ?0@078B 0:B8=><8F5B. @>B82 MB>3> 701>;520=8O ?><>30NB 0=B818>B8:8. @8?B>:>@8=>20O 1>;57=L 2> 2A5E B@5E 55 8?>AB0AOE ?@8ACI0 B>;L:> MB>9 3@C??5 2>4=KE @0AB5=89, 2 <5=LH59 AB5?5=8 59 ?>425@65=K 1;8609H85 @>4AB25==8:8 - ;035=0=4@K. @C385 0:20@8C<=K5 0@>84=K5 - ?;020NI0O ?8AB8O, ?>4>1=K9 >A>:5 0:>@CA, ?>42>4=K9 D8;>45=4@>=, @O4 284>2 0=C180A>2 - B0:8E 701>;520=89 =5 7=0NB. @8?B>:>@8=K - >@838=0;K 4065 A@548 @0AB5=89 A2>53> A5<59AB20. > 70B> :>340 >=8 74>@>2K 8 E>@>H> @0ABCB - MB> 25;8:>;5?=>5 C:@0H5=85 0:20@8C<0. K C2845;8 25;8:>;5?=>5 7@5;8I5 ?5@2K5 O C2845; 8E 2 0:20@8C<5 ;5BG8:0 .0=:528G0. K;> MB> 402=>, 2 1955 3>4C. >9 ?@8OB5;L - ;5=8=3@04A:89 0:20@8C<8AB ..0<8= ?@83;0A8; <5=O : 0=:528GC ?>A<>B@5BL GC4> B5E ;5B - =5>=>2CN @K1:C. !B09:0 =5>=>2 8 2?@O<L 1K;0 25;8:>;5?=0. > O 2> 2A5 3;070 A<>B@5; =5 AB>;L:> =0 =8E, A:>;L:> =0 420 =57=0:><KE <=5 @0AB5=8O. 4=> 8<5;> O@:>75;5=K5 ;0=F5B=K5 ;8ABLO, >=8 :@0A82> @>A;8 225@E @>75B:>9; =0 1>:>2KE ?>1530E @0AB5=8O @0A?>;030;0AL F5;0O 25@5=8F0 <0;5=L:8E. @C3>5 E>BL 8 ?>E>48;> =0 ?5@2>5, => 1K;> :@C?=55, =0 ;8ABLOE 1>;55 <>I=>9 :>=AB@C:F88 1>:>2K5 68;:8 >1@07>20;8 :@0A82K9 :0=B ?> :@0O<, F5=B@0;L=0O 68;:0 B>65 @5;L5D=> 2K45;O;0AL, 0 A0< ;8AB 70:0=G820;AO, :0: A01;O, >AB@>9 A5@?>284=>9 25@H8=:>9. -@028BAO?- A?@>A8; E>7O8=.- -B> 0<07>=:8 - <0;0O 8 1>;LH0O. >:0 >G5=L @54:85 @0AB5=8O.  B>B 45=L O CH5; 4><>9 A :@>E>B=>9 <0;>9 0<07>=:>9. A:>@5 >=0 2K@>A;0 C <5=O 4> 40 A0=B8<5B@>2, 0 ;8ABL52 1K;> 1>;LH5 30. 0B5< ?>O28;AO 1>:>2>9 ?>153, =0 =5< 4>G5@=55 @0AB5=85, 70 =8< 2B>@>5. '5@57 =5A:>;L:> <5AOF52 25AL 0:20@8C< 70?>;=8;8 46C=3;8 87 <0;KE 0<07>=>:. -5 <>65B 1KBL!- C4828;AO 0=:528G.-  C <5=O 1>;LH0O A>2A5< 70G0E;0. >65B, 2>7L<5HL, AC<55HL A?0AB8? >=5G=>, O A@07C ?><G0;AO : =5<C. A5 ;8ABLO C 1>;LH>9 0<07>=:8 C65 1K;8 ?@>7@0G=K5, ?>;C@07@CH5==K5, 0 A0<0 >=0 >:070;0AL 242>5 <5=LH5 <>8E <0;KE. > =5 ?>381;0, >?@028;0AL, 2A:>@5 AB0;0 4020BL ?>;C<5B@>2K5 ;8ABLO. 0B5< ?>O28;0AL 8 AB@5;:0, 0 =0 =59 <0;5=L:85 F25B>G:8 8 70G0B:8 ;8ABL52 4>G5@=8E @0AB5=89. !B@5;:0 @>A;0, @>A;0 8& 2K;57;0 87 0:20@8C<0. 'B> 45;0BL, 2 ACE>< 2>74CE5 >=0 CA>E=5B?  B5?;8G:8, 2KA>:>9 :@KH:8, =0 0:20@8C<5 =5 1K;>. > 3>;L =0 2K4C<:8 E8B@0: O >1<>B0; AB@5;:C 20B>9 8 AC=C; 55 :>=5F 2 4@C3>9 0:20@8C<. 0B0 =0<>:;0, 0 AB@5;:0 ?@>4>;60;0 @0AB8 - >=0 4>AB83;0 <5B@0 8 2A:>@5 2AO ?>:@K;0AL :@>E>B=K<8 @0AB5=L8F0<8. "5?5@L >AB020;>AL 40BL 8< ?>4@0AB8 8 >45;8BL >158<8 0<07>=:0<8 4@C759 2 5=8=3@045 8 >A:25. >B B0: 2 =0H8E 0:20@8C<0E ?>O28;8AL ?5@2K5 ?@54AB028B5;8 >1H8@=>3> 8 8=B5@5A=>3> @>40 Echinodorus. 4=>2@5<5==> A> <=>9 ME8=>4>@CA>< 70=8<0;AO 8 <>A:28G ..@5B>2, => C =53> >:070;8AL =5 0<07>=:8, 0 2>4O=>9 ?>4>@>6=8:, 459AB28B5;L=>, >G5=L ?>E>689 =0 =0H ?>4>@>6=8:. >B>< O 2K?8A0; 8770 @C1560 A5<5=0. "0: ?>O28;8AL C =0A ME8=>4>@CAK . muricatus 8 . macrophyllus, ?>E>685 =0 2>4O=>9 ?>4>@>6=8:, 0 <>A:>2A:85 ;N18B5;8 @074>1K;8 BKAOG5;8AB=8: (. bleheri) 8 G5@=CN 0<07>=:C (. parviflorus) - @0AB5=8O, 1;87:85 : 1>;LH>9 0<07>=:5 (. amazonicus). >;;5:F8O ME8=>4>@CA>2 2 =0H8E 0:20@8C<0E ?>AB5?5==> ?>?>;=O;0AL&  70B5< ?@>87>H5; 1C<, 8 <K AB0;8 =5 22>78BL, 0 2K2>78BL ME8=>4>@CAK 2 4@C385 AB@0=K. >B :0: MB> 1K;>. 4=064K O ?@>G8B0; 2 70@C156=>< 6C@=0;5 @0AA:07 <0=4K ;55@ > B><, :0: 1K;0 A>740=0 55 D8@<0 ?> @072545=8N 2>4=KE @0AB5=89 >BCA 78@8A. 0 A>740=88 D8@<K =0AB0820; 55 4204F0B8;5B=89 AK= 8E5;L, ?>445@60;0 53> 8 A5AB@0. !=0G0;0 <0=40 8A?C30;0AL: :0:0O D8@<0? 5B 45=53, A=0@O65=8O 4;O M:A?548F89 70 @0AB5=8O<8, =8:B> =5 7=05B O7K:0. 7 2>NNI59 5@<0=88 A5<59AB2> ;55@ C5E0;> 2 @078;8N. -=5@38G=K9 8E5;L, ?@5>4>;52 2A5 B@C4=>AB8, 2A:>@5 A=0@O48; ?5@2K5 M:A?548F88 2 HB0BK 8>450=59@>, !0=0C;C, 8=0A5@09A, 0BC@>AAC 8 4@. -:A?548F88 CE>48;8 2A5 3;C165 8 3;C165 2 0<07>=A:CN A5;L2C.  <0=40 70=O;0AL A>740=85< 10AA59=>2 2 065 (2 >:@5AB=>ABOE 8>450=59@>). @>H;> =5<=>3> 2@5<5=8, 8 2 =8E ?>O28;8AL ME8=>4>@CAK 1>;55 30 284>2 8 4@C385 @0AB5=8O. >B :0: >?8AK205B 8E5;L A2>8 ?>8A:8. !1>@I8:8 @0AB5=89 ?5@5E>4OB >B >4=>3> :>@:> : 4@C3><C, A>18@0O 2A5, GB> 8< :065BAO 8=B5@5A=K<. >@:> - MB> 2>4>5<K A> A;01K< B5G5=85<, =0?>;=ONI85AO 2 >A=>2=>< 2 ?5@8>4 4>6459. => - :>@8G=520O 3;8=0, 8 ?>@>9 4>2>;L=> B@C4=> 2KB0I8BL 87 =55 @0AB5=85 A F5;K<8 :>@=O<8.  BCB 5I5 8 :@>:>48;K, ?>4AB5@530NI85 >E>B=8:>2 70 @0AB5=8O<8. >340 =0< C4020;>AL >B>3=0BL 8;8 C18BL MB8E GC4>28I 8 4>1KBL =>2>5 @0AB5=85, @0AA:07K20; 8E5;L,- <K A 54@>, =B>=8>, 0>;> 8 8=459F0<8?@>2>4=8:0<8 CAB@0820;8 B0=FK ?>154K. >B 2 >4=>< 87 MB8E :>@:> A ?@>7@0G=>9 2>4>9 <K 8 C2845;8 25;8:>;5?=>5 7@5;8I5. -B> 1K;8 :CABK ME8=>4>@CA0 1>;LH>3>. > :0:85! KA>B0 8E 1>;55 <5B@0, 4;8==KE H8@>:8E ;8ABL52 C :064>3> =5 <5=55 ?OB845AOB8, 0 F25B>G=KE AB@5;>: ?> 810 8 =0 :064>9 ?> 4>1@>9 A>B=5 45B>: A848B. -B> 2 2>45.  @O4><, =0 <5;:>2>4L5 8 =0 15@53C, MB8 65 ME8=>4>@CAK C65 A C:>@>G5==K<8 >20;L=K<8 :@0A=K<8 ;8ABLO<8.  >4=>< 87 B0:8E :>@:> 8E5;L >1=0@C68; 5I5 >48= 25;8:>;5?=K9 ME8=>4>@CA, :0: >:070;>AL, =58725AB=K9 =0C:5.  G5ABL 70A;C3 A1>@I8:0 =>2>5 @0AB5=85 =0720;8 ME8=>4>@CA>< 8E5;O (. michelii). !5=L>@0 <0=40 B>65 C25:>25G5=0 2 =0CG=>< =0720=88 BKAOG5;8AB=8:0 - ME8=>4>@CA ;55@ (. bleheri). !B0@0=8O<8 A5<L8 ;55@ ?@8<5@=> 420 45AOB:0 ME8=>4>@CA>2 2?5@2K5 >:070;8AL 2 @C:0E CG5=KE, 45AOBL 87 =8E 2>>1I5 =5 1K;8 8725AB=K =0C:5. !5=L>@5 <0=45 O =0?8A0; ?8AL<>.  2A:>@5 ?>;CG8; =5 ?@>AB> >B25B, 0 :0B0;>3 @0AB5=89. >60;C9AB0, 70:068B5, GB> 0A 8=B5@5AC5B,- ?8A0;0 <0=40.- 0H0 D8@<0 30@0=B8@C5B, GB> A25685 @0AB5=8O K ?>;CG8B5 G5@57 48 G0A>2. / BCB 65 >B>A;0; <0=45 :0B0;>3 A 70:07><. "@864K O ?>;CG0; ?>AK;:8 87 065 - 2 1965, 1967 8 1972 3>40E. "0: 2 =0HC AB@0=C ?>ABC?8;> >:>;> 20 ME8=>4>@CA>2 =>2KE 284>2. 0 >:>;> 10 : B><C 2@5<5=8 C =0A C65 8<5;>AL. K >:070;8AL A 1>30B>9 :>;;5:F859 MB8E @0AB5=89.  <>A:28G8 .><0@>2 8 .0=N:>2 ?>A;5 ?>574:8 2 @03C 5I5 8 ?>?>;=8;8 55. ?@>G5<, 8AB>G=8: 1K; B>B 65: G5E>A;>20F:89 1>B0=8: . 0B09 ?>;CG0; @0AB5=8O B>65 >B <0=4K ;55@. = A45;0; >G5=L C40G=CN @52878N - =>2>5 >?8A0=85 2A53> :><?;5:A0 284>2 @>40 Echinodorus. < 65 >?8A0=K 8 =0CG=> >?@545;5=K =>2K5 4;O =0C:8 284K, @074>1KBK5 A5<59AB2>< ;55@.  B5?5@L ?>7=0:><8<AO A ME8=>4>@CA0<8 ?>1;865. >4 Echinodorus ?@8=04;568B : A5<59AB2C Alismataceae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tenellus. 3> B>=:85 (=5 H8@5 23 <8;;8<5B@>2) ;8=59=K5 ;8AB>G:8 @54:> 1K20NB 1>;LH5 10 A0=B8<5B@>2. 0AB5=85 1KAB@> @07<=>605BAO 1>:>2K<8 >B@>AB:0<8, ?>:@K20O 2A5 4=> 0:20@8C<0 :>2@>< B>=:8E =52KA>:8E ;8AB8:>2. 0 ?5@2K9 273;O4 :065BAO, GB> A MB8< ME8=>4>@CA>< =5B ?@>1;5<. > MB> =5 B0: - 5ABL 8 =5<0;>. >?5@2KE, MB0 :@>E0 >G5=L AB@0405B >B >1@0AB0=8O 2>4>@>A;O<8. >2B>@KE, 2 3CABKE 70@>A;OE A>18@0NBAO >1KG=K5 4;O 0:20@8C<>2 <CA>@ 8 3@O7L.  >1>8E A;CG0OE =56=0O 70@>A;L 1KAB@> ?@52@0I05BAO 2 =5@OH;82>5 A:>?;5=85 ;8ABL52, 2>4>@>A;59, <CB8. 5;5=K< MB>B ME8=>4>@CA 1K205B B>340, :>340 5<C GB>B> =5 =@028BAO, =0AB>OI0O >:@0A:0 53> ;8ABL52 - 28==>:@0A=0O. >;65= ?@87=0BLAO, GB> O =8 C >4=>3> ;N18B5;O 0:20@8C<0 ?>:0 =5 2845; A?;>H=>3> :@0A=>3> :>2@0 87 MB8E @0AB5=89. @0240, G8ABCN 75;5=CN 70@>A;L =5:>B>@K< =0AB>9G82K< 0:20@8C<8AB0< C405BAO ?>;CG8BL.  4065 C405BAO 2K@0AB8BL >B45;L=K5 @0AB5=8O :@0A=K<8. B>@>9 284 B>65 =525;8: - MB> . quadricostatus var. xinguensis. "0 A0<0O <0;0O 0<07>=:0, :>B>@CN O C2845; 2?5@2K5 2 1955 3>4C, B>340 65 8 @07<=>68;. 3> ;8AB8:8 2KBO=CB>;0=F5B=K5, O@:>75;5=K5. A;8 2K 2K@0I8205B5 MB>B ME8=>4>@CA 2 E>@>H> >A25I5==>< 0:20@8C<5, >= 1KAB@> @07<=>605BAO 1>:>2K<8 AB51;O<8 8 ?>:@K205B 3CAB>9 70@>A;LN 2A5 4=>. @8 MB>< @07<5@K @>I8FK =5 ?@52KH0NB 1015 A0=B8<5B@>2. 0: 8 ?@54K4CI89 284, >= 3>48BAO 4;O >D>@<;5=8O ?5@54=53> ?;0=0 2 1>;LH>< 0:20@8C<5. > 5A;8 >A25I5==>ABL =54>AB0B>G=0, @0AB5=85 <>65B 2KBO=CBLAO 4> 25 A0=B8<5B@>2, ?@8 MB>< ;8ABLO AB0=CB ?>H8@5. >7<>65= 8 B@5B89 20@80=B. K15@8B5 A8;L=K9 M:75<?;O@, ?>A048B5 2 >?@545;5==>5 <5AB> 8 15760;>AB=> @56LB5 2A5 1>:>2K5 ?>1538, :>B>@K5 >= B> 8 45;> 1C45B ?CA:0BL. '5@57 ?>;3>40 ?>;CG8BAO >3@><=K9 (2KA>B>9 4> 40 A0=B8<5B@>2) ?KH=K9 :CAB A 4050 :@0A82K<8 ;8ABLO<8. "5?5@L ?>7=0:><8<AO A 3@C??>9 B0: =07K205<KE 0<07>=>:. @5645 2A53> - 1>;LH0O 0<07>=:0 (. amazonicus). / C65 >?8AK20; 55 2=5H=89 284 8 A?>A>1 @07<=>65=8O. > >=0 =5 A0<0O 1>;LH0O 2 3@C??5 0<07>=>:, 7=0G8B5;L=> 1>;LH5 55 BKAOG5;8AB=8: (. bleheri). "KAOG0 ;8ABL52 - MB>, :>=5G=>, ?@5C25;8G5=85, => 5060 =0 >4=>< @0AB5=88 2?>;=5 <>65B 1KBL. A;8 4>1028BL, GB> :064K9 ;8AB, ?> D>@<5 =0?><8=0NI89 AB0@8==K9 <5G, 4>AB8305B 4;8=K 40 A0=B8<5B@>2 (?;NA G5@5H>: 1015 A0=B8<5B@>2) 8 H8@8=K 812, <>6=> ?@54AB028BL, :0:>5 25;8:>;5?=>5 7@5;8I5 ?@54AB02;O5B MB> @0AB5=85. =0G8B5;L=> A:@><=55 G5@=0O 0<07>=:0 (. parviflorus). !2>5 =0720=85 >=0 ?>;CG8;0 70 B5<=>75;5=CN >:@0A:C ;8ABL52 (C ?@54K4CI8E 42CE 0<07>=>: ;8ABLO A25B;>75;5=K5), <>;>4K5 ;8AB>G:8 ?>O2;ONBAO 459AB28B5;L=> A G5@=K< :0=B>< 8 B5<=K<8 68;:0<8 =0 25@ECH:5 ;8AB0. '5@=0O 0<07>=:0 @54:> 1K205B 2KH5 2025 A0=B8<5B@>2, >=0 B>65 8<55B 3CABCN ;8AB2C, => @0AB5B <54;5==55 A2>8E A>@>48G59. >E>6 =0 =55 1>;55 @54:89 ME8=>4>@CA . marajoensis. 3> B5<=>75;5=K5 ;8ABLO A=0G0;0 <5G5 ?>4>1=K5, ?>B>< - >20;L=K5; >1I0O 2KA>B0 @0AB5=8O - B>65 =5 1>;55 25 A0=B8<5B@>2. !;54CNI0O 3@C??0 - @54:85 8 4>AB0B>G=> :0?@87=K5 284K. . osiris (. 0B09 =0720; B0: @0AB5=85 2 G5ABL >B:@K2H59 53> D8@<K) G0I5 2AB@5G05BAO C 0:20@8C<8AB>2, => =5@54:> E8@55B 8 ?>38105B: >= =5 2K=>A8B 2>4K A :8A;>9 @50:F859, E>@>H> @0AB5B 2 =59B@0;L=>9 8 A;01>I5;>G=>9 A@540E. 8ABLO >20;L=K5 A O@:8< @8AC=:>< 1>;55 A25B;KE 68;>:. &25B ;8ABL52 8=B5=A82=>75;5=K9, 0 <>;>4K5 ;8ABLO - ?C@?C@=K5 (8=>340 MB>B 284 =07K20NB . osiris rubra). >340B> 2 5=8=3@045 MB> @0AB5=85 @07@0AB0;>AL 4> 50 A0=B8<5B@>2 ?@8 1>;LH>< :>;8G5AB25 ;8ABL52 (4050). "5?5@L 2 =0H59 2>45 @0AB5=85 =5 <>65B 4>AB83=CBL B0:>3> 25;8:>;5?8O.  2 >A:25 B0:85 M:75<?;O@K 2AB@5B8BL <>6=>. -E8=>4>@CA 1>;LH>9 (. maior) G8B0B5;N C65 7=0:><. ABL 425 53> D>@<K. 5@20O 1>;55 @0A?@>AB@0=5=0: ;8ABLO @0ABCB 225@E, G5@5H>: (4> 15 A0=B8<5B@>2) - A E0@0:B5@=K< C3;>< 873810, >A=>20=85 ;8AB0 - A5@4F5284=K9 2K@57, ;8AB ?;02=> @0AH8@O5BAO (425 B@5B8 53> 8<5NB H8@8=C 4> 1012 A0=B8<5B@>2), 0 70B5< : :>=FC :@CB> AC605BAO. A53> <>65B 1KBL 4> 40 ;8ABL52, <>;>4K5 2=0G0;5 :>@8G=520BK5. B>@0O D>@<0 1>;55 @54:0O: ;8ABLO ?><5=LH5, >=8 2K2>@0G820NBAO 4C3>9, C?8@0OAL :>=F0<8 2 3@C=B 8 >1@07CO >G5=L :@0A82CN @>75B:C =0 4=5 0:20@8C<0. 54:8<8 8 ?>:0 4>@>38<8 O2;ONBAO . horemanii, E. opacus 8 . portoalegrensis. 5@2K9 8<55B B5<=>75;5=K5, A;53:0 ?@>7@0G=K5 ;8ABLO D>@<>9, :0: C 1>;LH>3>, A 2>;=8ABK<8 :@0O<8. B>@>9 - >20;L=K5 =0 4;8==>< G5@5H:5, B>65 B5<=>75;5=K5, >G5=L 65AB:85. ! MB8< ME8=>4>@CA><, G5AB=> ?@87=0NAL, O =5 A?@028;AO: 420 @070 ?>;CG0; 2 ?>AK;:5, ?@82>78; 8770 @C1560, => A>E@0=8BL =5 C40;>AL. 5 7=0N, 5ABL ;8 >= C :>3>=81C4L 87 =0H8E 0:20@8C<8AB>2. # B@5BL53> - ;8AB B>65 B5<=>75;5=K9, 65AB:89, >20;L=>2KBO=CBK9, A 2>;=8ABK<8 :@0O<8. %0@0:B5@=0O >A>15==>ABL MB>3> 2840: ;8ABLO 2K2>@0G820NBAO :>=F0<8 2 3@C=B, >1@07CO =0 4=5 @>75B:C. -B>B ME8=>4>@CA ?>ABC?8; A ?>A;54=59 ?>AK;:>9 >B <0=4K ;55@ 2 1972 3>4C 8 A B5E ?>@ AB0; ?>O2;OBLAO C :>;;5:F8>=5@>2 @54:8E @0AB5=89.  =0:>=5F, ME8=>4>@CA 5@B5@>O (. berteroi) - ?5@5E>4=>5 : A;54CNI59 3@C??5 @0AB5=85. !5O=FK (0 >= F25B5B =04 2>4>9, 4>2>;L=> ;53:> >?K;O5BAO 8 >1@07C5B A5<5=0) A=0G0;0 2K?CA:0NB ;5=B>284=K5 ;8ABLO, ?>B>< B0:85, :0: C . maior. 8ABLO B5<=>75;5=K5, =>& ?@>7@0G=K5, G5@57 ;8AB <>6=> ?@>G8B0BL ?5G0B=K9 B5:AB, >BAN40 8 =5<5F:>5 =0720=85 - F5;;>D0=>2>5 @0AB5=85. > <5@5 @0728B8O @0AB5=85 >1@07C5B >20;L=K5 ;8ABLO, 70B5< ?;>B=K5 ?;020NI85 A A5@4F5284=K< 2K@57>< C >A=>20=8O (53> >4=> 2@5<O 2K45;O;8 4065 2 4@C3>9 284 - . nymphoides (:C2H8=:>?>4>1=K9) 8, =0:>=5F, =042>4=K5, ?>E>685 =0 ;8ABLO ?>4>@>6=8:0. "@5BLO 3@C??0 ME8=>4>@CA>2 - :@C?=K5 @0AB5=8O A H8@>:8<8 A5@4F5284=K<8 ;8ABLO<8.  >B;8G85 >B 2>4=KE 284>2 ?5@2KE 42CE 3@C?? MB8 @0AB5=8O 2 5AB5AB25==KE CA;>28OE 682CB 2 <5AB0E, 2@5<5==> 70;8205<KE 2>4>9; 8E >A=>2=>5 @0728B85 ?@>E>48B 2=5 2>4=>9 A@54K.  0:20@8C<5 >=8 >G5=L 1KAB@> @07@0AB0NBAO =04 ?>25@E=>ABLN. > 2 ;N1>9 3@C??5 5ABL 8A:;NG5=8O.  1967 3>4C 87 @078;88 1K; ?>;CG5= . horizontalis. 8AB A5@4F5284=K9, ?@8A?>A>1;5==K9 4;O ACI5AB2>20=8O 2=5 2>4K ?@8 >G5=L 2KA>:>9 2;06=>AB8 2>74CE0: =0 >AB@>< :>=F5 ;8AB0 E0@0:B5@=K9, =0?@02;5==K9 2=87 :;N2 - MB> AB>:, ?> :>B>@><C 3>@87>=B0;L=> @0A?>;030NI85AO ;8ABLO A1@0AK20NB 87;8H=NN 2;03C A> A2>59 ?>25@E=>AB8. 4=0:> 2 0:20@8C<=KE CA;>28OE MB>B ME8=>4>@CA =5 ?>:8405B 2>4=>9 A@54K. KA>B0 @0AB5=8O 4> 3040 A0=B8<5B@>2, ;8ABLO O@:>75;5=K5, 8E 4;8=0 4> 15 A0=B8<5B@>2 ?@8 H8@8=5 810 A0=B8<5B@>2; C 74>@>2KE M:75<?;O@>2 <>;>4K5 ;8ABLO :@0A=>:>@8G=52K5. 5 B>@>?OBAO ?>:8=CBL 2>4C :@C?=>;8AB=K5 ME8=>4>@CAK . cordifolius 8 . scaber. > <>3CB 8 ?>4=OBLAO =04 2>4>9, 5A;8 8E G@57<5@=> >A25I0BL. AB0;L=K5 ?>4>@>6=8:8 2 2>45 =0E>4OBAO 2@5<5==>, 4> 8E 3>B>2=>AB8 : F25B5=8N; B>340 >=8 A?5H0B 2K1@>A8BL ;8ABLO 2 2>74CE 8 AB0=>2OBAO <0;>?@83>4=K<8 4;O 0:20@8C<0. '5B25@B0O 3@C??0 ME8=>4>@CA>2 - @54:>AB8 ?>A;54=8E ;5B. !@548 =8E 5ABL 8 5AB5AB25==K5, 8& 8A:CAAB25==K5, A>740==K5 C65 2 :C;LBC@5. 0G=C A ?5@2KE. . uruguayensis - =0720=85, 40==>5, . 0B05<, C:07K205B =0 <5AB>, 345 @0AB5=85 1K;> >1=0@C65=> (:AB0B8, B>65 2> 2@5<O M:A?548F88 A5<59AB20 ;55@). 8AB 53> =0?><8=05B ;8AB 1>;LH>3> ME8=>4>@CA0, => >A=>20=85 - 157 A5@4F5284=>3> 2K@570, ?5@5E>4 >B G5@5H:0 : ;8ABC ?;02=K9. ABL B@8 ?@8@>4=K5 D>@<K: H8@>:>;8AB=0O - >A=>2=0O, ;8ABLO B5<=>75;5=K5, >;82:>2>:>@8G=520BK5; 20@80=B 5==5@;O - ;8ABLO 1>;55 C7:85, B5<=>75;5=K5; C7:>;8AB=0O - ;8ABLO 75;5=>:>@8G=520BK5, 8E 4;8=0 4> 55 A0=B8<5B@>2. >A;54=OO D>@<0 - ?@54<5B >682;5==KE A?>@>2 A@548 1>B0=8:>2. 5;> 2 B><, GB> ME8=>4>@CAK - @0AB5=8O <5@8:0=A:>3> :>=B8=5=B0. @0240, 8725AB=> =51>;LH>5 @0AB5=85 A ;5=B>284=K<8 ;8AB8:0<8 87 !525@=>9 D@8:8 8 4065 A N30 0?04=>9 2@>?K, :>B>@>5 >4=> 2@5<O >B=>A8;8 : @>4C Echinodorus. > BI0B5;L=>5 87CG5=85 ?@825;> 1>B0=8:>2 : 2K2>4C, GB> MB> @0AB5=85 2A5B0:8 >B=>A8BAO : 4@C3><C @>4C. "5?5@L >=> =07K205BAO Baldellia ranunculoides - =5B 254L 2 D@8:5 ME8=>4>@CA>2.  24@C3 - A5=A0F8O! 4=0 87 D8@<, B>@3CNI8E 2>4=K<8 @0AB5=8O<8, ?>;CG8;0 ?0@B8N @0AB5=89 87 0<5@C=0 (&5=B@0;L=0O D@8:0), 345 =0@O4C A ?>4;8==K<8 0D@8:0=F0<8 1K;8 8& 25;8:>;5?=K5 ME8=>4>@CAK. < 40;8 =0720=85 . africanus (2 :02KG:0E - ?>B><C GB> =0720=85 =5 =0CG=>5, 0 :><<5@G5A:>5). > 1>B0=8:8 ?@>4>;60;8 C?>@AB2>20BL, ?>:0 =5 4>18;8AL ?5@58<5=>20=8O @0AB5=8O - . uruguayensis var. africanus. =8 =8:0: =5 <>3;8 A<8@8BLAO A 0D@8:0=A:8< ?@>8AE>645=85< MB>3> ME8=>4>@CA0, AG8B0O, GB> ?@8 53> 4>AB02:5 ?@>87>H;0 ?CB0=8F0.  B><C 65 A@548 A1>@I8:>2 @0AB5=89 1K20NB =54>1@>A>25AB=K5 ;N48, A>7=0B5;L=> 70?CBK20NI85 <5AB0 A1>@0 @0AB5=89, GB>1K 4>@>65 8E >F5=8;8& !?>@K MB8 1K;8 A>2A5< =5402=>, 2 :>=F5 2>AL<845AOBKE 3>4>2.  A53>4=O <>6=> C65 A C25@5==>ABLN A:070BL, GB> africanus - ?>4;8==K9 0D@8:0=5F. 3> C65 F5;5=0?@02;5==> =0H;8 2 D@8:5. >;55 B>3>, =0H;8 8 4@C385, A>2A5< =5 8725AB=K5 =0C:5 284K ME8=>4>@CA>2. 48= 87 =8E =0720= 0B05< . veronikae. A5 0D@8:0=A:85 ME8=>4>@CAK >G5=L AE>68 A C@C3209A:8<, 8 0B09 >1J548=8; 8E 2 A5:F8N Uruguayensis.  2>45 >=8 >1@07CNB :@0A82K5 ;0=F5B=>2KBO=CBK5 ;8ABLO, =0 2>45 8 =04 =59 - >20;L=K5.  =0< MB8 @54:85 @0AB5=8O ?@8257 >B . 0B0O ..0=N:>2. @><5 5AB5AB25==KE =>28=>: A@548 ME8=>4>@CA>2 ?>O28;8AL 8 8A:CAAB25==K5, A>740==K5 A04>2>40<8. 51>;LH>9 . parviflorus tropica >1@07C5B =0 3@C=B5 :@0A82CN @>75B:C >20;L=KE A25B;>75;5=KE ;8ABL52, :064K9 87 :>B>@KE 8<55B <=>3>G8A;5==K5 A:;04:8, :0: C 30@<>H:8. 5>?0@4>2K9 ME8=>4>@CA (. schluetteri leopard) B>65 =525;8:, ;8ABLO 53> >20;L=>H8@>:85, ?> 75;5=><C D>=C @0AAK?0=K :@0A=>:>@8G=52K5 ?OB=0. "0:85 ?OB=0 ?>@>9 2>7=8:0NB =0 <>;>4KE ;8ABLOE <=>38E ME8=>4>@CA>2 - MB> ?83<5=B 0=B>F80= 70I8I05B E;>@>D8;; >B @07@CH8B5;L=>3> 2>7459AB28O ?@O<KE A>;=5G=KE ;CG59. > ?>B>< ?OB=0 8AG570NB. # ;5>?0@4>2>3> 65 >=8 A>E@0=ONBAO 2A5 2@5<O. >O28;8AL 25;8:>;5?=K9 :@0A=K9 . horemanii, C =53> :@0A=K5 ;8ABLO A :>@8G=52K<8 68;:0<8, ME8=>4>@CA @>70 - (. rosa) - <>;>4K5 ;8ABLO O@:>:@0A=K5.  1984 3>4C 2 B>@3>2;5 ?>O28;AO . barthii - >20;L=K5 ;8ABLO A25:>;L=>28H=52>3> F25B0, 0 68;:8 A25B;>75;5=K5. -B> @0AB5=85 A 1520 ;8ABLO<8 >G5=L :@0A82>. A;8 25AL 0:20@8C< 70A048BL B>;L:> ME8=>4>@CA0<8 - MB> 1C45B 25;8:>;5?=>5 7@5;8I5! >B>A, :>B>@K9 =5 ;>B>A =0G0;5 70E 3>4>2 2 @540:F88 =5<5F:>3> 6C@=0;0 AquarienTerrarien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ymphaea. 8<D58, :0: >B5G5AB25==K5, B0: 8 B@>?8G5A:85, 87402=0 8A?>;L7CNBAO 4;O >75;5=5=8O 0:20@8C<>2, 8E 157 B@C40 @072>4OB 2 1>B0=8G5A:8E A040E. >@>9 >=8 >G5=L 45:>@0B82=K: ;8ABLO @>7>2K5, ?C=F>2K5, :>@8G=52K5. > MB> :0A05BAO B>;L:> A5O=F52, ?>;CG5==KE 87 A5<O=, A ?>42>4=K<8 45BA:8<8 ;8AB8:0<8. 018@0O A8;C, =8<D5O - ?@8G5< ;N10O, :@><5 >G5=L A;01KE,- AB@5<8BAO :0: <>6=> A:>@55 4>AB8GL ?>25@E=>AB8 8 >1@07>20BL ?;020NI85, >1AKE0NI85 ;8ABLO, 157 =8E >=0 ?@>AB> =5 <>65B ACI5AB2>20BL. >MB><C ?@8ACBAB285 2 0:20@8C<5 =8<D59 - O2;5=85 2@5<5==>5, >=8 2A:>@5 B5@ONB 45:>@0B82=>ABL, 0 ?;020NI85 ;8ABLO 70B5=ONB 2>4>5<. =>5 45;> B83@>2K9 ;>B>A - MB> @0AB5=85 3>40<8 <>65B @072820BLAO 2 ?>3@C65==>< ?>;>65=88, >1@07CO B>;L:> <O3:85 2>;=8ABK5 ?>42>4=K5 ;8ABLO. A;8 C 2A5E =8<D59 ?;020NI85 ;8ABLO ?@54H5AB2CNB ?>O2;5=8N F25B:>2, B> MB0 =8<D5O <>65B F25AB8 8 ?@8 =0;8G88 ?>42>4=>9 ;8AB2K. "0:>20 ?5@20O >A>15==>ABL B83@>2>3> ;>B>A0. ABL 8 2B>@0O. 8<D58 @07<=>60NBAO ?@58<CI5AB25==> F25B5=85< 8 A5<5=0<8. =>340 =0 8E B>;ABKE ?>;7CG8E :>@=528I0E, @072820NI8EAO 2 3@C=B5, 2>7=8:0NB >B@>AB:8. "83@>2K9 - 8 BCB >@838=0;. >1@> 1K >= >1@07>2K20; ?@58<CI5AB25==> >B@>AB:8 >B :>@=528I0 - ?@5>1;040=85 2535B0B82=>3> @07<=>65=8O =04 35=5@0B82=K< B8?8G=> 4;O <=>38E 2>4=KE @0AB5=89, >A>15==> 2 :C;LBC@5. "0: =5B 65, B0:85 >B@>AB:8 4;O =53> @54:>ABL, 0 2>B 1>:>2K5 ?>1538, =0 :>=F0E :>B>@KE @072820NBAO <>;>4K5 @0AB5=8O,- MB> B8?8G=>. ">65, :0: 2848B5, =5 E0@0:B5@=> 4;O =8<D59. 4=8< A;>2><, @0=> 3>2>@8BL > B>G=>< <5AB5 2840 2 A8AB5<0B8:5. >B0=8:8 4>3>2>@8;8AL =07K20BL @0AB5=85 Nymphaea lotus. @>8AE>645=85 @0AB5=8O =5 OA=>, 2>7<>6=>, @>48=0 53> 835@8O 8;8 0<5@C=&  :C;LBC@5 - 425 D>@<K MB>3> @0AB5=8O. 4=0 - 75;5=K9 B83@>2K9 ;>B>A - >1@07C5B H8@>:85 >20;L=K5 ;8ABLO 75;5=>3> F25B0 A 1>;55 A25B;K<8 68;:0<8 8 O@:>:@0A=K<8 ?OB=0<8. -B8E :@0A=KE 1@K73 <>65B 1KBL 1>;LH5, <5=LH5 8;8 A>2A5< =5 1KBL 2 7028A8<>AB8 >B CA;>289 A>45@60=8O. ;8=0 ;8ABL52 4> 20 A0=B8<5B@>2, H8@8=0 4> 12, 2KA>B0 2A53> @0AB5=8O 4> ?>;C<5B@0. @C30O D>@<0 - :@0A=K9 B83@>2K9 ;>B>A - 8<55B 2>;=8ABK5, ?>GB8 >:@C3;K5 O@:>:@0A=>:>@8G=52K5 ;8ABLO 480<5B@>< 4> 15 A0=B8<5B@>2, =0 MB8E ;8ABLOE <>3CB 1KBL ?C=F>2K5 1@K738. 15 D>@<K >1@07CNB 1>:>2K5 ?>1538 8 2A:>@5 AB>OB, >:@C65==K5 45BL<8. @C3>9 ?@54AB028B5;L =8<D59=KE - O?>=A:0O :C1KH:0 (Nuphar japonica), 2 >B;8G85 >B B83@>2>3> ;>B>A0 >G5=L ?;>E> @07<=>605BAO 2 0:20@8C<0E. 725AB=K9 1>B0=8: 87 @038 .(048;5: 2 >4=>9 87 A2>8E :=83 >B<5B8;, GB> MB> BO65;>5 2 :C;LBC@5 @0AB5=85. >MB><C 8 2AB@5G05BAO >=> 2 0:20@8C<0E @54:>. > B>65 >G5=L :@0A82>5. >>1I5B> :@0A82K 8 A5O=FK =0H59 >B5G5AB25==>9 :C1KH:8 N. luteum - ?>42>4=K5 2>;=8ABK5 =56=>75;5=K5 8E ;8AB8:8 3>40<8 =5 BO=CBAO : ?>25@E=>AB8. /?>=A:0O :C1KH:0 8<55B AB@5;>284=CN D>@<C ;8AB0 (4;8=0 4> 20, H8@8=0 4> 15 A0=B8<5B@>2), F5=B@ ;8AB>2>9 ?;0AB8=:8 A25B;>75;5=K9, :@0O A8;L=>2>;=8ABK5, :0: 1K ?@>7@0G=K5 A :@0A82K< :@C652>< A25B;>75;5=KE 68;>:. >@=528I5 B>;I5 ?0;LF0, ?>;7CG55, 2A5 @0AB5=85 @0A?>;0305BAO =0 53> ?5@54=59 G0AB8, 0 704=OO ?>AB5?5==> B5@O5B ;8AB2C. 070;>AL 1K, >B@56L MB> C65 =5:@0A82>5 75;5=>5 1@52=> 8 ?>;CG8HL 87 <=>3>G8A;5==KE A?OI8E ?>G5: =>2K5 @0AB5=8O (B0: <>6=> @07<=>68BL =0HC :C1KH:C).  =5B, =8G53> =5 ?>;CG05BAO. #6 G53> O =5 ?@84C<K20;: 8 A>E@0=O; =5B@>=CB>9 :>@=52CN A8AB5<C >B@570==>3> :CA:0, 8 ?>4=8<0; :>@=528I5 : ?>25@E=>AB8, 8 4065 @0A?>;030; 53> GCBLGCBL =04 2>4>9& A5 7@O, :>@=528I5 ?>6825B <5AOF0 420, 0 ?>B>< 381=5B. >B 8 ?@8E>48BAO 640BL, ?>:0 >=> A>872>;8B A0<> @0742>8BLAO 8 >1@07>20BL >B@>AB>: (?@8<5@=> @07 2 420 3>40). !;54CNI55 @0AB5=85 - Barclaya longifolia B>65 @0=LH5 ?@8=04;560;> : =8<D59=L<, 0 B5?5@L C65 ?>:8=C;> MB> A5<59AB2>. >A;5 4>;3>3> 87CG5=8O =0H8 8 0<5@8:0=A:85 1>B0=8:8 ?@8H;8 : 2K2>4C, GB> 10@:;09N =04> 2K45;8BL 2 A0<>AB>OB5;L=>5 A5<59AB2> 2A53> A >4=8< @>4>< 8 ?OBLN 2840<8. # =0A 8 70 @C156>< 2 :C;LBC@5 87 MB8E ?OB8 284>2 2A53> >48=, B@8 4@C38E - @0AB5=8O 1>;>B=K5, 2 2>45 =5 682CB, G5B25@BK9 284 ?>:0 682K< =5 22575=. . longifolia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maryllidaceae) 2A53> ?OBL - 2>4=K5 @0AB5=8O. !59G0A - ?OBL, 0 5I5 45AOBL ;5B =0704 8E 1K;> B@8. >65B 1KBL, :>340 2K945B MB0 :=830, 8E AB0=5B 1>;LH5. "@C4=> ?@54C3040BL, 345 8 :>340 A1>@I8:8 @0AB5=89 24@C3 A=>20 >1=0@C60B ;C:>28FK, ?5@51@02H85AO 68BL 2 2>4=CN A@54C. !0<K9 =58=B5@5A=K9 87 =8E - Crinum purpurascens. = :0: 1K >AB0=>28;AO =0 ?>;?CB8 2 2>4C 8 68BL <>65B B>;L:> 2 ?>;C?>3@C65==>< A>AB>O=88. >MB><C 4;O 0:20@8C<0 >= <0;>?@83>45=. AB0;L=K5 G5BK@5 682CB ?>;=>ABLN 2 2>4=>9 A@545. !. thaianum - @0AB5=85 87 "08;0=40 - :C;LB828@C5BAO 2 =0H59 AB@0=5 A 1967 3>40. = 8<55B B>;ABCN 15;CN >:@C3;CN ;C:>28FC 480<5B@>< 4> 5 A0=B8<5B@>2, >B =55 845B 15;K9 AB515;L, 70B5< @>75B:0 ;8=59=KE ;8ABL52. > :0:8E! E 4;8=0 4>AB8305B 42CE <5B@>2 ?@8 H8@8=5 23 A0=B8<5B@0. @0O <O3:8E A25B;>75;5=KE ;8ABL52 8<5NB <0;5=L:85 H8?8:8, ?>2B>@ONI85AO A 8=B5@20;>< 13 A0=B8<5B@0, F5=B@0;L=>9 68;:8 =5 284=>. !. natans (?;020NI89) - A>2A5< =5 ?;020NI89. @82575= : =0< 87 $  2 1972 3>4C .."8?8=K<. C:>28F0 C @0AB5=8O F8;8=4@8G5A:0O, ;8ABLO 65AB:85, F5=B@0;L=0O 68;:0 E>@>H> 284=0, 0 A=87C ;8AB0 @5;L5D=> 2KABC?05B. ;8=0 ;8ABL52 4> 1,2 <5B@0 ?@8 H8@8=5 4> 20 <8;;8<5B@>2. 8ABLO >G5=L :@0A82K: 8=B5=A82=>75;5=K5, 1;5ABOI85, ?> :@0O< A8;L=>2>;=8ABK5, F5=B@0;L=0O G0ABL ?;>A:0O. -B>B 284 @>4>< 87 D@8:8. !. calamistratum >1=0@C65= 2 0<5@C=5, 2 1977 3>4C ?>O28;AO 2 2@>?5; 2 =0HC AB@0=C ?@82575= 2 80E 3>40E ..5:@0A>2K<. 8AB <5B@>2>9 4;8=K >G5=L C7:89 - >:>;> 56 <8;;8<5B@>2. > :@0O< F5=B@0;L=>9 68;:8 84CB 2A53> ;8HL 2>;0=G8:8, F25B - :0: C ?@54K4CI53> 2840. Crinum sp. crispus ?@82575= 2 2@>?C 87 D@8:8 5I5 ?>765, : =0< ?>ABC?8; 2 1989 3>4C >B .0@B0. 8AB - :0: C !. natans, => 25AL 2 A:;04:0E, ;C:>28F0 >:@C3;0O 480<5B@>< 4> 5 A0=B8<5B@>2. >7<>6=>, MB> ?>;8?;>84 !. natans, ?>:0 65 AG8B05BAO 53> @07=>284=>ABLN. @8=C<K - @0AB5=8O 4;O :@C?=KE 0:20@8C<>2, 2 =8E >=8 2K3;O4OB 25;8:>;5?=>. !8;L=K5 @0AB5=8O F25BCB. &25B>: !. natans 15;>@>7>2K9 A >@0=652K<8 ?K;L=8:0<8 =0 B>=:8E =>6:0E. 1@07C5BAO A@07C =5A:>;L:> 1CB>=>2, => @0A:@K20NBAO =04 2>4>9 >=8 ?>A;54>20B5;L=>: :>340 >48= >BF25B05B, 2B>@>9 70<5=O5B 53>.  ;02=>< 1>B0=8G5A:>< A04C AB@0=K !. thaianum @53C;O@=> F25B5B 8 A1@0AK205B 2 10AA59= A5<5=0, 87 :>B>@KE @0ABCB <>;>4K5 @0AB5=8O.  0:20@8C<5 :@8=C<K @07<=>60NBAO 2535B0B82=>: 2=CB@8 ;C:>28FK >1@07C5BAO 4>G5@=55 @0AB5=85, >=> @0728205BAO, :@5?=5B 8 ?@>@K205B ;C:>28FC 345=81C4L A1>:C. B@>AB:8 4;8=>9 25 A0=B8<5B@>2 <>6=> >B45;OBL, <5=LH85 <>3CB ?>381=CBL. >6=> ?>;CG8BL 8 70@>A;L :@8=C<>2: <>;>4>5 @0AB5=85 ?>AB5?5==> >B>428305BAO >B <0B5@8=A:>9 ;C:>28FK 8 2A:>@5 =0G8=05B A0<>AB>OB5;L=CN 687=L, => :>@=8 >1>8E @0AB5=89 >AB0NBAO ?5@5?;5B5==K<8. @5:@0A5= 1C:5B 87 ?OB8H5AB8 :@8=C<>2 A 2>;=8ABK<8 ;8ABLO<8 2 F5=B@5 1>;LH>3> 45:>@0B82=>3> 0:20@8C<0. 51>;LH>9 ?@820; C<05BAO, E20B8B =0< A 20<8, C20605<K9 G8B0B5;L, ?@>18@0BLAO A:2>7L 70@>A;8 ?>42>4=KE 46C=3;59, 2A5 @02=> > 2A5E 2>4=KE @0AB5=8OE - 0 8E B>;L:> C =0H8E 0:20@8C<8AB>2 2 :C;LBC@5 1>;55 300 284>2 8 20@80=B>2 - 2 =51>;LH>9 :=835 =5 @0AA:065HL. 0209B5 =5<=>3> >B4>E=5< 8 ?>15A54C5< > A>45@60=88 ?>42>4=>3> A040.  ?@5645 2A53> <=5 E>B5;>AL 1K >1@0B8BL 20H5 2=8<0=85 =0 A?5F8D8G=>ABL 3@C??K @0AB5=89, >1J548=O5<KE ?>=OB85< 2>4=K5. 0: MB> =8 C4828B5;L=>, 2>4=K5 @0AB5=8O G0AB> >:07K20NBAO 1;87:8<8 @>4AB25==8:0<8 ACE>?CB=KE. >G5<C? :07K205BAO, 2A5 F25BCI85 2>4=K5 @0AB5=8O (=5 A;54C5B =07K20BL 8E 2>4>@>A;O<8) :>340B> 68;8 =0 ACH5.  2>4C >=8 ?@8H;8 ?>4 2;8O=85< @07=KE >1AB>OB5;LAB2. 4=8 >BABC?8;8 ?>4 =0B8A:>< :>=:C@5=B>2 - @0AB5=89, 70E20B82H8E B5@@8B>@8N 15@53>2. @C385 ?5@8>48G5A:8 >:07K20;8AL 2 2>45 2> 2@5<O =02>4=5=89 (2 ?>;>2>4L5, 2 ?5@8>4 4>6459), 0 ?>B>< >:>=G0B5;L=> ?@8A?>A>18;8AL 68BL 2 MB>9 A@545. "@5BL8 @0ABCB 2 B@>?8:0E =0 B0:>< 2;06=>< 3@C=B5, 2 B0:>< 2;06=>< 2>74CE5, GB> 0:20@8C<8AB0< =5 A>AB02;O5B B@C40 70AB028BL 8E 68BL 2 2>45.  @07=>5 2@5<O =0G0;8 >A20820BL 2>4C ACE>?CB=K5 @0AB5=8O. "08;0=4A:0O 10@:;09O ?5@5A5;8;0AL 2 2>4C 2 B> 2@5<O, :>340 5I5 =5 ACI5AB2>20;> 2708<>459AB28O =0A5:><KE 8 F25B:>2. 9 8 B5?5@L =5 =C6=K ?5@5=>AOI85 ?K;LFC =0A5:><K5. =C180AK, =0>1>@>B, A>2A5< =5402=> AB0;8 ?5@5:>G52K20BL 2 2>4C, >=8 >48=0:>2> E>@>H> GC2AB2CNB A51O 8 ?>4 2>4>9, 8 2> 2;06=>< 2>74CE5 =0 15@53C. 07=K5 @0AB5=8O ?@52@0I0;8AL 2 2>4=K5 - 8=>340 >48=420 2840 87 2A53> @>40, 8=>340 ?>1>;LH5, 0 ?>@>9 2 2>4C ?5@5A5;O;>AL 8 2A5 A5<59AB2> (=0?@8<5@, 0?>=>35B>=K). =0G8B, ?>4E>48BL : 2>4=K< @0AB5=8O< ?> ?@87=0:0< 8E A8AB5<0B8G5A:>9 ?@8=04;56=>AB8 =5;L7O. C65= 4@C3>9 ?>4E>4 - M:>;>38G5A:89. !59G0A 2>4=KE @0AB5=89 - >:>;> 500 284>2.  A:>;L:> 1C45B 702B@0? -B>3> =8:B> =5 7=05B. =>385 @0AB5=8O 402=> >?8A0=K 1>B0=8:0<8, 70ACH5=K 2 35@10@8OE, => M:>;>38O 8E =5 87CG5=0.  24@C3 2KOA=O5BAO, GB> @0AB5=85 2>4=>5. "0:8E AN@?@87>2 A ?>O2;5=85< =>2KE 2>4=KE @0AB5=89 2AB@5G05BAO =5<0;>. > M:A?548F88 1>B0=8:>2 >1=0@C6820NB 8 =5 >?8A0==K5 5I5 284K.  B5?5@L O 1K E>B5; >AB0=>28BLAO 5I5 =0 >4=>< O2;5=88. 0AB5=8O AB0=>28;8AL 2>4=K<8 2 @07=>5 2@5<O, : B><C 65 >=8 O2;ONBAO ?@54AB028B5;O<8 @07=KE A5<59AB2 - 7=0G8B, 8A:0BL 8E A8AB5<0B8G5A:>5 @>4AB2> =04> ?> F25B:0<.  2>B @>4AB2> 2=5H=55, 8;8, B>G=55, AE>4AB2> ?@87=0:>2 C =5@>4AB25==KE 284>2 2 AE>68E CA;>28OE (:>=25@35=F8O), C 2>4=KE @0AB5=89 G0AB> ?@>O2;O5BAO >G5=L O@:>. >7L<5< 4;O ?@8<5@0 4;8==K5 70>AB@5==>;0=F5B=K5 ;8ABLO A O<:0<8 8 3>D@8@>2:>9 (4;O C25;8G5=8O 0AA8<8;8@CNI59 ?>25@E=>AB8). =8 2AB@5G0NBAO C Aponogeton boivinianus 8 Cryptocoryne aponogetifolia; y Cryptocoryne retrospiralis 8 Crinum natans. A5 MB8 @0AB5=8O 87 B@5E >G5=L 40;5:8E 4@C3 >B 4@C30 A8AB5<0B8G5A:8E @>4>2, 8E 284>2CN ?@8=04;56=>ABL <>65B >?@545;8BL B>;L:> >?KB=K9 384@>1>B0=8: - =0AB>;L:> >=8 :>=25@35=B=K, AE>68. ABL ME8=>4>@CAK, ?>E>685 =0 0?>=>35B>=K, :@8?B>:>@8=K - =0 ME8=>4>@CAK, 0?>=>35B>=K - =0 20;;8A=5@8N. 0B> 20;;8A=5@8O A>2A5< =5 ?>E>60 =0 A2>53> =0AB>OI53> @>4AB25==8:0 - ?;020NI89 2>4>:@0A, 0 :@8?B>:>@8=K - =0 ?;020NICN ?8AB8N 87 B>3> 65 A5<59AB20 @5=4=K5. 10 ?;020NI8E @0AB5=8O AE>68 ?> :>=D83C@0F88 (2>B ?>G5<C B@C4=> >?@545;8BL A8AB5<0B8G5A:>5 ?>;>65=85 2>4=KE @0AB5=89 157 87CG5=8O F25B:>2). !>740BL ?>4E>4OI85 CA;>28O 2 0:20@8C<5 4;O 2A53> <=>3>>1@078O @0AB5=89 4>2>;L=> B@C4=>. >7L<5<, =0?@8<5@, :>=25@35=B=CN ?0@C Aponogeton boivinianus 8 Cryptocoryne aponogetifolia. !D>@<8@>20;8AL >=8 2 AE>68E CA;>28OE - 2 2>4>5<0E 04030A:0@0 8 $8;8??8=. > 2 :C;LBC@5 8< B@51CNBAO @07=K5 CA;>28O: ?5@2><C =C6=0 >G5=L <O3:0O ?@>B>G=0O 2>40, 2B>@>9 - 65AB:0O, @53C;O@=> A<5=O5<0O. > 8 A> <=>38<8 :@8?B>:>@8=0<8 !. aponogetifolia C68205BAO ?;>E>: 59 B@51C5BAO 1>;LH5 A25B0, 1>;55 G0AB0O A<5=0 2>4K. =>340 CA;>28O, : :>B>@K< @0AB5=8O ?@82K:;8 C A51O =0 @>48=5, 2 0:20@8C<5 ?@8E>48BAO 87<5=OBL.  ?@8@>4=KE 2>4>5<0E 2 >G5=L <O3:>9 2>45 @0ABCB @O4>< Aponogeton rigidifolius (65AB:>;8AB=K9) u Cryptocoryne wendtii. > 2 0:20@8C<5 C MB>9 :@8?B>:>@8=K, :0: C 2A5E @0AB5=89 MB>3> @>40, G0AB> =01;N405BAO =5?@8OB=>5 O2;5=85 - A1@>A ;8ABL52. @8G8=0 - D878>;>38G5A:89 H>:, 2K720==K9 <0;59H8< 87<5=5=85< CA;>289.  <K 7=05<, GB> 2 <O3:>9 2>45 ?>:070B5;L :8A;>B=>AB8 >G5=L 87<5=G82. =0G8B, :@8?B>:>@8=K ;CGH5 A>45@60BL 2 65AB:>9 2>45. 5AE>65ABL CA;>289, =C6=KE 4;O @07=KE 2>4=KE @0AB5=89, ?>@>48;0 ;535=4C >1 8E 0=B03>=87<5. 5:>B>@K5 =075<=K5 @0AB5=8O, 459AB28B5;L=>, <>3CB 1KBL 0=B03>=8AB0<8. ABL F25BK, :>B>@K5 =5 C6820NBAO 2<5AB5 4065 2 >4=>< 1C:5B5. #3=5B0NB @0AB5=8O 4@C3 4@C30 >A>1K<8 2K45;5=8O<8 - D8B>=F840<8. !@548 384@>D;>@K A8;L=K5 D8B>=F84K 2K45;O5B ;8HL 10@:;09O.  4@C38E A;CG0OE 2A5 45;> B>;L:> 2 =5AE>65AB8 =5>1E>48<KE CA;>289, 8, A;54>20B5;L=>, =C65= =5 >48=, 0 =5A:>;L:> 0:20@8C<>2 A @07=K<8 @568<0<8. 0: 65 A060BL 2 0:20@8C< @0AB5=8O? 1I85 ?@028;0 B0:>2K: <5;:85 @0AB5=8O - =0 ?5@54=89 ?;0=, :@C?=K5 - =0 704=89; <5;:>;8AB=K5 G5@5=:8 A060BL @>I0<8 87 @0AB5=89 >4=>3> 2840; A25B;>75;5=K5 ;8ABLO B@51CNB 1>;LH53> >A25I5=8O, G5< B5<=>75;5=K5. ;O ?>;CG5=8O 8=B5=A82=>9 >:@0A:8 C :@0A=>;8AB=KE 284>2 =04>, :@><5 >A25I5=8O, A>1;N40BL @568< A<5=K 2>4K: 0?>=>35B>=0< G0AB> (1/3 >1J5<0 2>4K @07 2 =545;N), ME8=>4>@CA0< @53C;O@=> (1/5 @07 2 425 =545;8), :@8?B>:>@8=0< @54:> (1/10 - @07 2 <5AOF, >AB0;L=>5 2@5<O 4>;820BL 270<5= 8A?0@82H59AO). !CI5AB2C5B ?OBL A?>A>1>2 ?>A04:8 @0AB5=89 2 0:20@8C<0E: 1>B0=8G5A:89 - @0AB5=8O 3@C??8@CNBAO ?> 1>B0=8G5A:><C @>4AB2C; 35>3@0D8G5A:89 - 3@C??8@>2:0 ?> @09>=0< 75<=>3> H0@0, :>=B8=5=B0<, >AB@>20<; :>;;5:F8>==K9?>418@0NB >4=>B>==K5 8;8 B>;L:> @54:85 284K; 3>;;0=4A:89 - @0AB5=8O @07=KE 284>2 45:>@0B82=> @0AA06820NB 0<D8B50B@><, ?5A>: 8 3@C=B =5 4>;6=K 1KBL 284=K: 18>B>?K0:20@8C<K - ?>418@0NB @0AB5=8O 8 @K1 87 >4=>3> 35>3@0D8G5A:>3> @09>=0 8 4065 87 >4=>3> 2>4>5<0. K15@5< =0 A2>9 2:CA ;N1>9 A?>A>1. 0745;8< 4=> 0:20@8C<0 =0 G5BK@5 B@5C3>;L=8:0 - ?@>2545< 4803>=0;8 ?> ?;>I048 4=0. 0 MB8E ;8=8OE 2KA048< A0<K5 :@C?=K5 @0AB5=8O (G5< :@C?=55, B5< 40;LH5 >B ?5@54=59 AB5=:8). AB0;L=K5 ?CG:8 @0AA048< <564C ;8=8O<8 (:@C?=K5 8;8 1KAB@>@0ABCI85 - A7048). @8 3>;;0=4A:>< A?>A>15 ?5@54=NN G0ABL 3@C=B0 70A06820NB <5;:8<8 :@8?B>:>@8=0<8, ME8=>4>@CA0<8, ?0?>@>B=8:>< <0@A8;859. N18B5;8 G0AB> A>G5B0NB :>;;5:F8>=8@>20=85 2>4=KE @0AB5=89 8 @K1.  B0:>< A;CG05 2>?@>A > G8A;5 0:20@8C<>2 =5 2>7=8:05B - A:>;L:> 5ABL, AB>;L:> 8 5ABL. > 5A;8 2K @5H8B5, GB> 3;02=0O 20H0 7040G0 - A>18@0BL 8<5==> @0AB5=8O, B>340 2AB0=5B 2>?@>A: 0 A:>;L:> 65 0:20@8C<>2 =04> 8<5BL <8=8<0;L=>? / A>25BCN 70 <8=8<C< ?@8=OBL B@8 2>4>5<0 - 420 :>;;5:F8>==>45:>@0B82=KE 8 >48= @01>G89. >G5<C 420?  >4=>< 2K 1C45B5 ?>445@6820BL 2KA>:89 @54>:A?>B5=F80; ?CB5< G0AB>9 70<5=K 115 G0AB8 >1J5<0 2>4K 8 @53C;O@=>9 >G8AB:8 3@C=B0 >B 8;0 (4;O 0?>=>35B>=>2, ME8=>4>@CA>2), 2 4@C3>< - =87:89 @54>:A?>B5=F80;: @54:0O 70<5=0 2>4K, 708;5==K9 3@C=B (4;O 10@:;098, :@8?B>:>@8= 8 4@C38E 0@>84=KE, ?0?>@>B=8:>2). 0<5@OBL MB>B ?>B5=F80; 2 4><0H=8E CA;>28OE =52>7<>6=> - =C6=K 4>@>385 ?@81>@K; @53C;8@>20BL 65 53> 25;8G8=C <>6=>, :0: 2848B5, C1>@:>9 0:20@8C<0 8 G0AB>B>9 A<5=K 2>4K. 0:>2 65 @07<5@ MB8E 42CE 45:>@0B82=KE 2>4>5<>2? A;8 ?>72>;O5B ?;>I04L :><=0BK, @5:><5=4CN B0:85 ?@>?>@F88 (4;8=0 E H8@8=0 E 2KA>B0): 120E35E50 A0=B8<5B@>2. 20 A ?>;>28=>9 <5B@0 A<>B@>2>9 AB5=:8 42CE 0:20@8C<>2 A @07=K<8 3@C??0<8 @0AB5=89 - MB> 25;8:>;5?=0O M:A?>78F8O. 5;0BL 3;C18=C 1>;LH5, G5< ?>;<5B@0, =5B A<KA;0: 8 @C:>9 B@C4=> >@C4>20BL, 8 >A25I5=8O 2=87C 1C45B =54>AB0B>G=>.  ?@8 B0:>9 3;C18=5 @0AB5=8O =5 1C4CB ?@860BK C@>2=5< 2>4K, 1>;>B=K5 - =5 B0: A:>@> ?>:8=CB 2>4C. (8@8=0 35 A0=B8<5B@>2 (3;C18=0 ?@>A<>B@0 >B ?5@54=59 AB5=:8 : 704=59) - 2?>;=5 4>AB0B>G=0, B0: :0: 8770 ?@5;><;5=8O A25B0 2 2>45 >=0 1C45B :070BLAO 1>;LH5 (?@8 40 A0=B8<5B@0E 704=89 @O4 @0AB5=89 70A;>=5= ?5@54=8<8 @O40<8). !>2@5<5==K9 0:20@8C< 4;O 2>4=KE @0AB5=89 ?@0:B8G5A:8 =5 =C6405BAO 2 A>;=F5, 1>;55 B>3>, ?@O<K5 A>;=5G=K5 ;CG8 457>@30=87CNB 687=L 2 =5<. =0G8B, 2AB05B 2>?@>A >1 M;5:B@8G5A:>< >A25I5=88. '5<, :0:>9 <>I=>AB8 8 A:>;L:> 2@5<5=8? '5<: :><18=0F859 @0A?>;>65==KE =04 2>4>5<>< A25B8;L=8:>2 42CE B8?>2 - ;N<8=5AF5=B=KE 8 ;0<? =0:0;820=8O. 7 ?5@2KE 3>4OBAO B>;L:> 425 <0@:8@>2:8 - , ". A5 >AB0;L=K5 B8?K ;N<8=5AF5=B=KE ;0<?, 70 8A:;NG5=85< A?5F80;L=> A>740==KE 8 873>B>2;5==KE 4;O @0AB5=89 (=> 8E B@C4=> 4>AB0BL), <>3CB 8A?>;L7>20BLAO B>;L:> 2 A>G5B0=88 A A8;L=K<8 ;0<?0<8 =0:0;820=8O. >I=>ABL >A25I5=8O: =0 871@0==K9 @07<5@ 0:20@8C<0 2 A>>B25BAB288 A >1I5?@8=OB>9 C =0A ?@0:B8:>9 4>AB0B>G=> B@5E ;0<?:  - 40 20BB 8 42CE ;0<? =0:0;820=8O ?> 1525 20BB (;CGH5 - :@8?B>=>2KE). .@N==5@ (5@<0=8O) @5:><5=4C5B 1>;55 2KA>:CN >A25I5==>ABL: ;N<8=5AF5=B=KE - 0,94 20BB0 =0 1 ;8B@, ;0<? =0:0;820=8O - 1,25 20BB. !:>;L:> 2@5<5=8 4>;6=K 1KBL 2:;NG5=K ;0<?K? 5;0B5;L=> 12 G0A>2 (B@>?8G5A:89 45=L). A;8 AB>8B @5;5 2@5<5=8, <>6=> A428=CBL 45=L =0 1>;55 ?>74=89 G0A, GB>1K 2K 25G5@>< <>3;8 ?>;N1>20BLAO A2>8< ?@5:@0A=K< A04><. 'B> A;C68B 3@C=B>< 4;O 0:20@8C<=KE @0AB5=89? ">;L:> G8AB> ?@><KBK9 (=> =5 ?@>:8?OG5==K9, :0: ?>@>9 A>25BCNB) @5G=>9 (0 =5 :0@L5@=K9) ?5A>:. @8 =0;8G88 2 0:20@8C<5 @K1 8 4@C38E 682>B=KE - 0 2@O4 ;8 2K 1C45B5 A>45@60BL >4=8 @0AB5=8O - 3@C=B 1KAB@> 708;8205BAO 8 ?@8>1@5B05B 2A5 =5>1E>48<K5 ?8B0B5;L=K5 A2>9AB20. 064K5 ?OBL ;5B 53> A;54C5B >1=>2;OBL.  :=830E 2K<065B5 2AB@5B8BL 4@C385 @5:><5=40F88: 8 B>@D 2=>A8BL 2 0:20@8C<, 8 3;8=C, 8 A;>6=K5 A<5A8 A04>2>9 75<;8. A5 MB8 A>25BK 40NB A04>2>4K, 70=8<0NI85AO =075<=K<8 @0AB5=8O<8. ;O 0:20@8C<0 B0:85 @5:><5=40F88 =5?@83>4=K: 4>2>;L=> 1KAB@> =0G8=0NB ?>@B8BLAO A;>6=K5 3@C=BK, 381=CB @0AB5=8O. !B>;L 65 >AB>@>6=> =04> >B=>A8BLAO : A>25B0< > ?>4:>@<:5 @0AB5=89 C4>1@5=8O<8. A;8 AB@5<8BLAO : 4;8B5;L=><C 1;03>?>;CG8N ?>42>4=>3> A040, ?>4:>@<:0 4>;6=0 1KBL 8A:;NG5=0: 2 =>@<0;L=> DC=:F8>=8@CNI5< 0:20@8C<5 @0AB5=8O =0E>4OB 2A5, GB> 8< =5>1E>48<>. >?CAB8<> B>;L:> @07 2 420 <5AOF0, ?>A;5 70<5=K G0AB8 2>4K, 1@>A0BL 2 0:20@8C< >4=C B01;5B:C <8:@>C4>1@5=89 =0 100 ;8B@>2 2>4K. >6=> ?@83>B>28BL A<5AL 87 42CEB@5E B01;5B>: @07=>3> A>AB020. 2865=85 2>4K 2 0:20@8C<5 >1O70B5;L=>. 8 >4=> @0AB5=85 2 ?@8@>45 =5 @0AB5B 2 ?>;=>ABLN AB>OG59 2>45. =0G8B, =C6=0 0M@0F8O, 2K7K20NI0O F8@:C;OF8N 2>4K, 0 5I5 ;CGH5 - D8;LB@0F8O: ?@8 1KAB@>< ?@>B>:5 2>4K 2 D8;LB@5 2>7=8:05B A:>?;5=85 10:B5@89@535=5@0B>@>2, A2O7K20NI8E, ?@5>1@07CNI8E, C40;ONI8E 2@54=K5 25I5AB20, :>B>@K5 ?>O2;ONBAO 2 @57C;LB0B5 687=545OB5;L=>AB8 >18B0B5;59 0:20@8C<0. @8 ?>AB>O==>< 42865=88 2>4K B0:85 65 A:>?;5=8O 10:B5@89 ?>O2;ONBAO 8 2 3@C=B5. 01>G89 0:20@8C< <>65B 1KBL ;N1>3> @07<5@0, 206=>, GB>1K C@>25=L 2>4K 2 =5< =5 ?@52KH0; 30 A0=B8<5B@>2 8 <>3 1KBL >?CI5= 4> 10. >A:>;L:C B0:>9 0:20@8C< <0;> ?@82;5:0B5;5=, 53> ;CGH5 @07<5AB8BL ?>40;LH5 >B 42CE 45:>@0B82=KE. = A;C68B 4;O F5;5=0?@02;5==>3> 2>A?@>872>4AB20 @0AB5=89 8 4>;65= 1KBL E>@>H> >A25I5=, 0 GB>1K =5 70@0AB0; =87H8<8 2>4>@>A;O<8, 53> =04> 70A5;8BL 682>@>4OI8<8 @K1:0<8 3C??8 8 =5 >G5=L >18;L=> 8E ?>4:0@<;820BL.  @07<=>65=88 <=>38E @0AB5=89 <K, C65 3>2>@8;8, G0AB> >=8 @07@0AB0NBAO 157 2<5H0B5;LAB20 0:20@8C<8AB0. ;8==>AB515;L=K5 B@02K 25B2OBAO 8;8 8E @56CB: A@570NB 25@ECH:C (A G0ABLN AB51;O - 1015 A0=B8<5B@>2) ;81> G5@5=:CNB AB51;8 B0:, GB>1K =0 >4=>< >B@57:5 1K;> =5 <5=55 42CEB@5E C7;>2 A ;8ABLO<8. @>84=K5, 10@:;09O, Aponogeton rigidifolius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maior) ;81> 8E ?@8E>48BAO @570BL. !8;L=K5 M:75<?;O@K ME8=>4>@CA>2 8<5NB 8;8 3>@87>=B0;L=K5 :>@=528I0 (. horemanii), 8;8 @0A?>;>65==K5 ?>4 C3;>< 45 : 25@B8:0;L=>9 >A8 @0AB5=8O. >6=> 8E >B@570BL, =5 70B@03820O :>@=52CN A8AB5<C, 8 ?><5AB8BL =0 >A25I5==>5 <5;:>2>4L5. > MB>B A?>A>1 =5 2A5340 405B @57C;LB0B. CGH5 ?@>8725AB8 B0:CN >?5@0F8N: <KA;5==> ?@>25AB8 :>ACN ;8=8N ?> :>@=528IC - 213 53> A @0AB5=85<, 113 A 42C<O?OBLN ;8ABLO<8 8 :>@=O<8 A1>:C - 8 >B@570BL ?> MB>9 ;8=88. B@>AB:8 >B 113 :>@=528I0 ?>O2OBAO =5?@5<5==>. >42>4=K9 A04 E>@>H, :>340 2A5 @0AB5=8O 74>@>2K, 2A5 ;8ABLO A2568. >MB><C 0:20@8C<8ABK AB0@0NBAO C40;8BL AB0@5NI85 @07@CH0NI85AO ;8ABLO. 5 B>@>?8B5AL 8E @570BL. =CB@5==85 ;8ABLO @>75B>G=KE B@02 8 25@E=85 ;8ABLO 4;8==>AB515;L=KE 0:B82=> CG0AB2CNB 2 D>B>A8=B575.  1>;55 AB0@K5 2=5H=85 ;8ABLO @>75B:8 8 =86=85 ;8ABLO =0 4;8==KE AB51;OE CG0AB2CNB 2 4KE0=88, >15A?5G820O :8A;>@>4>< :>@=8. 5:>B>@K5 @0AB5=8O (0@>84=K5, :@8=C<K) A0<8 A1@0AK20NB ?5@5AB0NI85 @01>B0BL ;8ABLO: 8E G5@5H:8 >BE>4OB >B AB51;O 8 2K3810NBAO 2=87. # 4@C38E <>6=> C40;OBL =5:@0A82K5 ;8ABLO, => ?>=5<=>3C; 5A;8 >AB028BL B>;L:> <>;>4K5 8 A25685, @>AB @0AB5=8O 70B>@<>78BAO, >=> >A;01=5B. @8 1>;LH>< =01>@5 @0AB5=89 2A5E 8E 2 >3@0=8G5==>< >1J5<5 0:20@8C<0 =5 2K@0AB8BL 2 ?>;=CN A8;C: >=8 1C4CB <5H0BL 4@C3 4@C3C. @>4C<09B5, :0:85 @0AB5=8O 20< E>G5BAO C2845BL 2> 2A59 :@0A5, 8 A>7409B5 8< =08;CGH85 CA;>28O. 5 B>@>?8B5AL C40;OBL 2?02H85 2 >?0;C, =5 8=B5@5A=K5 =0 A53>4=O @0AB5=8O. 02B@0 >=8 <>3CB 20< ?>=04>18BLAO, 0 8E C65 =5 1C45B. B>428=LB5 MB8 @0AB5=8O : 704=59 AB5=:5 0:20@8C<0 8;8 2 <0;>>A25I5==K9 C3>;: 2 MB8E <5AB0E @0AB5=85 2?045B 2 AB03=0F8N ;81> 70<54;8B A2>9 @>AB.  ?>A;54=55. "5<?K @>AB0 @07=KE @0AB5=89 =5>48=0:>2K - >=8 7028AOB >B 8E 18>;>388, CA;>289 A>45@60=8O. > >4=> ?@028;> >1O70B5;L=>: C 2A5E @0AB5=89 4>;6=0 1KBL 6820O B>G:0 @>AB0, 4>;65= 1KBL 2845= <>;>4>9 ;8AB =0 @07=>9 AB0488 @0728B8O. A;8 70<5B8B5, GB> MB>3> =5B, =04> 2KOA=8BL, 2 G5< ?@8G8=0. I5 =5 @K1K - H5AB8=>385 9O, >9O, 0280!- A;KH0BAO :@8:8 A> 2A5E AB>@>=. @:0489 $84;57@ ?>4=8<05B 3>;>2C >B @C:>?8A8. 'B> A;CG8;>AL, ?>G5<C 153CB :C40B> ;N48? >B C65 =5A:>;L:> <5AOF52 >B206=K9 ?>;LA:89 ?CB5H5AB25==8: 6825B 2 701@>H5==>9 <0;L30HA:>9 45@525=L:5 <18=0=8B5;;>, =0 ?>15@56L5 04030A:0@0.  MB>< 3;CE>< C3>;:5, 5I5 =5 B@>=CB>< F828;870F859, A2>8 701>BK, AB@0E8, A2>8 70:>=K. >B 8 A59G0A 68B5;59 45@52=8 >1CO; AB@0E, 8 >=8 <G0BAO :C40B>. 'B> ?@>87>H;>? > $84;5@ =5 2AB05B 8770 AB>;0, =5 1@>A05BAO 2>= 87 E868=K. 5;K9 G5;>25: =5 4>;65= 1KBL =07>9;82, 3>ABL =5 4>;65= 2<5H820BLAO 2 687=L E>7O52. A;8 <0;L30H8 A>GBCB =C6=K<, >=8 ?>7>2CB 53>.  2 A0<>< 45;5, A;KH=K GL8B> ;53:85 H038. 5B, >=8 =5 <8=>20;8 E868=C, 2>B A:@8?=C;0 ;5A5=:0, 254CI0O 2 4><8: =0 A20OE, 8 2 425@OE ?>O2;O5BAO AB@>9=0O D83C@:0 452CH:8. ->6=> 2>9B8? ->948B5, 452CH:0,- >B25G05B $84;5@. = C65 C7=0; - MB> 2=CG:0 AB0@8:0 68=0@825;>, E>@>H5=L:0O 5;><>48. -!?0A81>,- >B25G05B, 2E>4O, 5;><>48.- 5=O ?>A;0; : 2070E5 (15;><C G5;>25:C) 454CH:0. !;CG8;>AL =5AG0ABL5. ?0:0DC (?>68@0B5;L A5@45F, >?0A=K9 :>;4C=) 2A5;8;AO 2 B8=30;;5 8 C18; 2>;0 C 570<K. 0, MB>, 459AB28B5;L=>, =5AG0ABL5. >; 4;O <0;L30HA:>3> 75<;545;LF0 - MB> 2A5: C@>609, 4>AB0B>:, A?>:>9=0O, AG0AB;820O 687=L. $84;5@ 2KA:0:8205B 87 E868=K 2A;54 70 5;><>48. =8 153CB : 15@53C ?>;=>2>4=>9 =B0:0<10;0=>, => =5?>40;5:C >B @5:8 A2>@0G820NB : 1>;>BC. :>;> 1>;LH>9 ;C68 AB>8B B>;?0 <0;L30H59. 0 15@53C ;568B <>@4>9 : 2>45 ?>381H89 2>;, >:>;> =53> E>7O8= 570<0. -4@02AB2C9B5, 0<0A>,- $84;5@ 1KAB@> ?>4E>48B : <5AB=><C CG8B5;N. -4@02AB2C9B5, 2070E0,- >B25G05B B>B.- 5 C482;O9B5AL, B8=30;;5 2 =0H8E <5AB0E ?@8G8=ONB =5<0;> 2@540. =8 60;OB ;N459, 8 MB> >G5=L 1>;57=5==K9 C:CA. > =0H8 ;N48 =5 B@>30NB 8E, >=8 AG8B0NB 8E D048 (7;K< 4CE><). @:0489 $84;5@ A<>B@8B 2 :>@8G=520BCN 2>4C ;C68. 45B> 2 55 B>;I5 ?>;70NB 8 ?;020NB >3@><=K5 - 2 45BA:CN ;04>=L - 2>4O=K5 :;>?K 15;>AB><K. !2>8< >AB@K< E>1>B:>< >=8 <>3CB ?@8G8=8BL G5;>25:C =5AB5@?8<CN 1>;L. >MB><C 1@0BL 8E @C:0<8 >?0A=>. >;K ?>3810NB >B C:CA0 15;>AB><K, :>340 >=0 60;8B 8E 2 O7K: 8;8 45A=K. !B@0H=>5 ?>@>645=85 B@>?8G5A:8E 2>4 - MB8 3830=BA:85 E8I=K5 :;>?K. $84;5@ 2>72@0I05BAO 2 E868=C.  MB>B 45=L >= 70?8AK205B: 52>7<>6=> =5 ?>440BLAO 2>AB>@3C 8 2<5AB5 A B5< C60AC, :>340 A<>B@8HL 2 1>;>B8ABK5 ;C68FK, :0:8E ?>;=> 2> 2;06=>9 4>;8=5. >4 4@5<;NI59 ?>25@E=>ABLN B5?;>9 2>4K :8H8B 682>9 :;C1>:, B><8BAO BCG0 >157C<52H8E =0A5:><KE, @0A:@K205BAO 25G=0O 4@0<0 :0:8EB> A<CB=KE >AC645==KE 4CH. -B> B@>?8G5A:85 3;04KH8, 3@51;O:8 8 2AO:>5 4@C3>5 - 2>4O=0O B>;?0, C4828B5;L=>5 A:>?8I5, :0: 1K A=5405<>5 25G=>9 ;8E>@04:>9. >9 4@C3 8 =0?0@=8: ?> M:A?548F88 >340= 5654=52=> ;>28B A0G:>< 4;O :>;;5:F88 BKAOG8 ACI5AB2, => ?>B><, 1@>A82 8E 2 B07 A 2>4>9, B>@>?;82> C<5@I2;O5B. A;8 >= MB>3> =5 A45;05B, B> G5@57 G0A >AB0=5BAO B>;L:> ?>;>28=0 =0A5:><KE, B0: 1KAB@> >=8 ?>68@0NB 4@C3 4@C30.  E>BO, ?>3810O, >=8 :06CBAO 15AGC2AB25==K<8 : A<5@B8, C60A =52>;L=> >E20BK205B ;N459: 15A?>:>9=K<8 =>G0<8 =0H8 B@52>6=K5 A=K 70?>;=ONB :>H<0@=K5 =0A5:><K5. > >4=064K >340= B>@65AB25==> 2=>A8B B07 A 2>4>9 2 E868=C $84;5@0. -4>@>2> ?>5B,- 3>2>@8B >=,- ?@8A;CH09AO!  2 A0<>< 45;5, :>340 2>40 2 B07C CAB>O;0AL, 8AA;54>20B5;8 CA;KH0;8 G8ABK5 72CG=K5 B>=0, =0?><8=0NI85 ?B8GL5 I515B0=85. -@>AB> 4CE 70E20BK205B,- 704C<G82> 3>2>@8B >340=. -0& @O<> 72C:8 =0H8E A525@=KE A>A=>2KE ;5A>2. !;>2=> =0H8 ;5A=K5 ?B8FK& >;G0B 703@CAB82H85 ?CB5H5AB25==8:8, 0 87 B070 =5A5BAO =56=>5 I515B0=85 - F5;K9 E>@ ?>NI8E ?B8F. > MB>, :>=5G=>, =5 ?B8FK, MB> B>65 >18B0B5;8 ;C6 8 B>65 2>4O=K5 :;>?K. "0:>2 <8@ =0A5:><KE, 345 ?@5:@0A=>5 A>G5B05BAO A> AB@0H=K< E8I=8G5AB2><. !2>8 2AB@5G8 A MB8<8 >18B0B5;O<8 B@>?8G5A:8E 2>4 .$84;5@ >?8AK205B 2 :=835 >@OG55 A5;5=85 <18=0=8B5;;>. > 25@=5<AO A=>20 : B8=30;;5 - 3830=BA:><C B@>?8G5A:><C 2>4O=><C :;>?C. / 402=> E>B5; C2845BL 53> 682K<. >4>;3C ?@>AB0820; C 28B@8=K >>;>38G5A:>3> <C75O: 2 A?8@B>2>9 ?@>7@0G=>AB8 :@0A>20;>AL >3@><=>5 - 4;8=>9 4> 10 A0=B8<5B@>2 - =0A5:><>5 A G5BK@L<O 2>;>A0BK<8 =>30<8 8 ?5@54=59 E20B0B5;L=>9 ?0@>9, ?>4>1=>9 <>I=K< :;5I0<. = 2AB@5G05BAO =5 B>;L:> =0 04030A:0@5.  N3>A;02A:8E 8 1>;30@A:8E :=830E ?> 384@>18>;>388 MB>B :;>? C?><8=05BAO 2 A>AB025 <5AB=>9 D0C=K. 54;5==>, => =5C:;>==> ?@>428305BAO >= =0 A525@ - 87 @5F88 2 0:54>=8N, 70B5< =0 B5@@8B>@8N >;30@88, 702>52K20O 2>4>5< 70 2>4>5<>< 8 ?@8A?>A01;820OAL :> 2A5 1>;55 AC@>2K< 78<0<. 0A?@>AB@0=OOAL ?> B@>?8G5A:8< 2>4>5<0< D@8:8 8 788, >= >A208205B 8 =5:>B>@K5 AC1B@>?8G5A:85 >1;0AB8, 0 420 2840 2AB@5G0NBAO 8 C =0A =0 0;L=5< >AB>:5. -B> 3830=BA:>5, O4>28B>5, AB@5<8B5;L=>5 ACI5AB2> 8=B5@5A>20;> <5=O 2A5 1>;LH5.  O ?@>A8; 7=0:><KE, >B?@02;ONI8EAO 2 70<>@A:85 ?CB5H5AB28O: @82578B5! 0:>=5F, >48= 87 <>8E 4@C759 - <>@O: ;53 02;>28G (0H8= A60;8;AO =04> <=>9. > MB>3> >= =5 @07 ?@82>78; <=5 8=B5@5A=59H8E 2>4O=KE 6C:>2 87 @07=KE :>=F>2 B@>?8:>2: 04=>,- A:070; >=.- -B0 3048=0, :>=5G=>, =5 6C:, 40 C6 B0: 8 1KBL, ?@8257C. ;53 02;>28G ?>9<0; G5BK@5E :;>?>2 - B@5E A0<F>2 8 A0<:C. ;>?8E0 8<5;0 1>;55 H8@>:CN A?8=C 8 ?>;=>5 1@NH:>. =0 A@07C ?@>O28;0 1C@=K9 8=B5@5A : :020;5@0<, => >B=N4L =5 A 1@0G=K<8 =0<5@5=8O<8: F5;8 C =55 1K;8 A0<K5 :@>2>604=K5. 'B> :0A05BAO A0<F>2, B> >=8 2>A?@8=O;8 A2>N A>A54:C A>2A5< 8=0G5 8 ?@8=O;8AL 70 =59 CE06820BL. ;C1>:>5 =5?>=8<0=85 :;>?0<8 4@C3 4@C30 ?>B@51>20;> >B ;530 02;>28G0 @5H8B5;L=KE 459AB289: A0<FK 1K;8 >B45;5=K AB5:;>< >B 25G=> 3>;>4=>9 A0<:8. >, ?>2848<><C, :;>?8E0 2A5 2@5<O 2K?CA:0;0 ?@82;5:0NI89 A0<F>2 A5:@5B: ?>:0 :>@01;L H5; 87 >70<18:0 2 5=8=3@04, (?@>8AE>48;> MB> =5A:>;L:> ;5B =0704) A=0G0;0 >48=, 0 70B5< 8 2B>@>9 CE8B@8;8AL ?5@51@0BLAO G5@57 AB5:;O==CN ?5@53>@>4:C. !0<:0 =5 ?@5<8=C;0 2:CA=> ?>>1540BL >1>8<8 =57040G;82K<8 @KF0@O<8. "0: GB> 4> <>8E 0:20@8C<>2 4>1@0;8AL ;8HL 420 :;>?0 - A0<5F 8 A0<:0. >?KB:8 A>548=8BL 8E >:070;8AL 4>2>;L=> @8A:>20==K<8, 8 O >B:070;AO >B MB>9 70B58. >7<>6=>, C MB8E :;>?>2, :0: 8 C =5:>B>@KE ?0C:>2, ACI5AB2C5B >?@545;5==K9 =5?@>4>;68B5;L=K9 ?5@8>4, :>340 A0<:0 1;03>A:;>==> >B=>A8BAO : CE06820=8N A0<F0, 2 >AB0;L=>5 65 2@5<O >=0 2545B A51O 25AL<0 03@5AA82=>. !5:@5B 65 A0<:0 2K45;O5B 3>@074> 4>;LH5: 5A;8 ?>4;8BL 2>4C, 2 :>B>@>9 =0E>48BAO A0<:0, 2 0:20@8C<, 345 A>45@68BAO A0<5F, ?>A;54=89 ?@8E>48B 2 ?>;=>5 =58AB>2AB2> 8 =0G8=05B <5B0BLAO 2 ?>8A:0E ?>4@C38. "5?5@L ?>@0 ?>7=0:><8BLAO. ;>? >B=>A8BAO : @>4C Belostoma, 0 284 (8E A 45AOB>:) O =5 >?@545;8;. =5H=5 :;>? =0?><8=05B 2>4O=>3> A:>@?8>=0 (B>;L:> 3830=BA:>3>), :>B>@>3> <>6=> =09B8 2 ;N1>< AB>OG5< 2>4>5<5. 5@20O ?0@0 =>3 ?@52@0I5=0 2 E20B0B5;L=K9 <5E0=87<: 3>;>4=K9 :;>?, ?>4AB5@530O 4>1KGC, H8@>:> @0AAB02;O5B A2>8 :;5I8, 1KAB@> @072>@0G8205BAO 8 AB@5<8B5;L=> AE20BK205B 2A5, GB> 42865BAO. !8;0 70E20B0 25AL<0 =54N68==0O - =5:>B>@>5 2@5<O =0A5:><>5 <>65B 45@60BL A2>8<8 E20B0;:0<8 32>74L 4;8=>9 A A0<>3> A51O. !E20B82 4>1KGC, 15;>AB><0 8AA;54C5B ?>25@E=>ABL E>1>B:><. >=G8: 45AOB8<8;;8<5B@>2>3> E>1>B:0 4>2>;L=> GC2AB28B5;5=, >= =0E>48B <0;59HCN I5;L 2 E8B8=>2>< ?>:@>25 6C:0 8;8 @0:0, <564C G5HC9:0<8 @K1K. >=782H8AL 2 <O3:85 B:0=8 B5;0, :;>? 2K?CA:05B 2 =8E A8;L=K9 D5@<5=B O=B0@=>3> F25B0. $5@<5=B >G5=L O4>28B 8, 5A;8 ?>?045B G5;>25:C =0 :>6C, 2K7K205B =5AB5@?8<CN 1>;L. B> 8A?KB0; =0 A515 C:CA 2>4O=KE :;>?>2 (3;04KH0, ?;02B0, A:>@?8>=0) - =5GB> 2@>45 C:CA0 >AK, ?>9<5B <5=O 2?>;=5: 254L 15;>AB><0 2> <=>3> @07 1>;LH5. $5@<5=B 2K7K205B 1>;L 5I5 8 ?>B><C, GB> C 15;>AB><K A2>53> @>40 =0@C6=>5 ?8I520@5=85: B:0=8 ?>4 459AB285< MB>3> D5@<5=B0 ?@52@0I0NBAO 2 684:CN <0AAC, :>B>@CN :;>? 2KA0AK205B E>1>B:><. 5;:CN 4>1KGC :;>? C=8GB>605B, =5 <5=OO ?>;>65=8O 70E20B0, 1>;LHCN 65 25@B8B, 2>=70O E>1>B>: 8 ?CA:0O D5@<5=B 2 @07=KE <5AB0E. > ?@8 2A5< AE>4AB25 A?>A>1>2 ?8B0=8O 254CB A51O 15;>AB><K 8 2>4O=K5 A:>@?8>=K A>25@H5==> ?>@07=><C. 54;8B5;L=K9 2>4O=>9 A:>@?8>= G0A0<8 ?>468405B 4>1KGC. 5;>AB><0 65, C28452 240;8 @K1C ?>4E>4OI53> @07<5@0, =5 1C45B <54;8BL. 0725@=C2H8AL 8 =0 A5:C=4C 70<5@52 (>G5284=>, >F5=820O A8BC0F8N), >=0 A@K205BAO A 25B:8 @0AB5=8O 8 AB@5<8B5;L=> =0AB8305B 4>1KGC, AE20BK20O 55 =0 E>4C. 0H8 :;>?K (4065 ?@>2>@=K5 3;04KH 8 ?;02B, C :>B>@KE 3@51CI59 O2;O5BAO 704=OO ?0@0 =>3 8 27<0E 8E >4=>2@5<5==K9) B0: =5 C<5NB. # 15;>AB><K 3@51CB G5BK@5 <>I=KE, >?CH5==KE 65AB:8<8 2>;>A:0<8 =>38, 27<0E8 8E ?>?5@5<5==K, :0: C 6C:02>4>;N10, => A:>@>ABL 42865=8O 2> <=>3> @07 1>;LH5. >340 =>38 84CB 2?5@54, 2>;>A:8 A:;04K20NBAO 8 ?@868<0NBAO : 3>;5=8, :>340 A;54C5B 3@51>: =>38, >=8 2AB0NB 4K1><, ?@52@0I0O =>3C 2 <>I=>5 25A;>. !84O =0 @0AB5=8OE 2 >6840=88 4>1KG8, 15;>AB><0 2KAB02;O5B 87 2>4K :>=G8: 1@NH:0 A 4KE0;LF0<8. >4O=>9 A:>@?8>= 8 @0=0B@0 =0 :>=F5 1@NH:0 8<5NB 4KE0B5;L=K5 B@C1:8, A>AB02;5==K5 87 42CE ?;>B=> A><:=CBKE 65;>1:>2. # 15;>AB><K B>65 5ABL B@C1>G:0, => :>@>B:0O, 87 42CE G5HC5:. 0B> =0 =>30E C =55 B>G=> B0:85 65 8=AB@C<5=BK, :0: C @0=0B@K 8 A:>@?8>=0,- @O4 B5<=KE ?@>4>;L=KE ?OB=KH5:. -B> B>=G09H85 ?@81>@K @02=>25A8O 8 C;02;820=8O 42865=8O 2>4K 8 682KE >@30=87<>2 2 2>45. 0 B>=:>9 <5<1@0=>9 =0E>4OBAO GC2AB28B5;L=K5 :;5B:8 A 2>;>A:0<8; 402;5=85 <5<1@0=K =0 2>;>A:8 A83=0;878@C5B > 3;C18=5, B5G5=88, @0A:0G820=88 AB51;O, =0 :>B>@>< A848B 15;>AB><0. 84@>48=0<8G5A:85 8<?C;LAK >B 682KE >@30=87<>2 G5@57 <5<1@0=K 8=D>@<8@CNB :;>?0: >B:C40, :C40, =0 :0:>< @0AAB>O=88 42865BAO 8 :0:>3> @07<5@0 682>9 8AB>G=8: 2>;=. !>>1@07=> ?>;CG5==>9 8=D>@<0F88 :;>? ;81> 70<8@05B, @0AAB02;OO A2>8 E20B0;:8, ;81> @072>@0G8205BAO 8 1@>A05BAO 2 ?>3>=N, ;81> AB@5<8B5;L=> C48@05B 2 3;C18=C.  A>60;5=8N, <=5 =5 C40;>AL ?@>A;548BL 25AL 687=5==K9 F8:; 15;>AB><, B0: :0: ?>381;0 A0<:0. >A;5 3815;8 O >AB028; 55 =0 ACB:8 2 0:20@8C<5: >G5=L <=>3> C =55 =0 1@NH:5 1K;> ?0AA068@>2, :>B>@KE ?@8 687=8 :;>?0 <=5 =5 C40;>AL @0AA<>B@5BL. "5?5@L 65 A B5;0 A=O;8AL 8 70?;020;8 =58725AB=K5 <=5 ?8O2:8 8 :;5I8:8, B>;L:> =5 ?C=F>2K5, :0: 2 =0H8E 2>4>5<0E, 0 O@:>75;5=K5. > 157 E>7O8=0 MB8 ?0@078BK 1KAB@> ?>381;8. !0<F0 O >B257 2 :;C1 5?BC=, 345 >=, : A>60;5=8N, ?@>68; =54>;3>. "0: O 8 =5 C2845;, :0: @07<=>60NBAO 15;>AB><K.  <564C B5< 745AL 5ABL =5<0;> >@838=0;L=KE >A>15==>AB59. # 15;>AB><K A0<5F =5 B>;L:> >?;>4>B2>@O5B A0<:C, => 8 ?5ABC5B ?>B><AB2>. /9F0 A0<:0 >B:;04K205B& =0 53> A?8=C. >@>9 8E 1>;LH5 A>B=8. ;>?>B5F =>A8B O9F0 >:>;> 42CE =545;L, ?>B>< 2K;C?82H85AO ;8G8=:8 A>A:0:820NB A> A2>59 ?>4286=>9 :>;K15;8.  A2O78 A B0:8< =5>1KG=K< A?>A>1>< @07<=>65=8O C <5=O 2>7=8:05B 1>;LH5 2>?@>A>2, G5< >B25B>2. !:>;L:> 2@5<5=8 A>7@520NB O9F0 2 1@NH:5 A0<:8 ?>A;5 >?;>4>B2>@5=8O? 'B> 2 MB> 2@5<O 45;05B A0<5F, =5 >1@07CNB 65 MB8 :;>?K3830=BK E>BO 1K 2@5<5==CN, => A5<LN? A;8 =5 >1@07CNB, B> :0:><C A0<FC 2>4@C605B =0 A?8=C :;>?8E0 A2>5 ?>B><AB2> - ;N1><C 2AB@5G=><C 8;8 2A5B0:8 A2>5<C? 0:>20, =0:>=5F, B5E=>;>38O >B:;04:8 O8F =0 A?8=C? B25B>2 =0 MB8 2>?@>AK 2 ;8B5@0BC@5 O =5 =0H5;. > @0725 B>;L:> B8=30;;5 87 40;5:8E B@>?8:>2 E@0=OB A2>8 A5:@5BK? 1KG=> ;N18B5;8 0:20@8C<0 =5 70=8<0NBAO 2>4=K<8 =0A5:><K<8.  7@O. 01;N40B5;L 745AL <>65B C2845BL <=>3> 8=B5@5A=>3>. >9 0:20@8C<=K9 AB06 =0G0;AO, :>340 <=5 1K;> 2A53> G5BK@5 3>40. B5F ?@8=5A 2 :C;5G:5 682>9 ?>40@>: - 6C:0?;02C=F0. -K ?><5AB8< 53> 2 B07,- A:070; >=,- 8 C B51O 1C45B 0:20@8C<. &5;K9 45=L A845; O =0 :>@B>G:0E 8 A<>B@5; =0 ?;020NI53> 24>;L AB5=>: 6C:0. #B@>< O ?5@2K< 45;>< ?><G0;AO =0 10;:>=, 345 =0 =>GL >AB0;AO B07. #2K, >= 1K; ?CAB, <>9 ?8B><5F 8AG57.  B>;L:> <=>3> ;5B A?CABO O C7=0;, GB> 2>4=K5 6C:8 8 :;>?K =5 B>;L:> 25;8:>;5?=K5 ?;>2FK, => 8 ?@52>AE>4=K5 ;5BC=K. >B>< 2 <>8E 0:20@8C<0E ?5@51K20;8 A0<K5 @07=K5 >18B0B5;8 ;C6, @K10<8 O AB0; 70=8<0BLAO ?>765. > 8 B5?5@L =5 ?>30A 2> <=5 8=B5@5A : 2>4=K< G;5=8AB>=>38<.  5A;8 <=5 C40ABAO ?@>1C48BL C G8B0B5;59 8=B5@5A : MB8< ACI5AB20<, O 1C4C AG8B0BL, GB> A45;0; ?>;57=>5 45;>. >B ?> ?>25@E=>AB8 2>4K ;53:> =5ACBAO 4;8==>=>385 A5@K5 :>@01;8:8. C :>=5G=>, MB> 2A5< 8725AB=K5 :;>?K2>4><5@:8. 070;>AL 1K, GB> BCB <>65B 1KBL 8=B5@5A=>3>?  ?>G5<C 2>4><5@:0 =5 B>=5B? =0 ;53G5 2>4K? -B> =5 A>2A5< B0:, =>, 4>?CAB8<, GB> ;53G5. 4=0:> 2>4><5@:0 254L =5 ?;0205B ?> ?>25@E=>AB8, 0 H0305B B>=:8<8 =>6:0<8. =0G8B, ?> 2>45 <>6=> E>48BL?! 0: <K 7=05< 87 D878:8, ?>25@E=>ABL 2>4K ?>:@K205B ?;5=:0. # =55 >A>1K5 A2>9AB20, :>B>@K5 8 8A?>;L7CNB :;>?K2>4><5@:8. 7 ?>:>;5=8O 2 ?>:>;5=85 ?5@5<5I0;8AL MB8 =0A5:><K5 A 15@530 =0 ?;020NI85 ;8ABLO, 0 70B5< 8 ?@>AB> =0 2>4C. 0?:8 8E >1@>A;8 2>;>A:0<8I5B8=:0<8, >A>1LN 65;57K 2K@010BK20NB 4;O =8E A<07:C, :>B>@0O >BB0;:8205B G0AB8FK 2>4K. ;03>40@O MB><C ;0?:8 >AB0NBAO ACE8<8, 8 ;53:>5 =0A5:><>5 =5 B>=5B, A;53:0 ?@>402;820O ?;5=:C. >B ?>G5<C 2>4><5@:0 ;53:> 15305B ?> 2>45. > AB>8B ;0?:0< =0<>:=CBL, 8 >=8 1C4CB ?>3@C60BLAO 2 2>4C; ;>2:0O 2>4><5@:0 ?@52@0B8BAO 2 15A?><>I=>5 ACI5AB2>, ?>A?5H8B =0 15@53, GB>1K >1ACH8BL ;0?:8 8 A<070BL 8E 68@><. 0209B5 ?@>25@8< 7=0G5=85 68@>2>9 A<07:8. AB>@>6=> ?>;>68< ?8=F5B>< =0 ?>25@E=>ABL 2>4K 83>;:C. #B>=C;0. "5?5@L A<065< 83;C 68@>< 8 ?@>45;05< 2A5 A=0G0;0. 5 B>=5B.  2>4><5@:0B> ;53G5 83;K! B0:, 2>4><5@:C >1K:=>25==CN 2A5 7=0NB.  ?>?040;0AL ;8 20< 2>4><5@:0 87OI=0O? 5B?  2AB@5G0;8 ;8 2K @>7>2CN 25;8N? ">65 =5B? K G0AB> ?@>E>48< <8<> <=>65AB20 C4828B5;L=KE 25I59, =5 70<5G0O 8E. 5 2 MB>< ;8 ?@8G8=0 >BACBAB28O 8=B5@5A0 : =0A5:><K<. 54L 4065 >1KG=K5 2>4><5@:8 <>3CB @0A:@KBL =01;N40B5;N =5<0;> 8=B5@5A=KE B09=.  2>B 5I5 >48= 2>4O=>9 :;>? - 3;04KH (Notonecta glauca). >60;C9, 53> B>65 7=0NB 2A5 ;N18B5;8 ?@8@>4K. ;04KH ?;0205B =0 A?8=5. > 2A5E :=830E >1 >18B0B5;OE ?@C4>2 >1@0I0NB 2=8<0=85 =0 MB> >1AB>OB5;LAB2>.  5I5 - =0 >:@0A:C. =0 =5 B0:0O, :0: C 4@C38E >18B0B5;59 B>;I8 2>4K: 25@E B5<=K9, =87 A25B;K9. 73;O=8B5 =0 2>4C - A25@EC >=0 B5<=0O, A=87C A5@51@8AB>75@:0;L=0O - 2>B =0A5:><K5 8 <0A:8@CNBAO ?>4 MB>B F25B. # 3;04KH0 2A5 =0>1>@>B - A?8=:0 A25B;0O, 1@NH:> B5<=>5. > MB>B> 8 =5C4828B5;L=>, @07 >= ?;0205B =0 A?8=5. #4828B5;L=> :0: @07 4@C3>5 - ?>G5<C >= ?;0205B =0 A?8=5? 54L 4@C385 :;>?K ?;020NB =>@<0;L=>. G5284=>, 3;04KH8 - A0<K5 ?>4286=K5 8 ;53:> ?5@5;5B0NI85 87 2>4>5<0 2 2>4>5< :;>?K - =5 2A5340 =0E>48;8 4>AB0B>G=> ?8I8 2 2>45 2=>2L >1@07>202H8EAO ;C6. =8 ?@8;5B0;8 2 MB8 ;C68 A;8H:>< @0=>. 'B> >AB020;>AL 8< 45;0BL, G5< ?8B0BLAO?  G5< ?8B0NBAO 2>4><5@:8? A:;NG8B5;L=> B5<8 =0A5:><K<8, :>B>@K5 ?040NB =0 ?>25@E=>ABL 2>4K. , :0: 2848<, MB>9 ?8I8 8< E20B05B - 2>4><5@>: 2 ?@C40E 2A5340 >G5=L <=>3>. ;04KH8 B>65 AB0;8 ?8B0BLAO C?02H8<8 2 2>4C :><0@0<8, <CE0<8, <>H:0<8. > 1@0BL 8E A=87C =0<=>3> B@C4=55, G5< A25@EC, :0: MB> 45;05B 2>4><5@:0. ;04KH8 ?>AB5?5==> ?@8A?>A>18;8AL : =>2K< CA;>28O< >E>BK. !=0G0;0 >=8, =025@=>5, =0CG8;8AL ;>2:> 45;0BL A0;LB><>@B0;5. #284OB 4>1KGC - E>?!- ?5@525@=C;8AL 8 AE20B8;8. >765 :;>?K AB0;8 G0A0<8 ?;020BL =0 A?8=:5, A=0G0;0 =5C:;N65, 0 ?>B>< 87 ?>:>;5=8O 2 ?>:>;5=85 2A5 ;CGH5 8 ;CGH5. "5 3;04KH8, C :>B>@KE A?8=:0 1K;0 >A>15==> B5<=>9, 0 1@NH:> A25B;K<, 1KAB@> ?>3810;8: 8E ;53:> =0E>48;8 E8I=8:8. K6820;8 :;>?K A >:@0A:>9, :>B>@0O =5 >G5=L 2K45;O;0AL =0 D>=5 75@:0;L=>9 ?>25@E=>AB8 8;8 B5<=>3> 4=0. "0: 2 ?@>F5AA5 5AB5AB25==>3> >B1>@0 2K@01>B0;8AL =C6=K5 :0G5AB20. "5?5@L 3;04KH8 - :>=:C@5=BK 2>4><5@>:. =8 >E>BOBAO 2 >4=>9 7>=5 - =0 ?>25@E=>AB8 2>4K. ">;L:> E20B0NB 4>1KGC A @07=KE AB>@>=: 3;04KH A=87C, 2>4><5@:0 A25@EC.  5I5 >4=> @07;8G85: 3;04KH - 68B5;L 2>4K, 0 4;O 2>4><5@:8 A@540 >18B0=8O - 2>74CE. >3> 5I5 <K <>65< 2AB@5B8BL =0 ?>25@E=>AB8 2>4K? >B <0;5=L:89 G5@=K9 6CG>:25@BOG:0 (Aulonogyrus sp.), ?@>720==K9 B0: 70 ?@8AB@0AB85 : :@C3>2K< 42865=8O< =0 2>45. !?8=:0 1;5ABOI0O, =5A<0G8205<0O. CG:8 >1KG=> A:0?;820NBAO AB0O<8 8 <54;5==> :@C60B, => 2A?C3=CBK5, =0G8=0NB AB@5<8B5;L=> =>A8BLAO 2A5 B5<8 65 :@C30<8. >3CB 8 =K@=CBL, 4;O MB>3> 87?>4 65AB:8E =04:@K;89 6CG>: AB@02;8205B 2>74CE 8 A@07C AB0=>28BAO BO65;55 2>4K. =0G8B, ?@> 25@BOG:C =5;L7O A:070BL, GB> >=0 - >18B0B5;L ?>25@E=>AB=>9 ?;5=:8; MB>B 6C: 6825B =5 =0 =59, 0 @07@570O 55: G0ABL B5;0, :0: C :>@01;O, ?>3@C65=0 2 2>4C.  B0:><C >1@07C 687=8 8 ?@8A?>A>18;0AL 25@BOG:0. A5E =0A5:><KE, 2 B>< G8A;5 8 2>4=KE, =07K20NB G;5=8AB>=>38<8, ?>B><C GB> 2A5 >=8 2> 27@>A;>9 D>@<5 >1;040NB G;5=8ABK<8 =>30<8 (;8G8=:8 <>3CB 8E 8 =5 8<5BL). >340B> 25@BOG:8 68;8 =0 ACH5 8 8<5;8 B0:85 =>38. > ?5@51@02H8AL 2 2>4C, ?>AB5?5==> 8E CB@0B8;8 (0 ;8G8=:8 ?>?@56=5<C 8<5NB G;5=8ABK5 =>6:8). # 27@>A;KE 6C:>2 425 704=85 ?0@K =>3 ?@52@0B8;8AL 2 ?@52>AE>4=K5 25A;0, G;5=8:8 87<5=8;8AL, AB0;8 ?;0AB8=:0<8. !602 ?;0AB8=:8 8 2>;>A:8 =0 =8E, 6C: 70=>A8B =>3C 2?5@54, 0 :>340 3@515B - ?;0AB8=:8 8 2>;>A:8 @0A:@K20NBAO. >;CG05BAO <>I=>5 H8@>:>5 25A;>. ">;L:> MB>3> A 15@530 C65 =5 C2848HL, =01;N40BL =04> 2 0:20@8C<5. > 687=L 25@BOG:8 2A5B0:8 =0?@O<CN A2O70=0 8<5==> A ?>25@E=>ABLN 2>4K - ?8B05BAO 6CG>: 2 >A=>2=>< ?040NI8<8 =0 2>4C =0A5:><K<8. 5 ?@>?CAB8B >= 4>1KGC 8 2 2>45. 0: 65 >= 2848B 8 =04 2>4>9, 8 2 2>45, 5A;8 2 MB8E A@540E ?@5;><;5=85 A25B>2KE ;CG59 @07=>5? =0G8B, =C6=0 @07;8G=0O D>:CA8@>2:0 >@30=>2 7@5=8O? @8@>40 2KH;0 87 MB>3> ?>;>65=8O, A=01482 25@BOG:C& G5BK@L<O 3;070<8. 064K9 3;07 @0745;5= 3>@87>=B0;L=>9 ?5@53>@>4:>9 :0: @07 =0 C@>2=5 ?>25@E=>AB8. 86=OO A<>B@8B 2=87, 25@E=OO - 225@E. 15 ?>;>28=:8 2K?C:;K5, B0: GB> 8 2=87C, 8 225@EC ?>;CG05BAO >17>@.  :>@>B:85 CA8:8 6CG:0 =0?@O<CN A2O70=K C65 A ?>25@E=>AB=>9 ?;5=:>9, >=8 =5 ?@>BK:0NB 55, 0 ;560B :>=G8:0<8 =0 =59. >340 =0A5:><K5 - :><0@, <CE0, ?>45=:0 - ?040NB =0 2>4C, >B 8E 10@0EB0=LO ?> ?>25@E=>AB=>9 ?;5=:5 153CB C40@=K5 2>;=K. EB> 8 C;02;820NB CA8:8 25@BOG:8.  > 4>1KG5 ?@54C?@5640NB, 8 >1 >?0A=>AB8: ?> <>I=>AB8 2>;= 6C: >?@545;O5B @07<5@K B>3>, :B> 8E ?@>872>48B. 5@BOG:8 ;N1OB B8E85 702>48, => <>3CB AB@5<8B5;L=> =>A8BLAO 8 ?> 3>@=K< ?>B>:0<. >4><5@:C B@C4=> ?>A5;8BL 2 0:20@8C<5, 0 25@BOG:8 682CB 2 1>;LH>< :><=0B=>< 2>4>5<5 ?> <=>3C <5AOF52. ">;L:> =04> 0:20@8C< 70:@K20BL, 254L MB> <0;5=L:>5 G5@=>5 1;5ABOI55 ACI5AB2> 25;8:>;5?=> ;5B05B. 07 =0A5;5=0 =0@C6=0O AB>@>=0 ?>25@E=>AB=>9 ?;5=:8, =04> ?>;030BL, GB> 8 B0, =86=OO, B>65 =5 157 68;LF>2. 48= 87 =8E, :0: O C65 A:070;, :;>?3;04KH. 0209B5 ?@8A<>B@8<AO : ?>25@E=>AB8 2>4K, :>340 87 3;C18=K : =59 ?>4?;K; 3;04KH. >?KB05<AO A=87C 8 A1>:C ?>A<>B@5BL =0 B> <5AB>, 345, @0AAB0282 704=85 =>3825A;0, 70ABK; MB>B :;>?. A;8 =0< ?>2575B A >A25I5=85<, <K C2848< 2 MB>< <5AB5 ?OBL 1C3>@:>2. 48= 87 =8E - 87381 ?>25@E=>AB=>9 ?;5=:8 2>:@C3 4KE0;5F :;>?0: >=8 C =53> =0 :>=F5 1@NH:0 8, 5AB5AB25==>, ?@>@K20NB ?>25@E=>AB=CN ?;5=:C 2 2>74CH=CN A@54C.  G5BK@5 >48=0:>2KE 1C3>@:0 - MB> G5BK@5 =>38, C?5@H85AO 8 ?@>3=C2H85 (=> =5 ?@>@202H85!) ?;5=:C. ;>? =5 ?@>AB> C?8@05BAO 8<8, >= A;CH05B. 0 :>=F0E MB8E =>3 - I5B>G:8, A?>A>1=K5 C;>28BL :>;510=8O =0 ?>25@E=>AB8, ?@>872>48<K5 C?02H8<8 2 2>4C =0A5:><K<8. #;>28;, @0725@=C;AO 2 =C6=>< =0?@02;5=88, >?@545;8; =>30<8 @07<5@ 8AB>G=8:0 :>;510=8O 8 - ;81> 2?5@54, =0 >E>BC, ;81> 2 3;C18=C.  5I5 >48= 68B5;L ?>25@E=>AB=>9 ?;5=:8 - >?OBL 65 A =86=59 AB>@>=K - ;8G8=:0 2>4=>3> :;>?0 @0=0B@K (Ranatra sp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epa sp.): >= 2AB@5G05BAO 2AN4C 2 AB>OG59 2>45. =5H=5 MB8 :;>?K =5?>E>68: A:>@?8>= - H8@>:89 8 ?;>A:89; >= 6825B =5 A@548 :0<KH59, 0 2 B8=5, ?>MB><C 8 >:@0A:0 53> 3@O7=>1C@0O, ?>4 F25B B8=K. >46840O 4>1KGC, >= B>65 A848B G0A0<8, H8@>:> @0AAB0282 ?5@54=NN ?0@C =>3, >G5=L ?>E>6CN =0 :;5H=8 =0AB>OI53> A:>@?8>=0. !E>4AB2> 4>102;O5B 8 E2>AB - 4;8==0O B@C1:04KE0;LF5. =0 A>AB>8B 87 42CE ?>;>28=, ?>:@KBKE 87=CB@8 =5=0<>:0NI8<8 2>;>A:0<8. 0: 8 @0=0B@0, 2>4O=>9 A:>@?8>= 2KA>2K205B 55 87 2>4K 8 4KH8B. >=5G=>, 2A5 MB8 :;>?K 2@54=K 2 0:20@8C<0E A @K1:0<8. 0B> A>2A5< 1572@545= <0;5=L:89 ?@>2>@=K9 :;>?3@51;O:, 8;8 :>@8:A0 (Sigara sp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ytiscus marginalis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ybister laterimarginalis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alaemon superbus 8 Leander modestus - =0CG=K5 =0720=8O 42CE 284>2 :@525B>:. -B8 E@C?:85 ACI5AB20 >B40;5==> =0?><8=0NB @5G=>3> @0:0. =8 >B=>AOBAO : @0:>>1@07=K<, B>G=55, : 45AOB8=>38< @0:0<. =>3> :@525B>: 2AB@5G05BAO 2 <>@OE, ?@5A=>2>4=K5 65 - 1>;LH0O @54:>ABL. # =0A 2 AB@0=5 >=8 >18B0NB 2 >75@5 %0=:0 =0 0;L=5< >AB>:5. 0209B5 =0;>28< :@525B>: 8 ?>=01;N405< 70 =8<8 2 0:20@8C<5, 254L >=8 - ?@570=OB=K5 ACI5AB20. > ?@5420@8B5;L=> =04> 1@>A8BL 2 :0==C 425B@8 B@028=:8 - :@525B:8 1>;LH85 =565=:8, >=8 A>2A5< =5 2K=>AOB :0G:8, 8< =04> >1O70B5;L=> 70 GB>B> 45@60BLAO. &  B5?5@L ?@54AB02LB5 A515 3CAB> 70@>AH89 @0AB5=8O<8 0:20@8C< A :@8AB0;L=>?@>7@0G=>9 2>4>9. @0A=K5, 65;BK5, 75;5=K5, G5@=K5 @K1:8 A=CNB AB09:0<8 8 2 >48=>G:C. 4=8 87 =8E 3>=ONBAO 4@C3 70 4@C3><, 4@C385 45;>28B> GB>B> 8ICB =0 4=5, B@5BL8 I8?;NB 75;5=K5 2>4>@>A;8, :>B>@K<8 >1@>A;8 AB0@K5 ;8ABLO @0AB5=89.  24@C3 87?>4 ;8AB0 ?>O2;O5BAO B>=:0O ACAB02G0B0O @C:0, A@K205B ?CG>: 2>4>@>A;59 8 8AG5705B. 'B> MB>? ?@>G5<, =5B, >G5284=>, ?>:070;>AL. >B 8 @K1K 4065 =5 70<5B8;8 MB>9 @C:8 8 70=OBK A2>8<8 45;0<8. > BCB 65 AB09:0 1@>A05BAO 2 AB>@>=C. 7?>4 ;8AB0 2K?>;705B :@525B:0 8 =0G8=05B 45;>28B> @20BL 2>4>@>A;8 B>=:8<8 @C:0<8:;5H=O<8. 25B 8 70?8E8205B ?CG:8 2 @>B. "5<=K5 3;07:8 =0 B>=:8E =8BOE A<>B@OB 2> 2A5 AB>@>=K, 4;8==K5 CAK @072520NBAO, A;>2=> ?KH=K5 7=0<5=0. :CA=>. > <0;>. 4=8<8 2>4>@>A;O<8 AKB =5 1C45HL& @525B:0 70<8@05B, 70ABK20NB CAK. K1:8 CA?>:0820NBAO, ?>4?;K20NB 1;865; 5I5 1;865& )5;:! >;=85=>A=K9 1@>A>: :;5H=59, @20=C;0AL :@>E>B=0O @K15H:0, <5B=C;0AL 2 AB>@>=C 2AO AB09:0. 5B, =5 C45@60BL B0:CN 4>1KGC! @525B:0 ?>4?@K38205B 8 >:07K205BAO 2 B>;I5 2>4K. 0AA<>B@8< 55 2=8<0B5;L=>. 5@54=OO G0ABL B5;0 :@525B:8 70:;NG5=0 2 ?0=F8@L. > >= A>2A5< ?@>7@0G5=, 8 E>@>H> 284=>, :0: 2=CB@8 42865BAO ?8I0, :0: A>7@5205B 8:@0. -B> 3>;>2>3@C4L. >;>20 A?5@548 C:@0H5=0 @07=>>1@07=K<8 H8?0<8 (?> 8E D>@<5 @07;8G0NB 284K :@525B>:). 25 ?0@K CA>2, ?@8G5< >4=0 >G5=L 4;8==0O.  ?>4 MB>9 ?0@>9 - :@>E>B=K5 =>3>G5;NAB8, 8<8 :@525B:0 45@68B ?8IC, A>2A5< :0: G5;>25: @C:0<8. # :@525B:8 45AOBL G;5=8ABKE =>65:. =8 B>65 @0ABCB >B 3>;>2>3@C48, ?@8G5< ?5@54=OO ?0@0 ?@52@0I5=0 2 >@30= E20B0=8O - :;5H=8. # ?0;5<>=>2 :;5H=8 4>2>;L=> A8;L=K, MB0 :@525B:0 =5 2K?CAB8B @K1:C 8 2 34 A0=B8<5B@0; C ;50=4@0 :;5H=8 A;0155. B 3>;>2>3@C48 845B A>AB>OI55 87 :>;5F 1@NH:>, =0 =86=59 AB>@>=5 :>B>@>3> 8<5NBAO <0;5=L:85 =>6:8. !:>;L:> :>;5F - AB>;L:> ?0@ =>65:.  ?>A;54=OO ?0@0 - 4065 42>9=0O: G5BK@5 ?;>A:85 ?;0AB8=:8. 0G5< :@525B:5 AB>;L:> =>3? 0209B5 ?>=01;N405<. 0H0 :@525B:0 ?>?;K;0. >6:8 3>;>2>3@C48 >=0 A;>68;0 (>=8 <>3CB >AB0BLAO 8 @0AB>?K@5==K<8). 2868B5;5< A;C60B =>6:8 1@NH:0, 8;8, :0: CG5=K5 =07K20NB MBC G0ABL B5;0, 014><5=0. @C6=> 3@51CB 25A;0, 8 :@525B:0 ;8E> <G8BAO 2?5@54. 5>6840==> =0;5B05B =0 =5>AB>@>6=CN @K1C. 07! 0A?CAB8;8AL 255@>< ?;0AB8=:8 =0 :>=F5 014><5=0, 8, C40@82 MB8< 25A;><, :@525B:0 2<83 >BA:>G8;0 =0704 - =0 @0AAB>O=85 2030 A0=B8<5B@>2 >B <5AB0 >?0A=>9 2AB@5G8. > 2>B >=0 A5;0 =0 4=>, ?>E>48;0 =0 G5BK@5E ?0@0E =>3, A<5H=> ?>4=8<0O :064CN 87 =8E.  ?5@20O ?0@0 - :;5H=8 - @0A:@KB0 8 =0?@02;5=0 2?5@54 =0 2AO:89 A;CG09: 24@C3 ?>?045BAO GB>=81C4L 2:CA=>5! ;8 2@03 ?>O28BAO - ?@845BAO 70I8I0BLAO. @525B:0 >AB0=>28;0AL C :0<=O. 'B> >=0 70<5B8;0? 0: 1C4B> =8G53>. > CAK ;8E>@04>G=> H0@OB ?> :0<=N, >:>;> =53>. 0H525;8;8AL 8 :;5H=8, >=8 B>65 IC?0NB 2A5 2>:@C3, >4=0 87 =8E ;575B ?>4 :0<5=L - 2A5 3;C165, 3;C165. @525B:0 AB0=>28BAO =0 :>;5=8, 70AC=CB0O ?> ?;5G> :;5H=O H0@8B, 8I5B ?>4 :0<=5<. > 2>B :@525B:0 70<5@;0, =0?@O3;0AL, C?5@;0AL 2A5<8 =>6:0<8. >BO=C;0 :;5H=N >1@0B=>. "O65;> 845B. I5 ?>4=0BC68;0AL, 5I5 =5<=>3>.  87?>4 :0<=O ?>:07K205BAO :>=5F :;5H=8, :@5?:> 70602H89 872820NICNAO ;8G8=:C E8@>=><CA0. "5?5@L <>6=> A5ABL =0 25B:C @0AB5=8O 8 ?>5ABL. @0240, ;8G8=:0 8728205BAO, => =0 B> C :@525B:8 8 =>3>G5;NAB8, GB>1K :@5?:> 45@60BL 4>1KGC. ?5@2K5 :@525B:8 1K;8 4>AB02;5=K 682K<8 2 >A:2C 2 1947 3>4C. =0G0;5 8E CA?5H=> A>45@60; ../.8H0@52, 70B5< >=8 ?>O28;8AL 2 0:20@8C<0E ?@>D5AA>@0 ..5@18;LA:>3> 2 8EB8>;>38G5A:>9 ;01>@0B>@88 #. KOA=8;>AL, GB> :@525B:8 =5 B>;L:> E>@>H> ?@86820NBAO, => 8 @07<=>60NBAO 2 8A:CAAB25==KE CA;>28OE. 5;:85 ?@>7@0G=K5 O9F0 A0<:0 4>;3> =>A8B =0 =>6:0E 014><5=0. #E06820O 70 :064K< O9F><, >=0 BI0B5;L=> >G8I05B 8E 4;8==K<8 =>3>G5;NABO<8, =0 :>=F5 :>B>@KE 8<5NBAO A?5F80;L=K5 I5B>G:8. '5@57 23 =545;8 2K;C?;ONBAO <>;>4K5 :@525B:8. !=0G0;0 >=8 B>65 45@60BAO =0 =>6:0E 014><5=0 A0<:8, 0 70B5< =0G8=0NB A0<>AB>OB5;L=K5 ?CB5H5AB28O, A<5H=> ?;020O 2 25@B8:0;L=>< ?>;>65=88 2=87 3>;>2>9. K C65 2845;8, :0: :@525B:0 >BA:0:8205B =0704 ?@8 =565;0B5;L=>9 2AB@5G5 8;8 8A?C35. =>5 45;> - A0<:0 A ?>B><AB2><. 9 BO65;> >BA:0:820BL 8 ?@8E>48BAO 70I8I0BLAO. #A0B>5 ?@>7@0G=>5 ACI5AB2> ?@>BO38205B 2?5@54 B>=:85 =56=K5 :;5H=8 8 A28@5?> I5;:05B 8<8. @525B:8 >G5=L ?>;57=K 2 0:20@8C<0E - >=8 A>18@0NB A> 4=0 8 87 C3;>2 2A5 >AB0B:8 :>@<>2. 56=>3> ;50=4@0 <>6=> A>45@60BL A =51>;LH8<8 @K1:0<8. >;55 03@5AA82=><C ?0;5<>=C ?>4E>48B :><?0=8O @K1 4;8=>9 510 A0=B8<5B@>2. > 25@=5<AO : =0H59 :@525B:5. =0 C65 @0A?@028;0AL A ;8G8=:>9 E8@>=><CA0, A>1@0;0 2A5 :@>H:8. 0AB0;> 2@5<O 4;O BC0;5B0: ?>42>4=0O :@0A028F0 BI0B5;L=> G8AB8B I5B>G:0<8 3;070, CA8:8, A?8=:C, :064CN =>6:C.  284 C =55 25AL<0 45;>28BK9, A5@L57=K9 8 2 B> 65 2@5<O 70102=K9. 5 <5=55 8=B5@5A=> =01;N40BL G8AB:C O8F, ;8=L:C 8 4@C385 <><5=BK 55 687=8. 0;L=52>AB>G=KE :@525B>: <>6=> :C?8BL 2 1>;LH8E 3>@>40E. 1KG=> MB> ?0;5<>= - :@525B:0, >?0A=0O 4;O <5;:8E @K1. 0;5<>=K <>3CB @07<=>60BLAO 2 0:20@8C<0E, => 2 MB>< A;CG05 A0<:C, =5ACICN O9F0, =04> >BA048BL 2 >B45;L=K9 2>4>5<, 0 ?>A;5 2KE>40 87 O8F ;8G8=>: - C40;8BL. 8G8=:8 ?5@2>5 2@5<O A:0?;820NBAO >:>;> 8AB>G=8:0 A25B0, ?;020NB 2 B>;I5 2>4K 8 ?8B0NBAO <5;LG09H8< ?;0=:B>=><. >A;5 ;8=L:8 >=8 >?CA:0NBAO =0 4=> 8 2A:>@5 ?@52@0I0NBAO 2 :@>E>B=KE ?@>7@0G=KE :@525B>:. 04> 70<5B8BL, GB> ;N18B5;59 ?@5A=>2>4=>3> 0:20@8C<0 4>;3>5 2@5<O =5 8=B5@5A>20;8 @0:>>1@07=K5. > 2 ?>A;54=55 2@5<O A8BC0F8O AB0;0 <5=OBLAO.  =0HC AB@0=C =5 @07 702>78;8 :@0A=>:>@8G=52KE 4>2>;L=> :@C?=KE (4;8=0 B5;0 4> 12 A0=B8<5B@>2) :@525B>: A C1K.  2 2@>?5 24@C3 >1=0@C68;8 A2>N A>1AB25==CN :@525B:C - Atyaephyra desmaresti.  ?@>H;>< 0B8MD8@0 1K;0 >18B0B5;5< !@54875<=>3> <>@O 21;878 CABL52 @5:. >AB5?5==> MB8 :@525B:8 ?@>42830;8AL >B CABL52, ?5@8>48G5A:8 70;8205<KE 2 ?@8;82K, 225@E ?> @CA;0<, ?>:0 =5 2>7=8:;8 G8AB> ?@5A=>2>4=K5 ?>?C;OF88. !53>4=O MB8 =51>;LH85 :@525B:8 >A2>8;8 @5:8 !525@=>9 D@8:8 8 N30 2@>?K 8 ?@>42830NBAO 2A5 40;LH5 =0 A525@.  1932 3>4C 8E 2?5@2K5 >1=0@C68;8 2 @5:0E 5@<0=88.  A53>4=O >=8 2AB@5G0NBAO 2 @5:0E 5;L388 8 >;;0=488 8 4065 ?5@51@0;8AL - C65 ?@8 CG0AB88 G5;>25:0 - 2 ;N18B5;LA:85 0:20@8C<K. @>42865=85 0B8MD8@ 2 @5:8 87 <>@A:8E 2>4 =02>48B =0 <KA;L, GB> 8 2 CABLOE =5:>B>@KE =0H8E @5: <>3CB 2AB@5B8BLAO ?>4>1=K5 ?5@5A5;5=FK, =0?@8<5@ 2 40;L=52>AB>G=>< @8<>@L5.  0:20@8C<0E 2A5 G0I5 ?>O2;ONBAO 8 B@>?8G5A:85 @0:>>1@07=K5. >B, =0?@8<5@, <0;09A:0O :@525B:0 0B8>?A8A (Atyopsis moluccensis) 4;8=>9 812 A0=B8<5B@>2. =0 :@0A82> >:@0H5=0: 1>:0 ?5A>G=>:>@8G=52K5, ?5AB@K5 8770 <=>3>G8A;5==KE ?@>4>;L=KE 1>;55 B5<=KE :>@8G=52KE ?>;>A, A?8=:0 O@:>65;B0O.  0:20@8C<0E 2AB@5G0NBAO <5;:85 8 87OI=K5 :0@848=K (Caridina serrata) A 65;BK<8 1>:0<8 8 :8@?8G=>:@0A=>9 A?8=:>9. 4=> 2@5<O ?>;030;8, GB>, >18B0O 2 ?@5A=>9 2>45, >=8 4;O @07<=>65=8O <83@8@CNB 2 CABLO, 2 <>@A:CN 2>4C. 0: =5402=> CAB0=>28; 3>;;0=4A:89 18>;>3 ."><59, 25AL F8:; 687=8 MB8E :@525B>: ?@>E>48B 2 ?@5A=>9 2>45. >;3>5 2@5<O <=5 =5 C4020;>AL 8E ?>9<0BL,- ?8H5B "><59.- =5< 8E B@C4=> 70<5B8BL A@548 :>@=59, @0AB5=89 8 :0<=59. > 8 70<5B8HL=5 ?>9<05HL. 0 AB@5<8B5;L=>< B5G5=88 @5:8 :@525B:8 <>;=85=>A=> 8AG570;8 87 ?>;O 7@5=8O. >8 A?CB=8:8 - <5AB=K5 68B5;8 - ?>A>25B>20;8 ;>28BL =>GLN.  2 A0<>< 45;5, :0: B>;L:> O =0?@028; A 15@530 ;CG D>=0@O 2 2>4C, <=5 1@>A8;8AL 2 3;070 ?0@=K5 D>=0@8:8 =02AB@5GC - B0: @5D;5:B8@>20;8 8E 3;070. AB020;>AL =5 40BL >?><=8BLAO >H5;><;5==K< :@525B:0< 8 27<0E=CBL A0G:><.  A>45@60=88 <0;09A:8E :@525B>: 5ABL >?@545;5==K5 B@C4=>AB8: >=8 - >18B0B5;8 AB@5<=8= 8 =C640NBAO 2 E>@>H> 0M@8@C5<>9 2>45.  B><C 65 682>B=K5 MB8 =>G=K5, 8 8E 4=5< ?>@>9 8 =5 >BKI5HL, >=8 ?@OGCBAO. > 70B> >=8, ?8B0OAL 2>4>@>A;O<8, ?>445@6820NB 8450;L=CN G8AB>BC 2 0:20@8C<5.  80E 3>40E 2 =0H8E ;N18B5;LA:8E 0:20@8C<0E ?>O28;8AL ?@5A=>2>4=K5 @0:8?@>:0<10@CAK - :C18=A:85 3>;C1K5 (Procambarus kubensis). 8 D;>@84A:85 :@0A=K5 (( . clarkii). ;8=0 B5;0 1020 A0=B8<5B@>2. @>:0<10@CA>2 CA?5H=> @072>4OB 2 0:20@8C<0E, 8E <>6=> A>45@60BL 2<5AB5 A @K10<8. =8 54OB 2A5, G5< ;N18B5;L :>@<8B A2>8E @K1. > ?>@>9 70=8<0NBAO 8 @071>5< - >1J540NB <>;>4K5 ;8ABLO C 2>4=KE @0AB5=89. # @0:>2 ACI5AB2C5B @0745; B5@@8B>@89, 8770 G53> <564C =8<8 <>3CB 2>7=8:0BL ABKG:8. >MB><C 65;0B5;L=> CAB@>8BL 4;O =8E C:@KB8O 87 :>@O3 8 :0<=59. 02>78;8 2 =0H8 0:20@8C<K 8 B@>?8G5A:8E ?@5A=>2>4=KE :@01>2, ?@0240, ?>:0 0::;8<0B878@>20BL 8E =5 C40;>AL.  2>B G5@=><>@A:89 :@01 87 >?@5A=5==KE ;8<0=>2 C ;N18B5;59 ?@868;AO. $8B@>?0=>? (Phitropanopeus harrisi tridentata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mpullaria gigas). >48BAO >=0 2 @09>=5 <07>=:8. #;8B:0 8<55B B5<=>A8=NN =>3C, CAK?0==CN 7>;>B8ABK<8 ?OB=0<8. @8 H8@8=5 34 A0=B8<5B@0 >=0 <>65B 2KBO3820BLAO 4> 1012 A0=B8<5B@>2. >;LH85 IC?0;LF0 4>AB830NB 4;8=K 12 A0=B8<5B@>2. 'B>1K =01@0BL 2>74CE0, C;8B:8 <>3CB 2AB020BL =0 4K1K, 70:@5?82H8AL =0 4=5 >4=>9 B@5BLN =>38. E 2>74CE>?@>2>4 2KBO38205BAO =0 1220 A0=B8<5B@>2. 0:B> <=5 ?@8H;>AL =01;N40BL 4@0:C 42CE 0<?C;O@89. !0<:0 1KAB@> ?>;7;0 ?@>GL, 0 A0<5F 4>3>=O; 55. = ?@8?>4=8<0; ?5@54=NN G0ABL =>38, ?KB0OAL ?@8F5?8BLAO : @0:>28=5 ?>4@C38. -B> 4>2>;L=> B@C4=> A45;0BL =0 E>4C, => 8=>340 5<C C4020;>AL 2?>;7B8 B0:8< >1@07>< =0 55 @0:>28=C. >7<CI5==0O =5?@>H5=K< ?0AA068@><, A0<:0 >AB0=02;820;0AL 8 A A8;>9 C40@O;0 A2>59 @0:>28=>9 ?> 4=C. 07>9;82K9 :020;5@ BCB 65 >1@CH820;AO 2 >1;0:> <CB8. 0B5< 2A5 ?>2B>@O;>AL A=0G0;0. >7<>6=>, MB> 1K;8 1@0G=K5 83@K C;8B>:, => > B0:>< O2;5=88 O =8345 =5 G8B0;. A:>@5 A0<:0 >B;>68;0 1>@4>2CN 3@>74L :@C?=KE, :0: =51>;LH85 :;N:>2:8, O8F. > ?>B><AB20 ?>;CG8BL =5 C40;>AL.  2 A;54CNI89 @07 =5 C40;>AL ?>;CG8BL 4065 O9F0. 830=BA:85 0<?C;O@88 ?@>68;8 C <5=O <5=LH5 3>40. >381;8 >=8 8 C >AA0 !>:>;>DD0. 848<>, :0:8EB> 8E ?>B@51=>AB59 <K 5I5 =5 7=05<, G5<B> CA;>28O =0H8E 0:20@8C<>2 8E =5 CAB@0820NB. >74=55 >B A?5F80;8AB0 ?> <>;;NA:0< 2 5@;8=5 O ?>;CG8; ?>AK;:C A 4@C38< 284>< 0<?C;O@88 - A. australis (australis - ?>;0BK=8 N6=0O, 0 >B=N4L =5 02AB@0;89A:0O). -B8 C;8B:8 1K;8 87 0@0=K. E @0:>28=K 25;8G8=>9 A =51>;LH>5 O1;>:> (=5<FK 7>2CB MB8E C;8B>: Apfelschnecken - O1;>G=0O), 0 =>30 B5<=>A5@0O A A8=52>9. >4>1=> 3830=BA:>9 0<?C;O@88, O1;>G=K5 B>65 2A5 2@5<O 5;8 - 8 E;51, 8 <OA>, 8 <>BK;O (4065 682>3>), 8 ACECN 40D=8N.  3;02=>5, 15760;>AB=> ?>68@0;8 2AN 2>4=CN @0AB8B5;L=>ABL - 2 0:20@8C<5 >AB0;0AL ?@>AB> ?CABK=O, A;>2=> 1C;L4>75@ ?@>H5;. -B8E 0<?C;O@89 C40;>AL CA?5H=> @0725AB8, 8 O I54@> @074020; 8E 7=0:><K<. > 2>B GB> AB@0==>: @01>B05HL A :0:8<=81C4L >1J5:B><, >B@01>B05HL 2A5, GB> =0<5G0;, @072545HL, @0740HL, ?5@5E>48HL : 4@C3><C.  :>340 70E>G5HL 25@=CBLAO : ?@56=5<C - 53> C65 8 =5B& >=04>18;8AL <=5 A=>20 0<?C;O@88, :8=C;AO :> 2A5<, :><C 4020;, 0 C;8B>: 8 A;54 ?@>ABK;. # >4=8E ?>381;8, 4@C385 ?>B5@O;8 : =8< 8=B5@5A, B@5BL8 =5 2K=5A;8 8E ?@8AB@0AB8O : @0AB5=8O<. >B ?>G5<C O >1@04>20;AO, :>340 C7=0;, GB> <>A:28G .!.><0@>2 ?@8257 0<?C;O@89 87 @038. K;> MB> 2 1968 3>4C. 0;5=B8= !5@35528G, :>=5G=>, A=0148; <5=O C;8B:0<8 >B ?5@2>3> 65 @072>40. > MB> 1K;8 C65 A>2A5< 4@C385 0<?C;O@88: >=8 ?@54?>G8B0;8 =87H85 2>4>@>A;8 8 682>B=K5 :>@<0 (<>BK;L, B@C1>G=8:, <OA>). @8 B0:>< :>@<;5=88 0:20@8C<=K5 @0AB5=8O >=8 =5 B@>30;8 8 8E <>6=> 1K;> A>45@60BL 2 >1KG=KE 0:20@8C<0E. B MB8E C;8B>: 8 ?>H;8 2A5 0<?C;O@88, :>B>@KE <K 8<55< A53>4=O 2 =0H8E 0:20@8C<0E,- 8 8AE>4=0O A5@0O D>@<0 (Ampullaria sp.), 8 A5;5:F8>==K5 @07=>284=>AB8 A 65;B>9, 7>;>B8AB>9 =>3>9 8 A25B;>9 @0:>28=>9.  ?>AK;:5 87 5@;8=0 >:070;0AL 8 5I5 >4=0 B@>?8G5A:0O C;8B:0 - <5;0=8O (Melanoides tuberculata) 87 2>4>5<>2 .3>>AB>G=>9 788. # <5;0=88 A8;L=> 2KBO=CB0O :>=CA>>1@07=0O @0:>28=0 2KA>B>9 4> 3,3 A0=B8<5B@0, 5ABL :@KH5G:0, :>B>@>9 C;8B:0 70<K:05B 87=CB@8 2E>4 2 A2>9 4><. KH8B MB0 C;8B:0 601@0<8, ?8B05BAO @07=K<8 3=8NI8<8 G0ABO<8 @0AB5=89, 74>@>2K5 @0AB5=8O =5 ?>@B8B. 5;0=88 @>640NB 682KE 45B5=KH59. > C2845BL MB>B ?@>F5AA B@C4=>- C;8B:8 682CB 2 3@C=B5.  2 MB>< 8E F5==>ABL: ?>4>1=> 4>6452K< G5@2O< 2 ?>G25, >=8 =5CAB0==> @KE;OB 3@C=B, ?@>1820NB 2 =5< A2>8 ?CB8, 2K540O 2A5, GB> 3=85B.  ?> :0=0;0<, :>B>@K5 >AB0NBAO >B C;8B>: 2 3@C=B5, : :>@=O< @0AB5=88 ?>ABC?05B A2560O 2>40. > MB8< ?>;L70 >B <5;0=89 =5 >3@0=8G8205BAO. 1KG=> 8E B@C4=> 70<5B8BL: 8=>340 C2848HL >4=C425 =0 3@C=B5 8;8 24@C3 <5;:85 :0<5H:8 =0G=CB H525;8BLAO >B 8E ?@>42865=8O. 0B>, 5A;8 ?@845BAO ?5@5<K20BL 3@C=B, ?>@0605HLAO, A:>;L:> 65 8E B0< - 8 1>;LH8E, 8 A>2A5< :@>H5G=KE. #;8B:8 A:@K20NBAO 2 ?5A:5 B>;L:> 2 74>@>2><, =>@<0;L=> DC=:F8>=8@CNI5< 0:20@8C<5. 0: B>;L:> 2 0:20@8C<=>9 A@545 GB>B> =0@CH05BAO, <5;0=89 4@C6=> ?>:840NB 3@C=B 8 A>B=O<8 2K?>;70NB =0 AB5=:8. -B> A83=0; 4;O 0:20@8C<8AB0 - =04> A@>G=> 2<5H0BLAO, 2>AAB0=>28BL =>@<0;L=CN 687=L 2 2>4>5<5, ?@5645 2A53> 70<5=8BL 2>4C, >A=>20B5;L=> ?>G8AB8BL 3@C=B. =0;>38 B@>?8G5A:8E 0<?C;O@89 8 <5;0=88 >18B0NB C =0A 2 10AA59=5 <C@0. 0:>28=0 CAAC@89A:>9 682>@>4:8 (Cipangopaludina ussuriensis) B>65 A> A@54=55 O1;>:> - 2KA>B0 55 4> 5 A0=B8<5B@>2. 0 3>;>25 C;8B:8 A8;L=> 2K405BAO <O3:89 E>1>B>:, =0 =5< =0E>48BAO @>B A 7C1G8:0<8B5@:0<8. )C?0;LF0 4;8==K5, C 8E >A=>20=8O =0E>4OBAO 3;070, =>30 2KBO38205BAO =0 1012 A0=B8<5B@>2; =0 25@E=59 AB>@>=5 =>38 8<55BAO :@KH:0, :>B>@>9 C;8B:0 70:@K205B @0:>28=C. 82>@>4:0 4KH8B 601@0<8. 0: OA=> 87 =0720=8O, >=0 @>605B 682KE C;8B>G5:. # A0<F0 ?@02>5 IC?0;LF5 C:>@>G5=> - MB> >@30= :>?C;OF88. !0<:0 @>605B ?>AB5?5==>, E>BO >?;>4>B2>@5==KE O8F C =55 =0AG8BK205BAO 58 45AOB:>2. 4=064K O ?>;CG8; 0280?>AK;:C A MB8<8 C;8B:0<8, ?> ?CB8 >4=0 87 =8E ?@>8725;0 =0 A25B ?>B><AB2>. 0:>28=K <>;>4KE C;8B>G5: >G5=L :@0A82K - O=B0@=K5 A =5A:>;L:8<8 :>@8G=52K<8 ?>;>A0<8 (?@8 @>645=88 >=8 ?>:@KBK I5B8=:0<8 8 A;87LN). #AAC@89A:85 682>@>4:8 E>@>H> 682CB 2 0:20@8C<0E, ?8B0NBAO >@30=8G5A:8<8 >AB0B:0<8, ?040NI8<8 =0 3@C=B, <>3CB 70@K20BLAO 2 =53>. # MB>9 C;8B:8 5ABL >48= 1>;LH>9 =54>AB0B>:: 5A;8 0<?C;O@88 ?@8 42865=88 ?> 3@C=BC ;53:> >3810NB C:>@5=82H85AO @0AB5=8O, CAAC@89A:0O 682>@>4:0 AG8B05B MB> =865 A2>53> 4>AB>8=AB20 - >=0 845B =0?@>;><, B> 8 45;> ?>4@K20O @0AB5=8O. #AAC@89A:0O 682>@>4:0 2AB@5G05BAO B>;L:> =0 0;L=5< >AB>:5.  5I5 >4=0 C;8B:0. 0=55 55 >B=>A8;8 : @>4C Melanoides, 0 B5?5@L : @>4C Juga. 0:>28=0 55 ?>E>60 =0 @0:>28=C <5;0=88. > 5ABL 8 >@838=0;L=K9 284 - 0<C@A:0O N30 (Juga heukelomiana), C =55 B>;AB>AB5==0O @0:>28=0 (C 1>;LH8=AB20 ?@5A=>2>4=KE C;8B>: - B>=:>AB5==K5) A @51@8AB>9 ?>25@E=>ABLN. KA>B0 @0:>28=K:>=CA0 4> 4 A0=B8<5B@>2, => A F5;>9 25@H8=:>9>AB@85< O 8E =5 2AB@5G0;, 25@ECH:0 2A5340 @07@CH5=0. #;8B:0 4KH8B 601@0<8, :0: <5;0=8O, 8 C =55 B>65 5ABL :@KH5G:0.  6825B >=0 =0 3@C=B5 8 2 3@C=B5. 4=0:> 5ABL ACI5AB25==>5 >B;8G85 - >=0 >B:;04K205B O9F0.  0:20@8C<5 MB8 C;8B:8 682CB E>@>H>. > @072>48BL 8E =04> 2 >B45;L=>< A>AC45, B0: :0: <>;>4L ?>540NB 2A5 4@C385 >18B0B5;8 0:20@8C<0. ">, GB> CAAC@89A:8<8 682>@>4:0<8 8 N30<8 ?>GB8 =5 70=8<0NBAO =8 =0H8, =8 70@C156=K5 0:20@8C<8ABK - =54>@01>B:0 ;N18B5;59=>20B>@>2. >>1I5 =5 <5H05B ?>8A:0BL 5I5 ?> 2>4>5<0< =0H59 >1H8@=>9 B5@@8B>@88, =025@=>5, B0< 5ABL 8 4@C385 M=45<8G=K5 (?@8ACI85 >3@0=8G5==><C CG0AB:C) 8 8=B5@5A=K5 4;O 0:20@8C<8AB>2 C;8B:8. !B>8B ?>8A:0BL 2 MABC0@=KE 2>40E 40;L=52>AB>G=>3> @8<>@LO, 2 2>4>5<0E !@54=59 788. -ABC0@=K5 2>4K <8@0 B>65 5I5 A:@K20NB A2>8 1>30BAB20. #65 7=0:><K9 G8B0B5;N ..(0H8= ?@8257 <=5 :0:B> ?0@C C;8B>:, ?>4>1@0==KE 2 CABL5 >4=>9 @5:8. E B>;AB>AB5==K5 @0:>28=K 1K;8 >G5=L :@0A82K. #;8B:8 ?@>68;8 C <5=O ?>;B>@0 3>40, => =5 @07<=>68;8AL. C45< =045OBLAO, GB> 2 40;L=59H5< ?>O28BAO 2>7<>6=>ABL @0AA:070BL >1 8=B5@5A=KE C;8B:0E 1>;LH5 8 3>@074> ?>;=55. >42>4=K5 B0=:8 >;385 3>4K ACI5AB2>20;> <=5=85, GB> G5@5?0E, 682CI8E 2 2>45, <>6=> A>45@60BL B>;L:> 2 B5@@0@8C<5. >, :0: >:070;>AL, =5:>B>@K5 2>4=K5 G5@5?0E8 ?@5:@0A=> 682CB 8 2 >1KG=>< 0:20@8C<5. A;8 >=8 =525;8:8, <>;>4K, B> =5 B>;L:> =5 ?>@BOB 45:>@0B82=>3> :><=0B=>3> 2>4>5<0, 0 =0>1>@>B, A;C60B 53> C:@0H5=85<, 0 8E 70102=>5 ?>2545=85 =587<5==> @04C5B =01;N40B5;O.  2>40E @80<C@LO 2>48BAO C4828B5;L=0O G5@5?0E0 0<840. K ?@82K:;8 AG8B0BL, GB> G5@5?0E8 - MB> 682>B=K5, 70:>20==K5 2 1@>=N ?0=F8@O. # 0<84K ?0=F8@L <O3:89, 40 5I5 ?>:@KB :>659. "0:85 :>68ABK5, <O3:85 G5@5?0E8 2AB@5G0NBAO 2 D@8:5, !525@=>9 <5@8:5, 8B05, @80<C@L5. "@>?8G5A:85 284K 1K20NB 25;8G8=>9 1>;LH5 <5B@0, =0H8 - 4> 60 (?0=F8@L 4> 35) A0=B8<5B@>2. -B8 A@02=8B5;L=> =51>;LH85 682>B=K5 >G5=L >?0A=K. <840 ;53:> 8738105B >G5=L 4;8==CN H5N 8 A8;L=> :CA05BAO. 0:B> <>9 4@C3 8=65=5@0::;8<0B870B>@ ...@;>2 ?@8257 <=5 2 ?>40@>: :@>E>B=CN 0<84C: 4;8=0 55 ?0=F8@O =5 ?@52KH0;0 5 A0=B8<5B@>2. KB0OAL ?5@5A048BL G5@5?0EC 87 4>@>6=>9 :0==K 2 0:20@8C<, O >1@0B8; 2=8<0=85, GB> >=0 2KBO=C;0 H5N =02AB@5GC <>59 @C:5, =>, @07C<55BAO, =5 AG5; MB> :@>E>B=>5 ACI5AB2> G5<B> >?0A=K<.  B>B 65 <83 >AB@0O 1>;L ?@>=78;0 <878=5F. 57:> >B45@=C2 @C:C, O C2845; 28AOI53> =0 ?0;LF5 :@>E>B=>3> 03@5AA>@0. '5;NAB8 0<84K B0: :@5?:> 2?8;8AL 2 ?0;5F, GB>, >B@K20O, O @8A:>20; ?>:0;5G8BL 55. @8H;>AL B5@?5;82> 640BL, ?>:0 >=0 A0<0 >B>@25BAO. #?02 =0 A?8=C, 0<840 A8;L=K< 42865=85< 381:>9 H58 ?5@525@=C;0AL, 2AB0;0 =0 ;0?K 8 ?><G0;0AL A =5?>AB868<>9 4;O G5@5?0E8 A:>@>ABLN. 0CG5==K9 3>@L:8< >?KB><, O C65 A0G:>< ?5@5A048; 55 2 0:20@8C<. >;=85=>A=>5 42865=85 2=87 A ?><>ILN ?>?5@5<5==> @01>B0NI8E ;0?, >1;0G:> <CB8 =0 4=5& 8 G5@5?0E0 8AG57;0. 8HL G5@57 ?>;G0A0 A>25@H5==> 2 4@C3>< C3;C 2>4>5<0 87 ?5A:0 ?>:070;0AL >AB@5=L:0O <>@4>G:0 A 4;8==K< E>1>B:>< =0 :>=F5. >;>B8AB>A5@K5 3;07:8 2=8<0B5;L=> A<>B@5;8 2 AB>@>=C =01;N40B5;O. 5C65;8 >=0 2848B 70 AB5:;>< A:;>=82H53>AO G5;>25:0? 5;0N ;53:>5 42865=85 3C10<8, 8 2 B>B 65 <83 <>@4>G:0 8AG5705B 2 ?5A:5. >;LHCN G0ABL 2@5<5=8 0<840 ?@>2>48B =0 4=5, 345 >=0 1KAB@> 8 ;>2:> ;028@C5B A@548 @0AB5=89 8 :0<=59. !KB0O G5@5?0E0 >1KG=> 70@K205BAO 2 3@C=B 8, 2KAC=C2 3>;>2C 87 ?5A:0, ;568B B0: ?> G0AC 8 1>;55. # G5@5?0E MB>3> A5<59AB20 2 3;>B:5 8<5NBAO >A>1K5 2>@A8=:8 8 A:;04:8 :>68, A ?><>ILN :>B>@KE >=8 <>3CB CA20820BL :8A;>@>4 =5?>A@54AB25==> 87 2>4K. -B> ?>72>;O5B 0<845 2 A;CG05 =04>1=>AB8 =0E>48BLAO ?>4 2>4>9 4> 15 G0A>2. B:@K20O @>B, G5@5?0E0 2BO38205B 2 3;>B:C 2>4C, >?>;0A:8205B 2>@A8=:8, 2KB0;:8205B 2>4C 8 70:@K205B @>B. "0:85 3;>B:8, 0 B>G=55 24>E82K4>E8 A >B:@KBK< @B><, 0<840 45;05B G0AB> - MB> 7028A8B >B AB5?5=8 =0AKI5==>AB8 2>4K :8A;>@>4><.  0:20@8C<0E A ?@>7@0G=>9 0M@8@C5<>9 2>4>9 G5@5?0E8 GC2AB2CNB A51O ;CGH5. G5284=>, C 0<84 8<55BAO 8 :>6=>5 4KE0=85, B0: :0: >=8 =5 ?5@5=>AOB 2KAKE0=8O :>68.  0:20@8C<5 G5@5?0E8 ?8B0NBAO >1KG=K< :>@<>< 4;O @K1 - <>BK;5<, <5;:8<8 @K15H:0<8, 3>;>20AB8:0<8, 4;O 1>;55 :@C?=KE M:75<?;O@>2 3>4OBAO ;O3CH:8, B@8B>=K. 0@K2H8AL 2 ?5A>: 8 2KBO=C2 H5N, G5@5?0E0 :;N5B - ;>28B ?@>?;K20NI8E <8<> =55 40D=89 8 F8:;>?>2. OA> 0<840 =5 ;N18B: 4065 27O2 2 @>B, >=0 53> 2K?;52K205B. 7 2>4K <O3:>B5;K5 G5@5?0E8 2KE>4OB @54:>, E>BO <>3CB 7018@0BLAO =5 B>;L:> =0 ?;>A:85 >AB@>2:8 >:>;> ?>25@E=>AB8, => 8 =0 25@B8:0;L=> AB>OI85 B5@<><5B@K.  ?@8@>45, >G5284=>, >=8 2718@0NBAO =0 AB2>;K :0<KH0 (@07C<55BAO, @5GL 845B > <>;>4KE G5@5?0E0E, <>3CI8E >1E20B8BL :0<KH8=:8 ;0?0<8). 82CI85 2 =52>;5 0<84K =C640NBAO 2 @>2=>9 B5<?5@0BC@5 2>4K 2025 ! 8 A8;L=>< A>;=5G=>< >A25I5=88. 0@CH5=85 MB8E CA;>289, >A>15==> >A5=LN, 2545B : 701>;520=8O<. 0 :>65 ?>O2;ONBAO <CB=K5 15;>20BK5 ?OB=0, ?5@5E>4OI85 70B5< 2 O72K. 82>B=>5 45;05BAO 2O;K<, 2A5 2@5<O ?KB05BAO ?>:8=CBL 2>4C 8 ?@81;878BLAO : M;5:B@>;0<?5.  A>60;5=8N, M;5:B@>;0<?K =5 <>3CB 70<5=8BL 0<845 A>;=F5, 8 >=0 ?>38105B. 0;L=52>AB>G=0O <O3:>B5;0O G5@5?0E0 (Trionix sinensis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seudemis scripta elegans), 85@>3;8D>2CN ( . concinna hieroglyphyca) 8 D;>@84A:CN ( . floridana). # :@0A=>CE>9 G5@5?0E8 70 3;07>< =0G8=05BAO H8@>:0O :@0A=0O ?>;>A0, :0@0?0:A (25@E=OO G0ABL ?0=F8@O) A25B;>75;5=K9, :09<0 65;B0O, 0 ?;0AB@>= (=86=OO G0ABL ?0=F8@O) O@:>65;BK9 A B5<=K<8 @072>40<8. # 85@>3;8D>2>9 - B5<=>:>@8G=52K9 :0@0?0:A 8 65;BK9 ?;0AB@>=, 3>;>20, B5;>, ;0?K @0A?8A0=K 65;BK<8 85@>3;8D0<8. $;>@84A:0O G5@5?0E0 ?>E>60 =0 85@>3;8D>2CN.  C B>9 8 C 4@C3>9 B@8 ?;0AB8=:8 E@51B>2>3> @O40 =0 :0@0?0:A5 >1@07CNB 7C1G0BK9 3@515=L 2KA>B>9 34 <8;;8<5B@0. 0: 2848B5, 4>2>;L=> 682>?8A=>5 7@5;8I5. > A 2>7@0AB>< G5@5?0E8 B5@ONB 8 O@:>ABL >:@0A:8, 8 3@515=L.  A;54CNI59 ?>AK;:5 O ?>;CG8; >B 5@B5=A0 5I5 >4=> =5>1KG=>5 ACI5AB2> - B@0:0:AC (Podocnemis unifilis). ;0AB@>= B5<=>A5@K9 A A8=52>9, :>60 B>65 A A8=8< >BB5=:><. 0 BC?>9 3>;>25 - ?OBL ?0@ O@:>65;BKE ?OB5=. >;>2C 2 ?0=F8@L G5@5?0E0 =5 2BO38205B, 0 7038105B =01>: 4;8==CN H5N. "@0:0:A0 =0E>48BAO ?>4 2>4>9 4>2>;L=> 4>;3> - 4> 40 <8=CB, ?@8 MB>< ?@51K205B 2 0:B82=>AB8. # =55 2 3>@;5 5ABL ?@8A?>A>1;5=85 4;O 4KE0=8O 2 2>45. %>@>H> 284=>, :0: >=0 @8B<8G=> ?@8>B:@K205B @>B 8 2BO38205B 2>4C. =>3> ;5B ?@>68;0 C <5=O MB0 G5@5?0H:0, A=8A:0;0 ;N1>2L 2A5E 1;87:8E 8 7=0:><KE 8 8<5;0 4065 A>1AB25==>5 8<O - "8<<8.  5I5 >4=0 >@838=0;:0 87 B@>?8:>2 - :C>@0, H0@=8@=0O G5@5?0E0 (Cuora trifasciata). >;>20 C =55 :@5<>2>65;B0O A ?>;>A:0<8, :0@0?0:A B>65 65;BK9 A B5<=K<8 ?@>4>;L=K<8 ?>;>A0<8, 0 ?;0AB@>= - @C18=>2K9. !0<>5 =5>1KG=>5 C :C>@K - MB> ?;0AB@>=. = @0745;5= =0 425 G0AB8 ?>?5@5G=>9 <O3:>9 A2O7:>9, 8 :>340 G5@5?0E0 ?@OG5BAO, >=0 5I5 8 ABO38205B :@0O ?;0AB@>=0, 70:@K20O 2BO=CBK5 3>;>2C 8 ;0?K, >B:@KBK5 C 4@C38E G5@5?0E. ! G5@5?0HL8<8 ?>AK;:0<8 A2O70= :><8G=K9 M?87>4. 5;> 2 B><, GB> =0G8=0O A ?OB845AOBKE 3>4>2 2> 2A5< <8@5 >B@01>B0=0 ?@0:B8:0 ?5@5AK;:8 0280?>GB>9 2A53> 682>3>, GB> <>65B 1KBL ?>A;0=>. 5BOB >@E8458 8 :0:BCAK, 2>4=K5 @0AB5=8O 8 @K1K, <>;;NA:8 8 G5@5?0E8. 5BOB 2 ?>@O4:5 =0CG=>3> >1<5=0, ;5BOB ?>B><C, GB> :B>B> 8E 70:070; 8 >?;0B8;. -B> C65 AB0;> 2 ?>@O4:5 25I59. ">;L:> =5 2 =0H59 AB@0=5.  :>=F5 ?OB845AOBKE - =0G0;5 H5AB845AOBKE 3>4>2 >:=> 2 =0HC AB@0=C, ?@0240, ?@8>B:@K;>AL - > <=>38E ?>AK;:0E, :>B>@K5 B>340 C40;>AL ?>;CG8BL, O C65 C?><8=0;.  ?>B>< 70:@K;>AL =03;CE>. #65 1>;55 B@5E 45AOB:>2 ;5B, 2>?@5:8 <564C=0@>4=K< ?@028;0<, <K =5 ?@87=05< ?>4>1=KE ?>AK;>:. >A048; O B>;L:> GB> ?>;CG5==KE G5@5?0H5: 2 3;C1>:CN B0@5;:C, >B>3@5;8AL >=8, 604=> ?>?8;8, ?>5;8 <>BK;O. ;020NB, >B4KE0NB, 0 O ?@8:84K20N, 2 :0:>9 0:20@8C< 8E ?>A5;8BL. 4@C3 - 72>=>:. B:@K20N: 220;820NBAO B@8 74>@>25==KE <C68:0, >48= A ?>@BD5;5<, 42>5 A <>B:0<8 B>;AB>9 25@52:8. -K B0:>9B>? >AK;:C A 682>B=K<8 ?>;CG0;8? 0< 55 >H81>G=> 2K40;8. / 25B5@8=0@=K9 2@0G 8 4>;65= >A<>B@5BL 682>B=KE. -> 254L : ?>AK;:5 1K;8 4>:C<5=BK, 2 B>< G8A;5 :0@0=B8==K9 A5@B8D8:0B& -5 @073>20@8209B5! 548B5 : 682>B=K<. 45 >=8? ->B,- ?>:07K20N =0 AB>;. -45 2>B? -C =0 AB>;5, 2 B0@5;:5. "@8 1>30BK@O >?0A;82> ?>4>H;8 : AB>;C, 703;O=C;8& @><:89 E>E>B A<5@B5;L=> ?5@5?C30; 154=KE G5@5?0H5:. ->B 848>BK - =0H5 =0G0;LAB2>,- 2>7<CI0;AO 2@0G.- I5 :@><5 =0A 2B>@CN <0H8=C E>B5;8 ?>A;0BL. 0: 65, ?>AK;:0 A 682>B=K<8, 40 5I5 87 $  - AB@0H=>! C 40 ;04=>, 25@=5<AO >B 2>A?><8=0=89 : =0H8< G5@5?0E0<. 0?K ?@5A=>2>4=KE G5@5?0E A8;L=> A?;NI5=K, <564C ?0;LF0<8 E>@>H> 70<5B=K ?5@5?>=:8, 704=85 ;0?K ?> D>@<5 =0?><8=0NB 25A;0. K?CA:0O 87;8H:8 2>74CE0 87 ;53:8E, G5@5?0E8 <>3CB 45;0BLAO BO65;55 2>4K. ;03>40@O MB><C 682>B=K5 A2>1>4=> ?>3@C60NBAO =0 4=> 0:20@8C<>2 (3;C18=0 4> 4050 A0=B8<5B@>2), 1@>4OB ?> ?5A:C, 70102=> @0742830O @0AB5=8O, ?5@52>@0G820O :0<=8, 2=8<0B5;L=> >3;O4K20O 2A5 2 ?>8A:0E AJ54>1=>3>. 1KG=> >=8 =0E>4OBAO ?>4 2>4>9 715 <8=CB, 70B5< 2A?;K20NB. > <>3CB 1KBL B0< 8 4>;LH5 - 4> 30 <8=CB. A;8 2>74CE0 2 ;53:8E <0;> 8 G5@5?0E0 BO65;55 2>4K, >=0, M=5@38G=> @01>B0O ;0?0<8, ?>4=8<05BAO :@CB> 225@E; :>340 C45;L=K9 25A G5@5?0E8 ?@8<5@=> @025= C45;L=><C 25AC 2>4K, 682>B=>5 ?>4=8<05BAO ?>GB8 157 CA8;89 8 ;8HL A;53:0 @53C;8@C5B ;0?0<8 =0?@02;5=85. ;020NB >=8 =5 B>;L:> AB@5<8B5;L=>, => 8 87OI=>. !2>1>4=> 40NB =0 3;C18=5 704=89 E>4, <>3CB 25@B5BLAO =0 <5AB5, ?KB0OAL AE20B8BL <>BK;O. K205B, 8 70 @K1:0<8 3>=ONBAO, =>, @07C<55BAO, 157CA?5H=> - 2A5B0:8 @K1K ?;020NB 1KAB@55. # G5@5?0E A8;L=> @0728B> >1>=O=85: C65 G5@57 >4=C?>;B>@K <8=CBK >=8 A1530NBAO : <5ABC, 345 1@>H5= :>@<. @5=85 @0728B> EC65, E>BO :@C?=K5 ?@54<5BK 8 8E 42865=85 G5@5?0E8 @07;8G0NB 8 ?>4 2>4>9, 8 B5< 1>;55 =04 2>4>9. @81;865=85 G5;>25:0 2K7K205B C =5?@8@CG5==KE 682>B=KE 8A?C3. =8 AB@5<8B5;L=> A:@K20NBAO 2 G0I5 @0AB5=89, 0 5A;8 =0E>48;8AL =0 B>@G0I5< 87 2>4K >AB@>2:5, 345 ;N1OB ?>3@5BLAO ?>4 M;5:B@>;0<?>9, B> A@K20NBAO 2 2>4C, :0: 70?@02A:85 ?@K3C=K A> A?>@B82=>9 2KH:8. >4=K5 G5@5?0H:8 @54:> 2KE>4OB =0 ACHC. 2865=8O 8E =0 @>2=>9 ?>25@E=>AB8 =5C:;N68: 284=>, GB> A@02=8B5;L=> A;01K5 =>38 =5 <>3CB 1KAB@> ?5@5=>A8BL BO65;>5 B5;> 682>B=KE. 0>1>@>B, 2 2>45 42865=8O G5@5?0E A2>1>4=K 8 5AB5AB25==K. 8I59 0:20@8C<=K< G5@5?0E0< A;C60B <>BK;L, M=E8B@5CA, @570=K9 4>6452>9 G5@2L, ;8G8=:8 <CG=>3> E@CI0:0, 15;K9 E;51, <OA>, ACH5=K9 @0G>: 30<<0@CA. 1O70B5;L=> =C6=K @0AB5=8O - @OA:0, 383@>D8;0, F5@0B>?B5@8A, :>B>@K5 G5@5?0E8 A 604=>ABLN ?>540NB. ;O =>@<0;L=>3> @0728B8O 682>B=KE 2 ?8IC =5>1E>48<> 4>102;OBL 28B0<8=K. OA> ?5@54, :>@<;5=85< =C6=> ?@>?8BK20BL 28B0<8=>< D 8;8 @K1L8< 68@><. K189 68@ 4>102;ONB 8 2 >B@C18, A;C60I85 :>@<>2>9 A@54>9 4;O ;8G8=>: <CG=>3> E@CI0:0. ;O AB@>8B5;LAB20 ?0=F8@O 682>B=K< =5>1E>48<0 8725ABL. =8 ?>;CG0NB 55 87 :>@<>2 A B25@4K< E8B8=>2K< ?>:@>2>< - @0G:>2, =0A5:><KE, 0 B0:65 ?@8 ?>540=88 F5;8:>< <5;:8E @K1.  682K< @K10< 2 0:20@8C<5 G5@5?0E8 ?@0:B8G5A:8 @02=>4CH=K. "@8B>=K, 2>4=K5 ;O3CH:8 8 4@C385 5<=>2>4=K5 B>65 2 ?>A;54=85 3>4K 87 B5@@0@8C<>2 AB0;8 ?5@5A5;OBLAO 2 0:20@8C<K. > =5 2A5. @CAB=>5 7@5;8I5 <>6=> =01;N40BL =0 @K=:0E - 10=:8, 18B:>< =018BK5 B@8B>=0<8. 0H8 >1K:=>25==K9 8 3@515=G0BK9 B@8B>=K 25A=>9 A?CA:0NBAO 2 2>4C 4;O @07<=>65=8O, 0 A0<FK 4065 ?@8>1@5B0NB :@0A82>5 C:@0H5=85 2 2845 3@51=O. > 2 2>45 >=8 >AB0NBAO ;8HL 24 =545;8. >MB><C 4;O 0:20@8C<0 8E @5:><5=4>20BL =5B A<KA;0. 5A:>;L:> <5AOF52 <>65B =0E>48BLAO 2 2>45 <0;>0780BA:89 B@8B>= - >48= 87 A0<KE :@0A>G=KE ?@54AB028B5;59 MB>3> ?;5<5=8. >340B> B0:85 B@8B>=K 68;8 C <5=O 2 0:20@8C<0E ?> 3>4C 8 1>;LH5. > A53>4=O MB8E C=8:0;L=KE 8 M=45<8G=KE 682>B=KE >AB0;>AL A>2A5< =5<=>3>. =8 70=5A5=K 2 @0A=CN :=83C, 8 2K;>2 8E :0B53>@8G5A:8 70?@5I5=. 7 E2>AB0BKE 75<=>2>4=KE 4;O =0H53> ?>42>4=>3> <8@0 <>6=> @5:><5=4>20BL 42CE 682>B=KE - 0:A>;>B;O 8 H>:>;04=>3> B@8B>=0. 10 8<<83@0=BK, ?>O28;8AL C =0A 402=>, 0 A59G0A CA?5H=> @072>4OBAO ;N18B5;O<8. 1 0:A>;>B;5 =0?8A0=> >G5=L <=>3>, 8 ?>2B>@OBLAO <=5 =5 E>G5BAO.  H>:>;04=>3>, 8;8 >3=5==>1@NE>3>, B@8B>=0 - F8=>?A0 - ?@8257 <=5 87 ?>574:8 2 /?>=8N ...@;>2. Cynops pyrrhogaster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ombina bombina) @0A?@>AB@0=5=0 C =0A >B C=0O 4> #@0;0; 2AB@5G05BAO >=0 8 2 &5=B@0;L=>9 8 .6=>9 2@>?5. !?8=:0 ;O3CH:8 8<55B 70I8B=CN A5@CN >:@0A:C, :>60 2 A;878ABKE 1C3>@:0E. @NE> A8=520B>G5@=>5 A O@:8<8 :@C?=K<8 :@0A=>>@0=652K<8 ?OB=0<8 8 @072>40<8.  <><5=B >?0A=>AB8 65@;O=:0 8738105BAO 4C3>9 (;0?K ?@8 MB>< ?@860BK : B5;C), 8 O@:85 ?OB=0 3>@;0, =>3, G0AB8 1@NE0 AB0=>2OBAO E>@>H> 284=K. :@0A:0 8E ?@54C?@5640NI0O. !;878ABK5 1C3>@:8 682>B=>3> 2K45;ONB ?5=8ABK9 A5:@5B D@8=>;8F8= - 4>2>;L=> A8;L=K9 O4 4;O <5;:8E 682>B=KE 8 ?B8F (4;O G5;>25:0 >= =5 >?0A5=, => @C:8 <KBL ?>A;5 @01>BK A 65@;O=:0<8 >1O70B5;L=>). -B8 ;O3CH:8 >18B0NB 2 ?@C40E, 1>;>B0E, 2>4>5<0E A> AB>OG59 2>4>9. 1KG=> >=8 =5 ?>:840NB 2>4C, 0:B82=K ?@58<CI5AB25==> 4=5<. 8B0NBAO 2>4=K<8 15A?>72>=>G=K<8, ;5B0NI8E =0A5:><KE ;>2OB <0;>. >9<0==CN 4>1KGC 70?8E820NB 2 @>B ?5@54=8<8 ;0?0<8.  ?@8@>45 A0<FK 8740NB 72C:8 (C:0NB); 2 0:20@8C<5 8=>340 A;KH=K 8E >B45;L=K5 ?@>BO6=K5 :@8:8, :>B>@K5 <>3CB 8A?CA:0BLAO 8 ?>4 2>4>9. :@0 65@;O=>: :><:0<8 ;568B =0 4=5 2>4>5<>2. >;>20AB8:8 B5<=K5 8 >G5=L <5;:85.  0:20@8C<0E >=8 A>A:01;820NB A;878ABK5 >1@0AB0=8O.  0?04=>9 #:@08=5 2AB@5G05BAO 65;B>1@NE0O 65@;O=:0 (Bombina variegata), >B;8G0NI0OAO ;8<>==>65;B>9 >:@0A:>9 1@NH:0, ?> :>B>@><C @071@>A0=K G5@=K5 ?OB=0.  =5:>B>@KE @09>=0E 2AB@5G0NBAO 65@;O=:8 A G8AB>>@0=652K< 1@NH:><, >G5=L ?>E>685 =0 :@0A=>1@NE8E.  @8:0@?0BL5 =0 ;52>< 15@53C =5AB@0 >18B05B :@0A=>1@NE0O, =0 ?@02>< - 65;B>1@NE0O 65@;O=:0. 5;B>1@NE0O 65@;O=:0 =5 AB>;L B5?;>;N1820, 2AB@5G05BAO 2 ?@>B>G=>9 2>45, 2 3>@=KE @5G:0E. "@5B89 284 - 40;L=52>AB>G=0O 65@;O=:0 (Bombina orientalis). 5@68BAO 2 B5:CG59 2>45, ?@OG0AL ?>4 :0<=O<8. ;O @07<=>65=8O ?5@518@05BAO 2 A;01>?@>B>G=K5 2>4>5<K. !5@K9 F25B A?8=K 8=>340 1K205B A 75;5=>20BK< >BB5=:><. >@;>, 1@NE>, =>38 A=87C >@0=652>:@0A=K5 A <5;:8<8 G5@=K<8 ?OB=0<8.  0:20@8C<5 ?@54?>G8B05B =0E>48BLAO 2 2>45, 87@54:0 2K18@05BAO =0 >AB@>2:8. > =0720BL MB8E ?@8OB=KE ;O3CH5G5: =0AB>OI8<8 >18B0B5;O<8 ?>42>4=>3> <8@0 =5;L7O. @C3>5 45;> - 3>ABL8 87 D@8:8 8 .6=>9 <5@8:8. =8, 2 ?>;=>< A<KA;5 A;>20,- 2>4=K5 68B5;8 8 ?>GB8 =5 2KE>4OB =0 ACHC. B=>AOBAO : A5<59AB2C 8?>2K5 (Pipidae). (?>@F520O ;O3CH:0 (Xenopus levis) >18B05B 2 2>4>5<0E .6=>9 D@8:8 - >B =3>;K 4> 8;8<0=460@>. >;>20 <0;5=L:0O, ?@8?;NA=CB0O, <>@4>G:0 :>@>B:0O, :@C3;0O, 3;070 >1@0I5=K :25@EC. :>;> 3;070 8<55BAO :>@>B:0O >AO70B5;L=0O =8BL, ?> 1>:0< B5;0 84CB A:;04:8 A B5<=K<8 ?OB=0<8 8 HB@8E0<8, 704=5?@>E>4=>5 >B25@AB85 C A0<>: A:@KB> A:;04:0<8. 04=85 :>=5G=>AB8 <CA:C;8ABK5, A8;L=> @0728BK5, <564C ?0;LF0<8 ?5@5?>=:8, ?0;LFK 70:0=G820NBAO >AB@K<8 B5<=K<8 :>3BO<8, :>B>@K<8 ;O3CH:8 @07@K20NB 4>1KGC. 5@54=85 - :>@>B:85, A 4;8==K<8 ?0;LF0<8 157 ?5@5?>=>:, ;0?K 2K25@=CBK 2=CB@L. !?8=0 8 1>:0 1C@K5 A B5<=K<8 ?OB=0<8 8 @072>40<8.  :C;LBC@5 2AB@5G05BAO 8 0;L18=>B8G5A:0O D>@<0 - @>7>20B>>@0=6520O A :@0A=K<8 3;070<8, 2K2545==0O 2 >A:25, 2 =AB8BCB5 18>;>388 @0728B8O. ;8=0 B5;0 H?>@F52KE ;O3CH5: 4> 8 A0=B8<5B@>2. 18B05B 8 :>@<8BAO B>;L:> 2 2>45. !>45@60BL <>6=> 2 >1KG=KE 0:20@8C<0E 2<5AB5 A ?@>2>@=K<8 8;8 :@C?=K<8 @K10<8. O3CH:0 ?8B05BAO >1KG=K<8 :>@<0<8 0:20@8C<=KE @K1 (<>BK;L, B@C1>G=8:), => >E>B=> ?>5405B 8 =5682>9 :>@<, =0?@8<5@ :CA>G:8 <OA0. 4>;L BC;>28I0 H?>@F52>9 ;O3CH:8, =0 1>:0E, 8<5NBAO E>@>H> 70<5B=K5 C3;C1;5=8O, ?>@>AH85 3CABK<8 <5;:8<8 2>;>A:0<8. -B8 2>;>A:8 @5038@CNB =0 B>: 2>4K 2>:@C3 B5;0 ;O3CH:8, 0 8<?C;LAK >B =8E ?>72>;ONB >@85=B8@>20BLAO =0 1KAB@>< B5G5=88: >1KG=> >=0 A848B 2 @CGLOE =>A>< ?@>B82 B5G5=8O. -B8 65 2>;>A:8 ?>40NB A83=0;K > ;N1KE 384@>48=0<8G5A:8E 2>;=0E, 2K7K205<KE 2>4=K<8 >18B0B5;O<8. "0:0O A83=0;870F8O ?>72>;O5B 1KAB@> 8 B>G=> >1=0@C6820BL 4>1KGC. O3CH:8 >1;040NB 8 E>@>H8< >1>=O=85<. '5@57 >4=C425 <8=CBK ?>A;5 ?>O2;5=8O 2 2>45 :>@<0 >=8 ?@8E>4OB 2 =58AB>2AB2> 8 =0G8=0NB <5B0BLAO ?> 2>4>5<C. A:>@5 >=8 C65 70?8E820NB ?5@54=8<8 ;0?0<8 :@C?=K5 :CA:8 2 @>B, 0 ?0;LFK >4=>2@5<5==> 45@60B <>BK;O, 4>6452KE G5@259. '5@259 ;O3CH:8 ?@845@6820NB ?0;LF0<8 8 ?@8 703;0BK20=88. 5@54 A?0@820=85< C A0<F0 ?>O2;ONBAO G5@=K5 ?>;>AK ?> 1>:0< ?0;LF52 8 24>;L ;0? 4> 8E >A=>20=8O. !0<FK 8740NB B8E>5 B8:B8:, =0?><8=0NI55 72C: 84CI8E G0A>2. @0G=K9 7>2 A0<F0 4>2>;L=> <5;>48G5=. !8;0 MB>3> :><<C=8:0F8>==>3> A83=0;0 C4828B5;L=0. !0<5F 2> 2@5<O A?0@820=8O >1E20BK205B A0<:C A7048. '5@57 G0A =0G8=05BAO >B:;04:0 O8F. /9F> 2KE>48B =0@C6C 8 7045@68205BAO 2 A:;04:0E :>68 C 704=53> ?@>E>40. !0<:0 70E20BK205B 704=8<8 =>30<8 AB515;L @0AB5=8O 8 ?@8?>4=8<05BAO.  MB> 2@5<O O9F> 2KE>48B 87 A:;04>: 8 A:>;L78B 24>;L :>68AB>9 1>@>74K =0 1@NE5 A0<F0. >@>740 ?@82>48B O9F> : :;>0:5, 8 A0<5F >?;>4>B2>@O5B 53>. /9F> ?@>4>;605B A:>;L78BL 24>;L =>38 A0<:8 8 ?@8;8?05B : AB51;N. A5 O9F0 @07<5I0NBAO ?>>48=>G:5. A:>@5 =0@C6=K9 A;>9 >1>;>G:8 O8F 70B25@45205B, :0: 1@>=O. O3CH:8 ?>A;5 >B:;04:8 O8F ;8=ONB, A<5H=> 2K?@0ABK20O 704=85 =>38 87 :>68FK, 0 70B5< ?>540NB 55. '5@57 42>5 ACB>: (?@8 B5<?5@0BC@5 2225 !) 2K;C?;ONBAO ;8G8=:8. >;>20AB8:8 H?>@F52KE ;O3CH5: - >G5=L =5>1KG=K5 ACI5AB20. >340 <=5 2?5@2K5 ?>40@8;8 8E, O @5H8; 2 ?5@2K9 <><5=B, GB> ?5@54> <=>9 @54G09H85 @K1K - 8=489A:85 AB5:;O==K5 A><K. @54AB02LB5 H8@>G5==CN 3>;>2C (>:>;> 10 <8;;8<5B@>2 2 ?>?5@5G=8:5), :>@>B:>5 >:@C3;>5 B5;> A 4;8==K<, A?;NI5==K< A 1>:>2 E2>AB>< (4,5 A0=B8<5B@0). "5;> 01A>;NB=> ?@>7@0G=>, B>;L:> ?> :>65 :>5345 84CB ?C=:B8@K B>=:8E G5@=KE B>G5:, 284=K B5<=K5 3;07:8 8 <CB=>20B>5 1@NH:>. !CI5AB2> MB> =5B>@>?;82> ?;0205B 25@B8:0;L=>, 2=87 3>;>2>9, 2>;=>>1@07=> 42830O :>=G8:>< E2>AB0. "0:>2 3>;>20AB8: ?5@54 >:>=G0=85< <5B0<>@D>70.  2KE>4OB 87 O8F A>2A5< :@>H:8 A C65 CB@0G5==K<8 =0@C6=K<8 601@0<8. !=0G0;0 3>;>20AB8:8 28AOB =0 @0AB5=8OE, AB5=:0E 0:20@8C<0. '5@57 420 G0A0 ?>A;5 2K:;520 ;8G8=:8 =0G8=0NB 4KH0BL ;53:8<8, ?5@8>48G5A:8 ?>4?;K20O : ?>25@E=>AB8 2>4K 8 703;0BK20O 2>74CE. ! G5B25@B>3> 4=O 2 C3;0E @B0 ?>O2;ONBAO 4;8==K5 B>=:85 CAK - >AO70B5;L=K5 =8B8. =8 >1KG=> =0?@02;5=K 2?5@54 8 B>;L:> ?@8 42865=88 : ?>25@E=>AB8 >B:;>=ONBAO =0704.  75;5=>9 <CB=>9 2>45 >AO70B5;L=K5 CAK =5>1E>48<K, B0: :0: 3;070<8 C2845BL >?0A=>ABL B@C4=>. <5AB> 2=CB@5==8E 601@ C 3>;>20AB8:0 8<55BAO F548;L=K9 0??0@0B, G5@57 :>B>@K9 ?@>E>48B 70A0AK205<0O @B>< 2>40. =0 2K?CA:05BAO G5@57 420 >B25@AB8O ?> 1>:0< A7048 3>;>2K (C 3>;>20AB8:>2 4@C38E ;O3CH5: >4=> >B25@AB85). 7 2>4K >BF56820NBAO >4=>:;5B>G=K5 2>4>@>A;8 8 <5;:85 8=DC7>@88.  4><0H=8E CA;>28OE 3>;>20AB8:>2 2K:0@<;820NB >B20@5==K<8 H?8=0B>< 8 A0;0B><. 0AAC 87<5;LG0NB (=0?@8<5@, ?@>B8@0NB G5@57 4C@H;03) 4> :>=A8AB5=F88 :0H8FK 8 ?>=5<=>3C @0AB2>@ONB 2 2>45. '5@57 23 <5AOF0 3>;>20AB8:8 8<5NB C65 G5BK@5 :>=5G=>AB8, B5;> AB0=>28BAO =5?@>7@0G=K<. %2>AB0BK9 ;O3CH>=>: C65 45@68BAO 3>@87>=B0;L=> =0 ;8ABLOE @0AB5=89 8 =0 3@C=B5. >@<8BL =04> 682>9 40D=859, ?>AB5?5==> 70<5=OO 55 =0 B@C1>G=8:0. ! G5B25@B>3> <5AOF0 ;O3CH0B0< <>6=> 4020BL AB@C30==>5 <OA> (@570BL =04> 24>;L 2>;>:>=), ?>765 - =0@570==>5 <5;:8<8 :CA>G:0<8. >;>2>9 7@5;>AB8 ;O3CH:8 4>AB830NB =0 B@5BL5< 3>4C 687=8. I5 >4=0 0D@8:0=A:0O 2>4=0O ;O3CH:0 - 38<5=>E8@CA (Hymenochirus boettgery). =0 A>2A5< :@>E>B=0O - 4;8=0 B5;0 3,54 A0=B8<5B@0. =5H=5 MB8 ;O3CH5G:8 =0?><8=0NB <>;>4KE H?>@F52KE, => B5;> 8E 4;8==55, :>=5G=>AB8 B>=LH5, <>@40 70>AB@5=0, =0 :>=F5 55 =>74@8. :@0A:0 B0:0O 65, :0: C H?>@F52KE,- B5<=>A5@0O A <=>3>G8A;5==K<8 1C@K<8 ?OB=0<8, 1@NE> A25B;55, 2 <5;:8E ?OB=0E. 0 ?5@54=8E :>=5G=>ABOE - =51>;LH85 ?5@5?>=:8 <564C ?0;LF0<8. !0<:8 ?>;=55 A0<F>2, ?5@54 A?0@820=85< 8E 1>:0 >:@C3;ONBAO. @8 ?>2KH5=88 B5<?5@0BC@K 2>4K (4> 2628 !) 8 CA8;5=88 >A25I5==>AB8 38<5=>E8@CAK =0G8=0NB 3>B>28BLAO : @07<=>65=8N. >A;5 70<5=K G0AB8 2>4K =0 A256CN B5?;CN ?@>8AE>48B A?0@820=85. :@8=:8, B5<=K5 A >4=>3> 1>:0, ?;020NB ?> ?>25@E=>AB8 2>4K. '5@57 ACB:842>5 2KE>4OB 01A>;NB=> G5@=K5 3>;>20AB8:8 4;8=>9 >:>;> 3 <8;;8<5B@>2 8 ?@8:@5?;ONBAO : @0AB5=8O<. 0 459 45=L >=8 =0G8=0NB ?;020BL 8 ?8B0BLAO 8=DC7>@8O<8. K:0@<;820NB 8E B0: 65, :0: <0;L:>2 0:20@8C<=KE @K1. 0728B85 3>;>20AB8:0 ?@>E>48B >G5=L 1KAB@> - 70 >48= <5AOF. KAB@>5 2>A?@>872>4AB2> MB8E ;O3CH5: ?@82;5:;> : =8< 2=8<0=85 CG5=KE, 8 38<5=>E8@CAK AB0;8 ?>?C;O@=K<8 ;01>@0B>@=K<8 682>B=K<8. ?@>G5<, H?>@F52K5 ;O3CH:8 2 ;01>@0B>@8OE 8A?>;L7CNBAO G0I5, =0 =8E ?@>2>4OB @07;8G=K5 M=4>:@8=>;>38G5A:85 8 35=5B8G5A:85 M:A?5@8<5=BK. 8<5=>E8@CAK ?@5:@0A=> 682CB 2 45:>@0B82=KE 0:20@8C<0E A @K10<8. 7 2>4K >=8 >1KG=> =5 2KE>4OB. N1OB @07;8G=K5 C:@KB8O 8 =>@:8 =0 4=5. @54?>G8B0NB 682K5 :>@<0 - B5 65, GB> 4;O 0:20@8C<=KE @K1. 5@54=8<8 ;0?0<8 ;O3CH:0 @073@5105B 3@C=B 2 ?>8A:0E :>@<0, ?5@5428305B =51>;LH85 :0<5H:8. :@C ;O3CH5: <5;:85 @K1K =5 54OB 8770 @071CE0NI59 ABC45=8AB>9 >1>;>G:8, => 3>;>20AB8:>2 <>3CB AJ5ABL, ?>MB><C @072>4OB 38<5=>E8@CA>2 2 >B45;L=KE 70A065==KE @0AB5=8O<8 0:20@8C<0E. @8 A>45@60=88 ;O3CH5: A;54C5B ?><=8BL, GB> MB> 75<=>2>4=K5, 0 =5 @K1K, 8 ?@8 C4>1=>< A;CG05 8< =8G53> =5 AB>8B ?>:8=CBL 2>4=CN A@54C. 5@2KE A2>8E 38<5=>E8@CA>2 O ?>B5@O; 8<5==> ?>B><C, GB> ?>25@8; ?@>G8B0==K< A;>20<: =8:>340 =5 ?>:840NB 2>4=CN A@54C. >8 ;O3CH0B0 ?>:8=C;8 8 2KA>E;8 =0 ?>;C. 5 701K209B5 ?;>B=> ?@8:@K20BL 0:20@8C<K.  B5?5@L > A0<>9 8=B5@5A=>9, =0 <>9 273;O4, 0:20@8C<=>9 ;O3CH:5 - :0@;8:>2>9 ?8?5, 8;8 ?8?5 >@20;L>. 5 ?>40@8; <=5 2 1979 3>4C <>9 402=8H=89 4@5745=A:89 ?@8OB5;L ...15B. >340 <K ?>7=0:><8;8AL, >= 1K; 5I5 H:>;L=8:><, 0 =K=5 MB> 8725AB=K9 35@?5B>;>3. E@5AB><0B89=> 8725AB=0 AC@8=0<A:0O ?8?0 - > =59 ?8HCB 2> 2A5E CG51=8:0E 8 :=830E, @0AA:07K20NI8E >1 C4828B5;L=>9 87>1@5B0B5;L=>AB8 ?@8@>4K. > AC@8=0<A:CN ?8?C =5;L7O >B=5AB8 : 2>4=K< ;O3CH:0<; >=0, 7025@H82 F8:; @07<=>65=8O, ?>:8405B 2>4C. 0@;8:>K5 ?8?K (Pipa corvalhoi) >18B0NB 2 2>4=>9 A@545 - 2 AB>OG8E 273;O45 A25@EC2>40E A525@0 .6=>9 <5@8:8, :0: 2 =878=0E, B0: 8 =0 2KA>B5 4> 1000 <5B@>2. 82CB >=8 A@548 70@>A;59 @0AB5=89, :>@O3, ?@54?>G8B0O <5;:>5 8;8AB>5 4=>, 2 :>B>@>5 ;53:> 70:0?K20NBAO ?@8 8A?C35. "5;> C MB8E ;O3CH5: 1>;55 C?;>I5==>5 (>A>15==> C A0<F>2), G5< C H?>@F52KE, 3>;>20 ?@8 273;O45 A25@EC 8<55B B8?8G=>5 4;O ?8? B@5C3>;L=>5 AB@>5=85. 0 :>=F0E ?0;LF52 ?5@54=8E :>=5G=>AB59 B>65 E0@0:B5@=K5 4;O ?8? 72574G0BK5 >1@07>20=8O. :@0A:>9, : A>60;5=8N, ?8?K =5 1;5ICB - A?8=0 1C@>A5@0O, 1@NE> 2 B5<=KE ?OB=0E. >;>4K5 ?8?K 1>;55 A25B;K5, 1@NE> 15;>20B>5, 3>;>20 A=87C B5<=0O. >;>4K5 ?8?K ?>E>68 =0 38<5=>E8@CA>2 B>9 65 25;8G8=K. B;8G8BL 8E <>6=> ?> A;54CNI8< ?@87=0:0<. 8?K 1>;55 AB@5<8B5;L=K, 1KAB@> ?>4=8<0NBAO : ?>25@E=>AB8, 5I5 1KAB@55 CAB@5<;ONBAO 2=87 8 ?@OGCBAO =0 4=5. 8<5=>E8@CAK ?;020NB <54;5==55, A?>:>9=> 4286CBAO 2 B>;I5 2>4K 8, ;8HL 8A?C302H8AL, AB@5<8B5;L=> 84CB 2=87 8 ?@OGCBAO. B>@>5 >B;8G85 - 38<5=>E8@CAK >1KG=> ?;020NB, A>3=C2 ?0;LFK ?5@54=8E :>=5G=>AB59; C ?8? ?@8 ?;020=88 ?0;LFK =0?@02;5=K 2?5@54, E>@>H> 284=>, GB> <564C ?0;LF0<8 ?5@54=8E :>=5G=>AB59 C =8E 2 >B;8G85 >B 38<5=>E8@CA>2 =5B ?5@5?>=>:. 0;LF0<8 >=8 AE20BK20NB :CA:8 ?8I8 8;8 682>9 :>@<, =0?@02;OO, 0 8=>340 4065 A<5H=> 70?8E820O 8E 2 @>B. 8?K 2A5 2@5<O ?@>2>4OB 2 2>45 8 ?@8 >?B8<0;L=KE CA;>28OE 687=8 =5 AB@5<OBAO ?>:8=CBL 55. > 5A;8 CA;>28O CEC4H0NBAO - ?>@B8BAO 2>40, ?@5:@0I05BAO ?>40G0 :>@<0, B5<?5@0BC@0 ?>4=8<05BAO 2KH5 35 ! ?@8 >BACBAB288 D8;LB@0F88,- ;O3CH:8 ;N1>3> 2>7@0AB0 1KAB@> ?>:840NB 2>4>5<. =8 A2>1>4=> ?>4=8<0NBAO ?> AB5:;C, ?@8;8?0O : =5<C 1@NE><, =0E>4OB <0;59H85 I5;8. AB5AB25==>, GB> 2 ACE>< 2>74CE5 :><=0B >=8 1KAB@> ?@K30NB ;8HL 4> 2KAKE0=8O :>68, 0 70B5< ?>3810NB. ;C18=0 2>4K 2 0:20@8C<5, 345 682CB MB8 ;O3CH:8, <>65B 1KBL >B 10 A0=B8<5B@>2 8 4> <5B@0. 0AB5=8O< ?8?K =5 2@54OB. ! <5;:8<8 8 :@C?=K<8 @K10<8 C6820NBAO =>@<0;L=> (2 >G5=L @54:8E A;CG0OE :@C?=0O ?8?0 <>65B AE20B8BL 7075202HCNAO @K1C). 0B> >B :@C?=KE F8E;84 ;O3CH:0< ?>@>9 74>@>2> 4>AB05BAO. > E0@0:B5@C ?8B0=8O ?8?K AE>68 A> H?>@F52K<8: ;O3CH0B0 15@CB B>;L:> 682>9 :>@< (M=E8B@59, B@C1>G=8:0, <>BK;O), 27@>A;5NI85 (A B@5BL53> <5AOF0 687=8) >E>B=> ?>540NB :CA>G:8 <OA0, @K1K. 8?K A>18@0NB A ?>25@E=>AB8 8 ACE>9 :>@< (40D=8O, 30<<0@CA), =5 >B:07K20NBAO 8 >B :>=F5=B@8@>20==KE 0:20@8C<=KE :>@<>2. 4OB <=>3> 8 604=>, B>;AB5NB =0 3;070E. #A8;5==>5 :>@<;5=85 A;C68B >4=8< 87 AB8<C;OB>@>2 : @07<=>65=8N. !0<>5 8=B5@5A=>5 2 MB>9 ;O3CH:5 - ?@>F5AA @07<=>65=8O. >;>2>7@5;K<8 ?8?K AB0=>2OBAO ?> 4>AB865=88 4;8=K 56 A0=B8<5B@>2 (<0:A8<0;L=0O 4;8=0 B5;0 157 :>=5G=>AB59 - 89 A0=B8<5B@>2). !0<FK <5=LH5 A0<>:, ?@8 273;O45 A1>:C 1>;55 C?;>I5==K5, 8=>340 8E >:@0A:0 B5<=55. 0E20B A0<F>< A0<:8 ?@>8AE>48B, :0: C 2A5E 15AE2>ABKE 75<=>2>4=KE. !=0G0;0 A;54C5B A5@8O ?@>1=KE =54>;38E 70E20B>2. A;8 A0<:0 =5 3>B>20, A0<5F >B?CA:05B 55. >B>20O A0<:0 F5?5=55B, ?> B5;C ?@>E>48B <5;:0O 4@>6L. >;CG82 B0:>9 A83=0;, A0<5F ?@>G=> A<K:05B ?5@54=85 :>=5G=>AB8.  MB>< ?>;>65=88 ;O3CH:8 <>3CB ?;020BL ACB:8. 1KG=> 65 70E20B ?@>8AE>48B =>GLN, 0 A0< 0:B :>?C;OF88 - A @0AA25B><. >?C;8@CNI0O ?0@0 ?;0205B =0 >B:@KB>< ?@>AB@0=AB25 8 2=570?=> ?5@52>@0G8205BAO :25@EC 1@NH:>< 2 510 A0=B8<5B@0E >B ?>25@E=>AB8. !0<5F >:07K205BAO A=87C, 1@NH:> 53> >BAB05B >B A?8=K A0<:8.  MB>B <><5=B 87 :;>0:8 A0<:8 2KE>4OB 612 8:@8=>:. >4 2;8O=85< A8;K BO65AB8 >=8 A:>;L7OB 2=87 8 GCBL 2?5@54 (3>;>2K ;O3CH5: 2 MB>B <><5=B =865 704=8E G0AB59 B5;0), ?>?040NB 2 ?@><56CB>: <564C A?8=>9 A0<:8 8 1@NH:>< A0<F0, :>B>@K9 8E >?;>4>B2>@O5B. 0B5< ;O3CH:8 ?@8=8<0NB =>@<0;L=>5 ?>;>65=85, 8 A0<5F 1@NH:>< :0: 1K 2?5G0BK205B :;59:85 8:@8=:8 2 A?8=C A0<:8. :BK >B:;04:8 O8F A;54CNB >48= 70 4@C38< A 8=B5@20;>< 515 <8=CB. >;8G5AB2> O8F 2 =0H8E CA;>28OE :>;510;>AL >B 50 4> 170. AB5AB25==>, ?>A;54CNI85 :;04:8 4>AB02;ONB A0<FC 1>;LH5 ?@>1;5<, G5< ?5@2K5: 1@NH:>< >= D>@<8@C5B O9F0 B0:, GB>1K >=8 ;560;8 =0 A?8=5 2 >48= @O4, E>BO =>2K5 :;04:8 C ?;>4>28B>9 ?0@K A:>;L7OB C65 ?> ?@860BK< : A?8=5 O9F0<. 04=8<8 ;0?0<8, 2K=>AO 8E 40;5:> 2?5@54, A0<5F A>18@05B O9F0 A 1>:>2 B5;0 8 A 3>;>2K A0<:8 8 D>@<8@C5B =5 B>;L:> 25@B8:0;L=CN >4=>@O4=>ABL O8F, => 8 3>@87>=B0;L=CN :><?0:B=>ABL :;04:8 AB@>3> =0 >?@545;5==>< CG0AB:5 A?8=K. B45;L=K5 O9F0 <>3CB 1KBL CB5@O=K; >=8 ?040NB =0 4=>, ?@8;8?0NB : @0AB5=8O<, => @072820BLAO C65 =5 A<>3CB. !=OBK5 A> A?8=:8 A0<:8 O9F0, ?><5I5==K5 2 8450;L=K5 CA;>28O (0M@0F8O, D8;LB@0F8O 2>4K) 2 >B45;L=K9 A>AC4, B>65 =5 @072820NBAO. ?@5AA>2:0 A0<F>< O8F 2 A?8=C A0<:8 - >48= 87 206=KE <><5=B>2 CA?5H=>3> @07<=>65=8O; 2>7<>6=>, GB> O9F0 ?>;CG0NB ?8B0=85 8 :8A;>@>4 >B A0<:8. > >:>=G0=88 >B:;04:8 O8F A0<5F >A;01;O5B 70E20B 8 CE>48B >B A0<:8. "5?5@L E>@>H> 284=> 2AN :;04:C =0 55 A?8=5: :@C?=K5 O9F0 (4> 1,4 <8;;8<5B@0 2 480<5B@5) F25B0 A;>=>2>9 :>AB8 (AB5?5=L 65;B87=K 20@L8@C5B) ;560B ?;>B=K< :><?0:B=K< A;>5< 157 @07@K2>2 2 A5@548=5 :;04:8. 0 1/4 >=8 2402;5=K 2 A?8=C A0<:8. "0: >=0 ?;0205B, =0G8=05B 5ABL.  O9F0<, ?>A:>;L:C >=8 :;59:85, ?@8;8?05B A>@, :CA>G:8 @0AB5=89 8 B. 4. 0;55 =0G8=05BAO 8=B5@5A=K9 ?@>F5AA. 0 A?8=5 ;O3CH:8, 2 >1KG=>5 2@5<O =5@>2=>9 8 ?>:@KB>9 @O40<8 1C3>@:>2, G5@57 B@8 G0A0 ?>O2;O5BAO A5@0O 3C1G0B0O <0AA0. 0 ACB:8 >=0 @071CE05B B0:, GB> O9F0 ?>;=>ABLN ?>3@C60NBAO 2 =55, 284=K B>;L:> 8E A25B;K5 25@ECH:8 - =5GB> 2@>45 AB0@>9, 402=> 7018B>9 3@O7LN 1C;K6=>9 <>AB>2>9.  GB> 8=B5@5A=>: ?>4=8<0OAL A=87C, <0AA0 >BB5A=O5B 25AL =0;8?H89 <CA>@ 8 :@>H:8, 8 O9F0 ?>3@C60NBAO 2 =55 01A>;NB=> G8ABK5. > MB>3> <0;> - 2K=>A8BAO =5 B>;L:> <CA>@, => 8 =5>?;>4>B2>@5==K5, =5?>;=>F5==K5 O9F0. 1JOA=8BL, :0: ?@>8AE>48B MB0 A5;5:F8O O8F, O =5 15@CAL. 0B5< A0<:0 =0G8=05B B5@5BLAO > :0<=8 8 @0AB5=8O - ?@>8AE>48B ;8=L:0. <5AB5 A> AB0@>9 :>659 >B45;ONBAO 8 =5?@>4C:B82=K5 O9F0, 2KB5A=5==K5 =0 ?>25@E=>ABL A?8=K. "5?5@L A?8=0 A0<:8 @>2=0O, 157 1C3@>2 8 A:;04>:, CB>;I5=85 =0G8=05BAO A@07C 70 3>;>2>9. @8 :><=0B=>9 B5<?5@0BC@5 M<1@8>=K A>7@520NB 70 15 4=59, ?@8 2628 ! - 70 1012. 0 34 4=O 4> 2KE>40 3>;>20AB8:>2 =04 :064K< O9F>< >1@07C5BAO =51>;LH>5 >B25@AB85, G5@57 :>B>@>5 ?>ABC?05B 2>40 4;O CA8;5==> 4KH0I53> M<1@8>=0. AO A?8=0 A0<:8 AB0=>28BAO ?>E>659 =0 A8B5G:>. 0 ACB:84@C385 4> 2KE>40 3>;>20AB8:0 ?@>8AE>48B @071CE0=85 >1>;>G:8 O9F0 8 =04 =8< >1@07C5BAO 1C3>@>: A >B25@AB85< =0 25@H8=5. "0: :0: A>7@520=85 O8F ?@>8AE>48B =5@02=><5@=>, A?8=0 B> BCB, B> B0< ?>:@K205BAO 1C3@0<8. !8;L=K9 3>;>20AB8: 2K;5B05B, :0: @0:5B0 87 ?>475<=>9 H0EBK. 5:>B>@K5 65 2K18@0NBAO 87 O9F52>9 >1>;>G:8 <54;5==>, 3>;>2>9 8;8 E2>AB>< 2?5@54.  MB8 4=8 A?8=0 ;O3CH:8 CA5O=0 3>;>20<8 8 E2>AB8:0<8. !8;L=K5 3>;>20AB8:8 AB>;L 65 AB@5<8B5;L=> =0?@02;ONBAO : ?>25@E=>AB8 2>4K, GB>1K AE20B8BL ?C7K@5: 2>74CE0, A;01K5 ?040NB =0 4=> 8 4>AB830NB ?>25@E=>AB8 A 42CEB@5E ?>?KB>:. >A;5 MB>3> 3>;>20AB8:8 =0G8=0NB ?;020BL 3>@87>=B0;L=>. E ?>GB8 H0@>284=>5 B5;> 8<55B 480<5B@ 2,53 <8;;8<5B@0, ?@>7@0G=K9 E2>AB79. ;020NI85 3>;>20AB8:8 3@C??8@CNBAO 2 AB09:C, AB@5<8B5;L=> C48@0NB >B E8I=8:>2, <>3CB 70@K20BLAO 2 8;. O3CH:0 ?>A;5 2KE>40 3>;>20AB8:>2 =0G8=05B B5@5BLAO > :0<=8, AG8I0O A> A?8=K >AB0B:8 O9F52KE >1>;>G5:. 0B5< ?@>8AE>48B ;8=L:0, 8 A0<:0 A=>20 3>B>20 : A?0@820=8N. 0 2B>@K5 ACB:8 3>;>20AB8:8 =0G8=0NB ?8B0BLAO. 0: 8 C H?>@F52>9 ;O3CH:8, C ?8?K 3>;>20AB8:8 - D8;LB@0B>@K. > :>@<0 8< =C6=K 4@C385 - 3CAB0O <0AA0 10:B5@89 8 8=DC7>@89; ?@8 MB>< =5>1E>48<>, GB>1K 2>40 >AB020;0AL A25659. K:0@<;820BL 3>;>20AB8:>2 ?8?K 7=0G8B5;L=> B@C4=55. / 8< 4020; ?>@>H>: 87 ACE>9 :@0?82K. 07<=>65=85 8 @0728B85 MB8E 8=B5@5A=59H8E ;O3CH5: =>@<0;L=> ?@>B5:0NB ?@8 B5<?5@0BC@5 2>4K >B 20 4> 30 ! 8 65AB:>AB8 4> 5. A?>;L7>20=85 1>;55 65AB:>9 2>4K A2O70=> A> <=>38<8 B@C4=>ABO<8 8 =5C40G0<8. M@0F8O, >A>15==> A8;L=0O, 3>;>20AB8:0< 2@54=0. AB02;OBL 8E 2 2>4>5<5 A> 27@>A;K<8 ;O3CH:0<8 =5;L7O - 3>;>20AB8:8 381=CB >B 8E 2K45;5=89. "0:8< >1@07><, A0<>5 A;>6=>5 2 @072545=88 ?8? - 2K:0@<;820=85 ?>B><AB20 8 A>740=85 4;O =53> ?>4E>4OI8E CA;>289. 0728B85 3>;>20AB8:>2 8 <5B0<>@D>7 ?@>4>;60NBAO 68 =545;L. 5@54 ?@52@0I5=85< 2 ;O3CH>=:0 3>;>20AB8:8 4>AB830NB 4;8=K 3540 <8;;8<5B@>2. !=0G0;0 ?>O2;ONBAO 704=85, ?>B>< ?5@54=85 :>=5G=>AB8. 0B5< C<5=LH05BAO E2>AB, 3>;>20AB8: 6825B 70 AG5B =0:>?;5==>3> 2 =5< 15;:0 8 2 MB> 2@5<O =5 ?8B05BAO. = <54;8B5;5= 8 ?0@8B 2 B>;I5 2>4K. 45AL 8 =04> 53> >B;>28BL, GB>1K ?>A048BL 2 0:20@8C< 4;O ;O3CH0B: ?>74=55 ;>28BL 1C45B B@C4=> - ;O3CH0B0 AB@5<8B5;L=K 8 C<5NB E>@>H> ?@OB0BLAO. AG57=>25=85 E2>AB0 A>2?0405B A D>@<8@>20=85< @B0 8 ?5@5E>4>< ;O3CH>=:0 =0 0:B82=>5 ?8B0=85.  MB><C 2@5<5=8 D8;LB@CNI89 0??0@0B @54CF8@C5BAO, 6015@=>5 4KE0=85 70<5=O5BAO ;53>G=K< 8 :>6=K<. 0;L=59H0O AC4L10 ;O3CH0B 7028A8B >B >18;8O 682KE :>@<>2 (B@C1>G=8:0, M=E8B@58, <>BK;O) 8 A2>52@5<5==>9 8E A>@B8@>2:8 ?> @07<5@0<. !=>20 ?@820; y 2>B, <K A 20<8, C20605<K9 G8B0B5;L, ?>7=0:><8;8AL 8 A 682>B=K< =0A5;5=85< 0:20@8C<0, E>BO 5I5 8 =5 A @K10<8. >6=> =5<=>3> 8 >B4>E=CBL. 0: 2848<, 5ABL =5<0;> 8=B5@5A=59H8E 682>B=KE - =0A5:><KE, @0:>>1@07=KE, <>;;NA:>2, G5@5?0E, ;O3CH5:,- A?>A>1=KE =5 B>;L:> C:@0A8BL =0H 4><0H=89 2>4>5<, => 8 AB0BL >1J5:B>< C2;5:0B5;L=KE 8AA;54>20=89 8 =01;N45=89.  G8A;> MB8E =5@K1=KE >18B0B5;59 0:20@8C<0 1C45B, =5A><=5==>, C25;8G820BLAO 8 40;LH5. !> A;54CNI59 3;02K <K =0G=5< 7=0:><8BLAO 8 A @K10<8.  =0 ?@820;5 ?>3>2>@8< > B><, :0:85 0:20@8C<K ?@83>4=K 4;O 2A5E MB8E 682>B=KE. >4=KE :;>?>2, 6C:0?;02C=F0 8 B5< 1>;55 53> ?@>6>@;82KE ;8G8=>: A>45@60BL =04>, :>=5G=>, =5 2 >1I5< 45:>@0B82=>< 0:20@8C<5, 0 2 ?@54=07=0G5==KE 4;O =8E A>AC40E. ;O =5:>B>@KE =0A5:><KE (15;>AB><K, ;8G8=:8 ?;02C=F0) ?@8E>48BAO 2K45;OBL ?5@A>=0;L=>5 68;8I5 8 45@60BL 8E ?>>48=>G:5. &818AB5@K <>3CB 68BL 8 2 45:>@0B82=>< 0:20@8C<5. O3CH5: =5;L7O A>45@60BL 2<5AB5 A G5@5?0E0<8 - ?>A;54=85 A:;>==K =0?040BL =0 =8E. >;LH8=AB2> 682>B=KE, > :>B>@KE O @0AA:07K20;, @0AB5=8O< =5 2@54OB. A:;NG5=85 A>AB02;ONB 0<?C;O@88 8 2>4=K5 G5@5?0E8. @0240, <0;5=L:85 G5@5?0H:8 @0AB5=89 =5 ?>@BOB. > ?> <5@5 @>AB0 (:>340 8E ?0=F8@L 4>AB8305B 8 A0=B8<5B@>2 8 1>;55) 2>4=K5 G5@5?0E8 (:@><5 0<84K) =0G8=0NB C?>B@51;OBL 8 @0AB8B5;L=CN ?8IC. -B> A;54C5B 8<5BL 2 284C: 5A;8 G5@5?0E8 1C4CB ?>;CG0BL 2 4>AB0B:5 ?;020NI85 @OA:C, ?0?>@>B=8: 8;8 4065 ;8ABLO >1KG=>3> A0;0B0, >=8 =0 3;C18=5 @0AB5=8O< 2@548BL =5 1C4CB. ;O G5@5?0E 8 75<=>2>4=KE (B@8B>=>2, 65@;O=>:) =C6=K ?;020NI85 >AB@>2:8 - 87 4>I5G:8 8;8 5I5 ;CGH5 87 ?5=>?;0AB0. AB@>2>: =04> 70D8:A8@>20BL ?@>2>;>:>9 =0 >?@545;5==>< <5AB5. A;8 0:20@8C< >A25I05BAO ;0<?0<8 =0:0;820=8O (<>I=>ABLN =5 1>;55 40 20BB), >AB@>2>: @07<5I0NB ?>4 =8<8, =0 @0AAB>O=88 =5 1;865 1520 A0=B8<5B@>2. 5?;>E> >AB@>2>: >75;5=8BL. ;O MB>3> 87 2>4K 4>AB0NB :><:8 ?;020NI53> <E0 @8GG88 8 ?><5I0NB =0 :@09 B0:, GB>1K G0ABL ?CG:0 :0A0;0AL 2>4K. >340 MB> A:>?;5=85 @8GG88 =0G=5B @0AB8 2=5 2>4K, =0 >AB@>2>: ?><5I0NB 5I5 ?CG>: <E0 - ?>:0 2AO 53> ?>25@E=>ABL =5 ?@52@0B8BAO 2 10@E0B=K9 75;5=K9 :>25@.  ?>A;54=89 A>25B. >GB8 2A5E >?8A0==KE 2KH5 682>B=KE A;54C5B A>45@60BL 2 70:@KB>< 0:20@8C<5 157 I5;59 <564C :@KH:>9 8 AB5=:0<8 2>4>5<0: =0A5:><K5 ;53:> 2K18@0NBAO 87 2>4K 8 E>@>H> ;5B0NB; 0<?C;O@88 <>3CB 2K?>;7B8 2 ?>8A:0E ?>4E>4OI53> <5AB0 4;O :;04:8 O8F, C?0ABL 8 @0718BLAO; G5@5?0E8 ?>4=8<0NBAO ?> <0;59H8< =5@>2=>ABO<; 0 :0: <>3CB C4@0BL ;O3CH:8, 2K 8 A0<8, =025@=>5, ?@54AB02;O5B5. @02 ;8 1K; 5@>4>B? 20 25:0 =0704 ?@8 87CG5=88 B@C4>2 4@52=8E 02B>@>2 CG5=K5 =0B>;:=C;8AL =0 A>>1I5=85 3@5G5A:>3> 8AB>@8:0 5@>4>B0 > @K10E, :>B>@K5 682CB =0 ACH5. AB5AB25==>, 2A5@L57 >=8 MB> =5 2>A?@8=O;8. 54L 2A5< 8725AB=>, GB> @K10 - 68B5;L 2>4K, 4KH8B 601@0<8, 0 2>74CE =0 601@K 459AB2C5B 3C18B5;L=>, ACH8B 8E, 8 @K10 A@07C ?>38105B. G5284=>, @5H8;8 8AA;54>20B5;8 5@>4>B0, A>>1I5=85 > ACE>?CB=KE @K10E - =5;5?>ABL, 2K720==0O B5<, GB> 02B>@C @0AA:070;8 ;535=4C :0: D0:B, 0 >= =5 ?@>25@8; 8 2?8A0; 2 A2>9 B@C4.  24@C3 ?@8 87CG5=88 B5:AB>2 4@C3>3> 02B>@0 - @8AB>B5;O - =0H;8 A>25@H5==> ?>E>655 A>>1I5=85. @8AB>B5;L ?8A0;, GB> 5ABL =0 A25B5 @K1K, :>B>@K5 =5 B>;L:> <>3CB 4>;3>5 2@5<O 68BL 157 2>4K, => 8 A?>A>1=K ?>:840BL 2>4>5<K 8 ?CB5H5AB2>20BL ?> ACH5. B>@>5 A>>1I5=85 70AB028;> CG5=KE8AB>@8:>2 704C<0BLAO. @83;0A8;8 4;O :>=AC;LB0F88 7>>;>3>2 - A?5F80;8AB>2 ?> @K10<. "5?5@L B0:8E CG5=KE =07K20NB 8EB8>;>30<8. EB8>;>38O (>B 3@5G5A:8E A;>2 8EB8> - @K10, ;>3>A - A;>2>, ?>=OB85, CG5=85) - MB> >B@0A;L 7>>;>388, 87CG0NI0O 687=L @K1. > 2 A5@548=5 XVIII 25:0 =0C:0 > @K10E 1K;0 5I5 >G5=L A;01> @0728B0 8 =5 2K45;O;0AL 2 A?5F80;L=K9 @0745; 7>>;>388. >A<>B@5;8 A?5F80;8ABK ?> @K10< >10 B5:AB0, ?>4C<0;8 8 @5H8;8, GB> B0:8E @K1 1KBL =5 <>65B. 848<>, 4@52=85 02B>@K ?@>AB> ?5@5?8A0;8 ;535=4C >48= C 4@C3>3>. > BCB 8AB>@8:8 =0B>;:=C;8AL C65 =5 =0 :@0B:>5 >?8A0=85, 0 =0 F5;K9 B@0:B0B, ?>A2OI5==K9 MB><C 2>?@>AC. "5>D@0AB 2 A2>59 :=835  @K10E, :>B>@K5 682CB =0 ACH5 A>>1I0;, GB> 2 =488 5ABL @K1K, :>B>@K5 2KE>4OB 87 @5:, ?>;70NB ?> ACH5, 0 70B5< 2>72@0I0NBAO >1@0B=> 2 2>4C. "5?5@L <=5=8O 7>>;>3>2 @0745;8;8AL. 4=8 =0G0;8 :>;510BLAO: 0 =5B ;8 2 40;5:>9 =488 8 2 A0<>< 45;5 B0:8E =5>1KG=KE @K1? @C385 ?>?@56=5<C AG8B0;8 2A5 MB8 A>>1I5=8O A:07:>9. -@C=40,- 3>@OG8;8AL >=8.- @>AB> 4@52=85 =5 2845;8 @07=8FK <564C @K10<8 8 75<=>2>4=K<8. 0725 =5 OA=>, GB> >=8 8<5;8 2 284C 8<5==> 75<=>2>4=KE. !<>B@8B5, ;O3CH:0 8 B@8B>= B>65 ?@52@0I0NBAO 87 2>4=KE 68B5;59 - 3>;>20AB8:>2 2 68B5;59 =075<=KE, 0 2 ?5@8>4 @07<=>65=8O 2>72@0I0NBAO 2 2>4C 8 B0< <5GCB 8:@C. ->65B 1KBL, 8 B0:,- =5@5H8B5;L=> 2>7@060;8 ?5@2K5.- > B>340 =5?>=OB=>, ?>G5<C 4@52=85 >B;8G=> 2845;8 @07=8FC <564C @K10<8 8 75<=>2>4=K<8 2 2@>?5 8 ?CB0;8 8E 2 =488. -C, MB> B>65 OA=>,- 3>2>@8;8 8E ?@>B82=8:8.- 1 =488 2 B5 2@5<5=0 1K;> A;>65=> <=>3> ;535=4. 0 8 =K=5 @0AA:07K20NB GC45A0 ?@> MBC AB@0=C. 'B> 6 BCB C482;OBLAO? 564C B5< 8AA;54>20B5;8 =0H;8 5I5 >48= 4>:C<5=B, >B=>AOI89AO C65 : IX 25:C. -B> 1K;0 @C:>?8AL >4=>3> E@8AB80=A:>3> <>=0E0, :>B>@K9 >?8AK20; GC45A0 =488 A> A;>2 0@01>2:C?F>2. 82CB B0<,- ?8A0; >=,- ;N48 A A>10GL8<8 3>;>20<8, 0 1>30BAB2 C =8E AB>;L:>, GB> <>AB>2K5 =0 4>@>30E <>ABOB 7>;>BK< :0<=5<.  5I5 5ABL 2 B>9 AB@0=5 =5<0;> GC45A, 4065 @K1K B0< E>4OB ?> ACH5 8 2718@0NBAO =0 ?0;L<K. ->B 2848B5,- A=>20 70A?>@8;8 B5, :B> E>B5; ?>25@8BL 2 ACI5AB2>20=85 =5>1KG=KE ACE>?CB=KE @K1.- 5 <>3;8 65 2A5 MB8 ;N48, 682H85 2 @07=KE AB@0=0E 8 2 @07=K5 AB>;5B8O, ?5@5?8AK20BL >4=C 8 BC 65 =5;5?CN ;535=4C. --B> A>>1I5=85 <>=0E0,- CB25@640;8 4@C385,- :0: @07 8 4>:07K205B, GB> 2A5 A2545=8O ?@> ?>;70NI8E @K1 - 2K4C<:0. 535=4K > GC45A0E =488 68;8 4> B5E ?>@, ?>:0 ?>@BC30;LFK 2> 3;025 A 0A:> 40 0<0 =5 =0H;8 ?CBL 2 MBC AB@0=C ?> <>@N 8 =5 C2845;8, GB> GC45AB> B0< =5B =8:0:8E. >4>1=> B><C, :0: C<5@;0 ;535=40 > ;N4OE A A>10GL8<8 3>;>20<8 8 7>;>BKE 4>@>30E, C<@5B A> 2@5<5=5< 8 A:07:0 > ACE>?CB=KE @K10E. #G5=K<, 25@82H8< 2 ACI5AB2>20=85 ?>;70NI8E @K1, B>340 B@C4=> 1K;> 2>7@060BL =0 MB>.  1797 3>4C ;59B5=0=B 40BA:>3> D;>B0 0;L4>@D >?C1;8:>20; A2>8 2?5G0B;5=8O >B ?>574:8 2 =48N. !@548 ?@>G53> >= >?8AK20; 8 =5>1KG=KE ACE>?CB=KE @K1. 4=C 87 =8E O ?>9<0; A>1AB25==K<8 @C:0<8 =0 ?0;L<5 2 C3;C1;5=88 ;8AB0. 45AL 1K;> =51>;LH>5 :>;8G5AB2> 2>4K, 2 :>B>@>9 8 ;560;0 @K10. !=0G0;0 O @5H8;, GB> >=0 ?>?0;0 AN40 87 ;0? E8I=>9 ?B8FK, :>B>@0O ?>G5<CB> =5 CA?5;0 55 C18BL 8 AJ5ABL. > 2?>A;54AB288 O =5 @07 2845;, :0: MB8 C4828B5;L=K5 @K1K 2KE>4OB 87 2>4K 8 ;>2:> ;57C3 =0 ?0;L<C ?> <>E=0B>9 :>@5, F5?;OOAL 70 =55 A2>8<8 H8?0<8. !>>1I5=85 0;L4>@D0 =045;0;> <=>3> HC<0, A=>20 2K720;> <=>3> A?>@>2, 1K;> ?5@5?5G0B0=> 2 =0CG=KE B@C40E @07=KE 7>>;>3>2, => B0: 8 =5 2=5A;> OA=>AB8 2 2>?@>A. !> 2@5<5=5< 52@>?59A:85 7>>;>38 =0G0;8 ?>A5I0BL =>2K5 :>;>=88 8 87CG0BL 8E ?@8@>4C. >B BCBB> 8 2>AB>@65AB2>20;8 B5, :B> AG8B0;, GB> 5@>4>B 2 2>?@>A5 > ACE>?CB=KE @K10E =5 >H810;AO. #G5=K5 >1=0@C68;8 @K1:C, :>B>@CN <5AB=K5 68B5;8 =07K20;8 B0<>C;5?0C=585@8, GB> 2 ?5@52>45 >7=0G0;> - @K10, :0@01:0NI0OAO =0 45@52>. -B>9 @K1:5 40;8 =0CG=>5 =0720=85 Anabas splendes, GB> >7=0G05B 0=010A ;07OI89 (A>2@5<5==>5 =0720=85 - A. testudineus).  A0<>< 45;5 MB0 C4828B5;L=0O @K1:0 ?>;70;0 ?> ACH5. > 45;0;0 >=0 MB> =5 ?@>AB> B0:, 87 ;N128 : ACE>?CB=><C >1@07C 687=8, 0 2 A2O78 A >AB@>9 =5>1E>48<>ABLN. 825B 0=010A 2 <5;:8E, E>@>H> ?@>3@5205<KE 2>4>5<0E.  >A>15==> 70ACH;82K5 3>4K B0:85 2>4>5<K 2KAKE0NB. ;O @K1=>3> =0A5;5=8O - MB> B@03548O, MB> AB@0H=0O <0AA>20O A<5@BL. > =5 4;O 0=010A0. =010A 2K?>;705B 87 2KA>EH53> ?@C40 8 ?> B@025, F5?;OOAL 70 55 AB515;L:8 ?;02=8:0<8 8 6015@=K<8 :@KH:0<8, =0 :>B>@KE 5ABL 4;O MB>3> >A>1K5 H8?K, 8 <54;5==> ?>;75B 2 ?>8A:0E 2>4K. '0I5 @K1:8 2K?>;70NB =>GLN, ?>4 CB@>, :>340 B@020 ?>:@KB0 @>A>9. >40 =5 ?0E=5B, => 25B5@ 3>=8B ?0@K 2>4K, 8 G0AB> 4065 G5;>25: >?@545;O5B ?> MB8< ?0@0<, GB> A:>@> 1C45B ?@C4 8;8 @5:0. 0 <5=O ?0E=C;> A2565ABLN,- 4C<05B CAB0;K9 >B 60@K ?CB=8:,- 7=0G8B, 345B> 1;87:> 2>4>5<. "0: >@85=B8@CNBAO 8 0=010AK. A;8 =0 B5@@8B>@88, >:@C60NI59 2KA>EH89 2>4>5<, =5B 1;87:> 4@C3>3> 2>4>5<0, 0=010A <>65B 8 ?>381=CBL. 54L MB> =5 :0:0OB> ACE>?CB=0O @K10, 0 A0<0O >1K:=>25==0O - 2>4O=0O.  =0 ACHC 0=010A 2K?>;705B ?>B><C, GB> 2 2>4>5<5 C65 =5B 2>4K 8 =04> 55 8A:0BL 345B> 2 4@C3>< <5AB5. >;3> 1KBL 157 2>4K >=, :>=5G=>, =5 A<>65B, ?>MB><C, :>340 =0 =53> ?0E=5B A2565ABLN A 45@520, >=, A?0A0OAL >B 60@:>3> A>;=F0, =5ACI53> A<5@BL, =0G=5B :0@01:0BLAO =0 45@52>. "5 @K1:8, :>B>@K< C405BAO 701@0BLAO, =0E>4OB >1KG=> 2 4C?;0E 8 ?07CE0E ;8ABL52 <0;5=L:85 =5?5@5AKE0NI85 2>4>5<G8:8. -B8 2>4>5<G8:8 B0: >1KG=K 2 B@>?8G5A:8E ;5A0E, GB> =5:>B>@K5 <5AB=K5 ;O3CH:8 4065 CB@0B8;8 A?>A>1=>ABL <5B0BL 8:@C 2 ?@C40E 8;8 @5:0E. =8 >B:;04K20NB 55 B>;L:> 2 2>4>5<0E 4C?;0 8;8 ?07CE8 ;8AB0, 8 745AL 8E ?>B><AB2> ?@>E>48B 2A5 AB0488 @0728B8O.  MB8EB> :@>E>B=KE ;C60E 0=010AK 8 ?5@56840NB 70ACEC. > AB>8B ?@>9B8 ;82=N, :0: A 45@52L52 AK?;NBAO 0=010AK, A?5H0 2 @>4=>9 2>4>5<. 5B@C4=> ?>=OBL, >B:C40 C <5AB=KE 68B5;59 @0=LH5 ACI5AB2>20;0 ;535=40 > 4>1@>< 1>35, ?>AK;02H5< A =510 2:CA=KE @K1.  <OA> C 0=010A0, 459AB28B5;L=>, 2:CA=>5. 3> A C4>2>;LAB285< 54OB 8=489FK. > G5< >=8 ;>2OB? #4>G:>9? !5BLN? 5@H59? 5B, ;>2OB& ;>?0B>9. 0, ?@>AB>9 ;>?0B>9. > 2@5<O 70ACE8 =5 2A5 0=010AK CE>4OB 87 2>4>5<0. '0ABL 87 =8E 70@K205BAO 2 8; 8 B0< ;568B 157 42865=8O 4> ?5@2KE 4>6459. 5AB=K5 68B5;8 ?@8E>4OB =0 B0:>9 70A>EH89 2>4>5<, ?>4@K20NB ;>?0B>9 8; 8 A:;04K20NB @K1 2 :>@78=:C. =010AK 1KAB@> ?@8E>4OB 2 A51O - 2 8;5 >=8 ;560;8 >F5?5=52 - 8 AB@5<OBAO C;87=CBL 87 :>@78=K, ?>MB><C 8E ?;>B=> 70:@K20NB :@KH:>9. 0 @K=:5 MB8E @K1 45@60B 2 45@52O==>9 ;>E0=:5 ?> A>B=5 HBC: 8 1>;LH5, 0 8=>340 2 B5E 65 :>@78=0E A <>:@>9 B@02>9.  G5< 65 45;>? >G5<C 0=010AK <>3CB =0E>48BLAO 2=5 2>4K? =0G8B, >=8 4KH0B 2>74CE><? 0 8 =5 B>;L:> 0=010AK, 0 F5;0O 3@C??0 @>4AB25==KE @K1. =8 @0A?@>AB@0=5=K 2 ?@5A=KE 2>4>5<0E .3>>AB>G=>9 788 8 D@8:8.  =8< >B=>AOBAO <0:@>?>4K, <0;5=L:85, C<5NI85 2>@G0BL B@8E>?A8AK, =56=K5 ;N18B5;8 G8AB>9 2>4K ;O;8CAK, A>;84=K5 0D@8:0=A:85 E8I=8:8:B5=>?><K, 3C@0<8, B@8E>30AB@K 8 4@. -BC 3@C??C =07K20NB 8 ?>4@C3><C - ;018@8=B>2K5 @K1K. >G5<C B0:>5 =0720=85? 0: 8725AB=>, ;018@8=B - MB> 70?CB0==>5 A>>@C65=85, 87 :>B>@>3> >G5=L B@C4=> 2K1@0BLAO.  ?@8 G5< 65 BCB @K1K? > >1 MB>< 2 A;54CNI59 3;025. 018@8=B A ;018@8=B>< # D@0=FC7A:>3> CG5=>3> L5@0 0@1>=L5 1K;0 C4828B5;L=0O AB@0ABL. = <5GB0; 0::;8<0B878@>20BL 2> $@0=F88, ?>4 0@865<, 2A5E A0<KE 70<5G0B5;L=KE 682>B=KE, >1=0@C65==KE 2 B@>?8:0E. #<>< 0@1>=L5 ?>=8<0;, GB> B@>?8G5A:85 682>B=K5 =5 A<>3CB 68BL 8 @072820BLAO 2 AC@>2>< 4;O =8E :;8<0B5 $@0=F88, => A5@4F5< >= =8:0: =5 E>B5; A MB8< A>3;0A8BLAO. 4=064K 0@1>=L5 C7=0;, GB> 2 <5@8:5 2>48BAO =51>;LH>9 A>< - Amiurus nebulosus (A>2@5<5==>5 =0720=85 - Ictalurus nebulosus). # MB>3> A><0 >G5=L =56=>5 8 2:CA=>5 <OA>, >= ;53:> 8 1KAB@> @07<=>605BAO. -@5:@0A=>,- 2>A:;8:=C; 0@1>=L5,- 2K?8H5<:0 53> 2 0@86! K?8A0;.  2K?CAB8; F5;CN ?0@B8N MB8E @K1 2 !5=C, GCBL 2KH5 0@860.  C65 G5@57 420 3>40 2 702>4OE @5:8 C40;>AL =09B8 <0;5=L:8E A><8:>2. -#@0,- B>@65AB2>20; 0@1>=L5,- 0::;8<0B870F8O C40;0AL. >8I5<:0 B5?5@L 5I5 GB>=81C4L 8=B5@5A=>5.  CG5=K9 C3;C18;AO 2 :=838. !@548 4@C38E ?>?0;0AL 5<C 2 @C:8 :=830 0=3;8G0=8=0 ><<5@A>=0, 2 :>B>@>9 >?8AK20;8AL @K1K, 2AB@5G5==K5 2> 2@5<O ?CB5H5AB28O ?> .3>>AB>G=>9 788. ><<5@A>= ?8A0;: "# MB8E @K1 >G5=L =56=>5 <OA>,- 3>2>@8; <=5 BC75<5F.- K @072>48< 8E 2 ?@C40E, 0 ?>B>< A?CA:05< 2>4C 8 ;>28< @K1. / =0?@028;AO : MB8< ?@C40<. >40 =0 ?>25@E=>AB8 >4=>3> 87 =8E B> 8 45;> H;0 :@C30<8. / A5; =0 15@53 8 AB0; =01;N40BL. 7 3;C18=K 2K?;K20;8 H8@>:85 ;>10ABK5 @K1K, B0@0I8;8 =0 <5=O 3;070 8, 2KAC=C2 87 2>4K :>=G8: <>@4K, =NE0;8 2>74CE". -0: 7>2CB MB8E @K1?- A?@>A8; ><<5@A>= BC75<F0. -C@0<8. "0:>5 =0720=85 =5 ?>4>945B,- ?>4C<0; 0=3;8G0=8=.- 04>, GB>1K =0720=85 >B@078;> GB>;81> E0@0:B5@=>5 4;O 40==>9 @K1K. >G5<C >=8 2KA>2K20NBAO 87 2>4K? 848<>, C =8E A8;L=> @0728B> >1>=O=85.  ><<5@A>= 40; @K1:5 =0CG=>5 =0720=85 Osphronemus olfax, GB> 2 2>;L=>< ?5@52>45 >7=0G05B - >1>=ONI89 (A>2@5<5==>5 =0720=85 - . goramy). 'B> 65 B0: 708=B5@5A>20;> 0@1>=L5 2 MB>< @0AA:075? #G5=K9 >1@0B8; 2=8<0=85 =0 B>, GB>, ?> A;>20< ><<5@A>=0, ?@C4 1C:20;L=> :8H5; MB8<8 :@C?=K<8 @K10<8. =0G8B, >=8 >G5=L ?@>4C:B82=K 8 8E <>6=> 2K@0I820BL 2 ?@C40E. > MB>3> <0;>. 0@1>=L5 ?>4>H5; : :=86=>9 ?>;:5 8 A=O; >4=C 87 :=83 <=>3>B><=>9 AB5AB25==>9 8AB>@88 @K1 N2L5 8 0;0=AL5. 0: >:070;>AL, N2L5 8 0;0=AL5 =5 2845;8 2 682>< 2845 =8 0=010A0, =8 3C@0<8, =5 =01;N40;8 70 8E ?>204:0<8. 10 02B>@0 ?@5?0@8@>20;8 70A?8@B>20==K5 M:75<?;O@K 0=010A0. 0 >1KG=K<8 6015@=K<8 4C6:0<8 >=8 >1=0@C68;8 5I5 :0:85B> 284>87<5=5==K5 4C38, A>AB>OI85 87 B>=G09H8E ?;0AB8=>:. %>4K 8 ?>2>@>BK <564C MB8<8 ?;0AB8=:0<8 1K;8 =0AB>;L:> 70?CB0==K<8, GB> N2L5 =0720; MB>B >@30= ;018@8=B><. > 70G5< MB>B ;018@8=B 0=010AC? -G5284=>,- @0AAC640; N2L5,- AN40, 2 MB>B ;018@8=B>2K9 0??0@0B, @K10 =018@05B 70?0A 2>4K, 8, :>340 >=0 ?5@518@05BAO 87 2>4>5<0 2 2>4>5<, 601@K C2;06=ONBAO, GB> ?@54>B2@0I05B 8E 2KAKE0=85. 0: 7=0BL, 5A;8 1K N2L5 2=8<0B5;L=> >B=5AAO : ?@5?0@8@>20==><C 8< 0=010AC 8 704C<0;AO =04 25;8G8=>9 601@ 8 ;018@8=B0 @K1:8, <>65B 1KBL, C =53> 8 2>7=8: 1K 2>?@>A: :0: 2 B0:>< :@>E>B=>< ;018@8=B5 C<5I05BAO AB>;L:> 2>4K, GB> 55 E20B05B 4;O A<0G820=8O 1>;LH8E ?>25@E=>AB59 601@ @K1K 2 B5G5=85 <=>38E G0A>2? > B0: 8;8 8=0G5, 0 2>?@>A A ;018@8=B>< 4;O N2L5 1K; @5H5=. 8:B> =5 708=B5@5A>20;AO MB8< 2>?@>A><, ?>:0 0@1>=L5 =5 C2;5:AO 84559 0::;8<0B870F88 3C@0<8 2> $@0=F88. ->4C<0BL B>;L:>,- 2>AE8I0;AO M:A?0=A82=K9 D@0=FC7.- 54L 5A;8 3C@0<8 8 0=010AK ?@8682CBAO 2 ?@C40E, MB> 1C45B A0<0O ;0:><0O @K10.-  >= @5H8; ?@8257B8 2> $@0=F8N ?0@B8N 3C@0<8.  =0H5 2@5<O 8EB8>;>38 4>AB02;ONB @K1 87 AB@0=K 2 AB@0=C 8 4065 =0 4@C3>9 :>=B8=5=B 157 >A>1KE E;>?>B. K1 ?><5I0NB 2 >A>1K5 A>AC4K - :0==K, A45;0==K5 >1KG=> 87 =5@6025NI59 AB0;8 8;8 0;N<8=8O. # =0A ?@8<5=ONB A0<K5 A>25@H5==K5 :0==K - 87 >@30=8G5A:>3> AB5:;0: G5@57 =53> <>6=> A;548BL, :0: GC2AB2CNB A51O @K1K. 7 >A>1>3> 10;;>=0 2 :0==K ?>405BAO :8A;>@>4, 0 8=>340 ?@>AB> =03=5B05BAO 2>74CE. >40 =0AKI05BAO :8A;>@>4>< 8 ?5@5<5H8205BAO AB@CQ9 3070. K1K ?@8 MB>< GC2AB2CNB A51O E>@>H> 8 4>5760NB =0 1KAB@KE A>2@5<5==KE B5?;>E>40E 8;8 A0<>;5B0E ?>GB8 157 ?>B5@L. > B0: ?5@52>7OB @K1 B5?5@L.  B>340& 35=BK 0@1>=L5 2 =4>:8B05 =0;>28;8 2A5E 70:070==KE 8< @K1. 45AL 1K;8 N@:85 ?>;>A0BK5 @K1:8 A> 72>=:8< =0720=85< 40=8>, @07=>F25B=K5 CA0G810@1CAK 8, :>=5G=>, 3C@0<8. A5E @K1>: 70?CAB8;8 2 1>;LHCN 1>G:C, :>B>@CN 70:@5?8;8 =0 ?0;C15 CE>4OI53> 2 2@>?C ?0@>E>40. > 2@5<O ?;020=8O AC4=> G0AB> 8A?KBK20;> :0G:C 8, GB>1K 2>40 87 1>G:8 =5 2K?;5A:820;0AL, 0 @K1:8 =5 2K;5B5;8 70 1>@B, =0 2>4C A25@EC ?>;>68;8 45@52O==K9 :@C3.  ?CB8 @K1 =5 :>@<8;8 8 2>74CE 2 1>G:C =5 ?>44C20;8. 0@>E>4K B>340 ?;K;8 =5 A?5H0, A G5@5?0HL59 A:>@>ABLN, G5@57 =489A:89 >:50=, <8<> <KA0 >1@>9 04564K, 24>;L 70?04=>3> 15@530 D@8:8 8 A?CABO 4>1@K9 45AOB>: =545;L 1;03>?>;CG=> 4>18@0;8AL 4> 0@A5;O 8;8 02@0. 45AL 8E 2AB@5G0;8 CG5=K58EB8>;>38, A 2>;=5=85< 703;O4K20;8 2 402=> >68405<CN 1>G:C 8& =0E>48;8 ?>GB8 2A5E @K1 74>@>2K<8! 525@>OB=>? G5=L 4065 25@>OB=>. 54L @K1K 2K=>A;82K 8 <>3CB 2K45@60BL 4;8B5;L=>5 3>;>40=85.  B><C 65 2 1>G:C A060;8 =5 B0: C6 <=>3> @K1 - =5 A>B=8, :0: 2 A>2@5<5==CN 0M@8@C5<CN :0==C, 0 :0:8E=81C4L 420B@8 45AOB:0. >=5G=>, =5 2A5 @K1K 4>5760;8 682K<8, =5:>B>@K5 =5 2K45@6820;8 B0:>9 ?5@52>7:8, => MB> 1K;8 >B45;L=K5 >A>18.  24@C3 2 1>G:5, :>B>@CN ?>;CG8; 0@1>=L5, =5 >:070;>AL =8 >4=>3> 682>3> 3C@0<8. 8 >4=>3>! @C385 @K1K 4>1@0;8AL 1;03>?>;CG=>, A@548 =8E ?>381;8 ;8HL 548=8FK, 0 3C@0<8 ?>381;8 2A5. -B> <>3;> A;CG8BLAO ?> 42C< ?@8G8=0<,- @5H8; 0@1>=L5.- 81> >=8 =5 ?5@5=5A;8 >1I5AB20 4@C38E @K1, ;81> 8E ?>18;> 45@52O==K< :@C3><. C GB> 6, :0: =8 ?5G0;L=>, ?@845BAO 2A5 ?>2B>@8BL. 53:> A:070BL - ?>2B>@8BL. @8H;>AL ?5@56840BL >A5=L 8 78<C 8 B>;L:> =0 A;54CNI55 ;5B> (254L =5 ?>2575HL B@>?8G5A:8E @K1, :>340 2 2@>?5 E>;>4=>) ?@8H5; B@0=A?>@B A 3C@0<8. @>60I8<8 >B 2>;=5=8O @C:0<8 0@1>=L5 ?@8?>4=8<05B :@09 ?0@CA8=K, :>B>@>9 =0 MB>B @07 1K;0 70:@KB0 1>G:0. ->65 <>9, :0:0O 4>A040!& 5@54 3;070<8 ?;020;8 ?>381H85 @K1K. - 5I5 @07 ?>2B>@8<,- C?@O<> A:070; 0@1>=L5.- 5@8B5 A0<KE <>;>4KE 8 ?@>2>@=KE @K1>:.  :0: <>6=> BI0B5;L=55 70:@K209B5 1>G:C. @>H;> 5I5 =5A:>;L:> <5AOF52.  A=>20 0@1>=L5 2 ?>@BC A 2>;=5=85< A<>B@8B =0 1>G:C. 3> =0<5B0==K9 273;O4 A@07C >?@545;O5B, GB> 1>G:0 70:@KB0 =51@56=> - :>5345 ?0@CA8=0 =5 ;568B =0 2>45, 0 28A8B =04 =5N. > @C30BLAO =5:>340. C:0 A@K205B ?0@CA8=C. & 8HL >4=0 @K1:0 87 2A59 ?0@B88 1K;0 682>9. ">;L:> >4=0! 0 8 B0 ;568B =0 1>:C 8 BO65;> 4KH8B. 5@56=> 4>AB02;O5B 0@1>=L5 4@03>F5==CN @K1:C 4><>9 8 ?CA:05B 55 2 A0<K9 3;C1>:89 0:20@8C<. =0 :0<=5< ?0405B =0 4=> 8 ;568B =0 1>:C, AC4>@>6=> 42830O 601@0<8. '53> 59 =5 E20B05B?- <CG8B5;L=> 4C<05B 0@1>=L5.- >40 A0<0O G8AB0O, 3;C18=0 4>AB0B>G=0O. = =5?>4286=> A848B >:>;> 0:20@8C<0, CAB@5<82 27>@ =0 70304>G=CN :0?@87=CN 3C@0<8. >G5<C 2A5 @K1K ?5@5=>AOB 4>@>3C 8 B>;L:> A MB8<8 B0:0O 1540? 4@C3 >= C2845;, GB> @K1:0 70H525;8;0AL, ?KB05BAO ?>4=OBLAO. >B >=0 C65 CAB@5<8;0AL : ?>25@E=>AB8, ?;02=8:8 55 M=5@38G=> @01>B0NB, => A8; =5 E20B05B, 3C@0<8 :0<=5< 845B =0 4=>. =0 B>=5B, :0: 1C4B> 2>40 - =5 @>4=0O 59 AB8E8O,- C482;O5BAO 0@1>=L5.- K1K A2>1>4=> @53C;8@CNB A2>5 ?>;>65=85 2 2>45 ?@8 ?><>I8 ?;020B5;L=>3> ?C7K@O. >65B 1KBL, >= ?0@0;87>20= C 3C@0<8? > >BG53>? 07<KH;5=8O CG5=>3> 1K;8 ?@5@20=K =>2>9 ?>?KB:>9 3C@0<8 4>AB8GL ?>25@E=>AB8 2>4K. K1:0 25;0 A51O, :0: ACE>?CB=>5 B>=CI55 ACI5AB2>. >B >=0 A45;0;0 ?>A;54=89 >BG0O==K9 @K2>:, =0 <83 2KAC=C;0AL 87 2>4K 8& 0@1>=L5 4065 ?@82AB0; >B 87C<;5=8O. --2@8:0!- 2A:@8G0; >=.- =0G8B, 3C@0<8 @53C;8@C5B 3;C18=C A ?><>ILN 2>74CE0, :>B>@K9 >=0 703;0BK205B 87 0B<>AD5@K! #G5=>3> 640; 8 5I5 >48= AN@?@87. C@0<8 ?;020;0 2A5 25A5;55, => B> 8 45;> ?>4?;K20;0 : ?>25@E=>AB8 8 3;>B0;0 2>74CE. -0 @0725 >=0 =NE05B?- 2>A:;8:=C;, =0:>=5F, 0@1>=L5.- =0 254L 4KH8B 0B<>AD5@=K< 2>74CE><! >B 2 G5< ?@8G8=0 3815;8 @K1 2 ?CB8,- ?@>4>;60; >=.- K 70:@K20;8 ?>25@E=>ABL 2>4K, 8 @K1K ;8H0;8AL 4>ABC?0 : 0B<>AD5@=><C 2>74CEC. "0: 2>B ?>G5<C >=8 381;8! 81;8? > 254L C =8E 5ABL 601@K. '5< 65 >=8 4KH0B: @0AB2>@5==K< 2 2>45 :8A;>@>4>< 8;8 0B<>AD5@=K< 2>74CE><? 0 MB>B 2>?@>A 0@1>=L5 ?>:0 >B25B8BL =5 <>3. > 7=0O ?@8G8=C =5C40G, >= >@30=87C5B =>2K5 ?5@52>7:8.  1873 3>4C ?@81K205B ?0@B8O 3C@0<8 - ?@81K205B ?>GB8 157 ?>B5@L!  1878 3>4C 2 2@>?C ?@85760NB 0=010AK.  C6 ?>B>< 2 0:20@8C<0E ?>O2;ONBAO 8 4@C385 ;018@8=B>2K5 @K1:8: 1>9F>2K5, B@8E>30AB@K, ;O;8CAK 8 4@. "5?5@L C65 =01;N45=8O<8 70=8<05BAO =5 >48= 0@1>=L5. 018@8=B>2K5 8=B5@5ACNB <=>38E CG5=KE 8 ;N18B5;59 0:20@8C<0. KOA=8;>AL, GB> @K1:8 8 2 A0<>< 45;5 =5 <>3CB 68BL 157 4>ABC?0 : ?>25@E=>AB8 2>4K. !B0;> >G5284=K<, GB> >1JOA=5=85 N2L5 8 0;0=AL5 >B=>A8B5;L=> @>;8 ;018@8=B>2>3> 0??0@0B0 :0: E@0=8;8I0 2>4K =5 2K45@68205B =8:0:>9 :@8B8:8. 0 A0<>< 45;5 MB>B >@30= =C65= @K10< 4;O 703;0BK20=8O 0B<>AD5@=>3> 2>74CE0. = 459AB2C5B =5 B>;L:> 2 70ACEC, => 8 2 B5G5=85 2A59 687=8 @K1:8. -BC >A>15==>ABL ;018@8=B>2KE CG5=K5 >1JOA=8;8 A;54CNI8< >1@07><. K1:8 682CB 2 <5;:8E, A8;L=> ?@>3@5205<KE A>;=F5< 2>4>5<0E, :>B>@K5 <>3CB 2KA>E=CBL. > 4065 5A;8 2 MB8E ;C60E 8 >AB0=5BAO =5<=>3> 2>4K, :8A;>@>40 2 =59 1C45B >G5=L 8 >G5=L <0;>. >B BCBB> 8 ?><>65B @K1:0< A?>A>1=>ABL 4KH0BL 0B<>AD5@=K< 2>74CE><. C@0<8 8 B@8E>30AB@K =5 <>3CB, :0: 0=010A, 2K?>;7B8 87 2>4>5<0, =0 70B> 8< =5 AB@0H=0 4065 A0<0O BCE;0O 2>40: >=8 8 2 =59 4>682CB 4> ?5@8>40 4>6459. >B ?>G5<C ;018@8=B>2K< =C65= 0B<>AD5@=K9 2>74CE.  5A;8 8E ;8H8BL 2>7<>6=>AB8 4KH0BL 8<, >=8 ?>381=CB 4065 2 A0<>9 G8AB>9 2>45. #G5=K5 ?@>45;0;8 B0:>9 >?KB: 70:@K;8 4;O MB8E @K1 4>ABC? : ?>25@E=>AB8 2>4K. =010A ?>381 C65 G5@57 12 <8=CB, 3C@0<8 8 1>9F>20O @K1:0 G5@57 10 <8=CB =0G0;8 ?@>O2;OBL 15A?>:>9AB2>, G5@57 20 - 7018;8AL 8 C?0;8 =0 1>:, 0 G5@57 35- 40 - B>65 ?>381;8. >;LH5 2A5E :070;AO A?>:>9=K< ;O;8CA. =0G8B, C 2A5E MB8E @K1 @07=0O ?>B@51=>ABL 2 0B<>AD5@=>< 2>74CE5: C 0=010A0 1>;LH0O, C ;O;8CA0 <5=LH0O. > 2 B> 65 2@5<O 2A5 MB8 @K1:8 @0=> 8;8 ?>74=> 704KE0NBAO 2 2>45 8 381=CB.  @07 ;018@8=B>2K5 @K1K 4KH0B =5 B>;L:> @0AB2>@5==K< 2 2>45 :8A;>@>4><, => 8 0B<>AD5@=K< 2>74CE><, 7=0G8B, >=8 42>O:>4KH0I85? 5B, MB>3> ?@> ;018@8=B>2KE A:070BL =5;L7O, 254L C =8E =5B >4=>2@5<5==> 8 601@, 8 ;53:8E. 0 8 ;018@8=B>2K9 0??0@0B - MB> =5 GB> 8=>5, :0: 284>87<5=5==K5 601@K.  2>B >?OBL 70?CB0;8AL CG5=K5. 'B> N2L5 1K; =5 ?@02 - MB> >G5284=>. > 8 CB25@640BL, GB> 0=010A 4KH8B =5?>A@54AB25==> 2>74CE>< 0B<>AD5@K, B>65 =5;L7O.  :>=F5 80E 3>4>2 ?@>1;5<>9 ;018@8=B>2>3> 0??0@0B0 708=B5@5A>20;AO 8725AB=K9 @CAA:89 8EB8>;>3 8:>;09 .@L528G >3@0D. <5AB5 A> A2>8<8 ?><>I=8:0<8 CG5=K9 ?@>25; BI0B5;L=>5 8AA;54>20=85 ;018@8=B>2>3> 0??0@0B0. KOA=8;>AL, GB> 8 >@30=B> MB>B =5 B0:>9 C6 ;018@8=B>2K9. # 0=010A0, =0?@8<5@, >= A>AB>O; 2A53> 87 B@5E :>AB=KE ?;0AB8=>:, >BAB>OI8E 4@C3 >B 4@C30 =0 @0AAB>O=88 1,52,5 <8;;8<5B@0. >45 745AL, :>=5G=>, =5345 7045@6820BLAO. > 70B> >3@0D >1=0@C68;, GB> ?>25@E=>ABL ;018@8=B0 ?>:@KB0 <5;LG09H8<8 :@>25=>A=K<8 A>AC40<8. :070;>AL, GB> C ;018@8=B>2KE : MB><C 0??0@0BC ?>4E>48;8 25=K 8 0@B5@88. 4CI0O : 601@0< 8 ;018@8=BC 25=>7=0O :@>2L >B =8E 845B C65 >1>30I5==0O :8A;>@>4><. 018@8=B>2K9 0??0@0B, A;54>20B5;L=>, >:070;AO 284>87<5=5==>9 :>=AB@C:F859 601@, ?@8A?>A>1;5==>9 4;O >1>30I5=8O :@>28 :8A;>@>4>< 87 0B<>AD5@=>3> 2>74CE0. =0G8B, ?@02K B5, :B> CB25@640;, GB> ;018@8=B>2K5 - 42>O:>4KH0I85? 8G53> ?>4>1=>3>. >74CE 2 ;018@8=B>2K9 0??0@0B ?>?0405B =5 =5?>A@54AB25==>, =5 ACE>9, :0: 2 ;53:85 =075<=KE 682>B=KE 8;8 =0AB>OI8E 42>O:>4KH0I8E @K1. 03;0BK20O 2>74CE A ?>25@E=>AB8, MB8 @K1K >12>;0:820NB 53> B>=:>9 ?;5=:>9 2>4K.  2>B MB>BB> ?C7K@5: 2>74CE0 ?>?0405B 2 ;018@8=B. 07>>1<5= ?@>8AE>48B =5 =5?>A@54AB25==>, 0 G5@57 2>4O=CN ?;5=:C, >:@C60NICN 2>74CE. >340 2 0:20@8C<5 2>40 =5A2560O, <=>385 @K1:8 2@5<O >B 2@5<5=8 ?>4?;K20NB : ?>25@E=>AB8 8, G02:0O, 703;0BK20NB ?C7K@L:8 2>74CE0. C7K@L:8 ?@>E>4OB G5@57 601@K, 8 :0:0OB> G0ABL :8A;>@>40 CA?5205B ?@>9B8 A:2>7L ?;5=:C ?C7K@L:>2 8 CA208205BAO 601@0<8. "0: 45;0NB 7>;>BK5 @K1:8, :0@?K 8 4@C385, :>340 2 2>45 <0;> :8A;>@>40.  N@:85 :@0A028FK E0@0F8=84K 87 .6=>9 <5@8:8 ?>AB>O==> 703;0BK20NB ?C7K@L:8 2>74CE0 8 :0B0NB 8E 2> @BC. >, :>=5G=>, =8:><C 8 2 3>;>2C =5 ?@845B =07K20BL MB8E @K1 42>O:>4KH0I8<8. 'B> :0A05BAO ;018@8=B>2KE, B> C =8E ?>B@51=>ABL 703;0BK20BL <>:@K5 ?C7K@L:8 2>74CE0 AB0;0 ?>AB>O==>9 - MB> ?>72>;8;> 8< ;CGH5 ?@8A?>A>18BLAO : A;>6=K< CA;>28O< ACI5AB2>20=8O. > 8E =0720BL 42>O:>4KH0I8<8 =5;L7O. "0: 1K; =0:>=5F =0945= 2KE>4 87 ;018@8=B0, 2 :>B>@>< 4>;3>5 2@5<O 1;C640;8 8EB8>;>38 2 ?>8A:0E ?@028;L=>3> >1JOA=5=8O ?@8=F8?0 459AB28O ;018@8=B>2>3> 0??0@0B0. > @0AA:07 > ;018@8=B>2KE @K1:0E =0 MB>< =5;L7O AG8B0BL 70:>=G5==K<. =574> 87 2>74CE0  >48= 87 >A5==8E 4=59 1846 3>40 G;5=K :045<88 =0C: $@0=F88 A>1@0;8AL =0 A2>5 >G5@54=>5 70A540=85. !;KH0;AO A45@60==K9 3C; 3>;>A>2. :045<8:8 15A54>20;8 > ?@54AB>OI5< 4>:;045. ->:;04 >AB0?  :B>, A>1AB25==>, MB>B >AB0? ->AB0, <AL5, MB> 4>2>;L=> 8725AB=K9 =K=5 7>>;>3. = ?>AB028; :0:85B> 8=B5@5A=K5 >?KBK A :>;NH:>9 8& ->3 <>9, A :>;NH:>9? C GB> 5I5 <>6=> A:070BL >1 MB>9 =8:G5<=>9 @K15H:5?& >AB0 =0G0; A2>5 A>>1I5=85. = >1AB>OB5;L=> 7=0:><8; A;CH0B5;59 A >A>15==>ABO<8 :>;NH:8. -B> 1K;> <0;>8=B5@5A=>, 8 :>5:B> 87 0:045<8:>2 C65 ?>4@5<K20; 2 CNB=>< :@5A;5.  24@C3 A>25@H5==> 2=570?=> B8H8=0 >1>@20;0AL. -"0:8< >1@07><, =0<8 1K;> CAB0=>2;5=>,- 3>2>@8; >AB0,- GB> A0<5F :>;NH:8 >E@0=O5B A2>5 ?>B><AB2> 2 A45;0==>< 8< 65 4;O 8:@K 3=5745. ->B B515 8 @07& - @0AB5@O;8AL >4=8.- A?>:>= 25:>2 ;N48 7=0;8, GB> @K10 =5 701>B8BAO > A2>5< ?>B><AB25, GB> >=0 A?5H8B @071@>A0BL 8:@C, 0 GB> 40;LH5 1C45B, 55 =5 :0A05BAO.  2>B =0 B515 - @K10 >E@0=O5B ?>B><AB2>! -5 <>65B 1KBL,- 3>@OG8;8AL =525@CNI85.- -B> ?@>AB> A;CG09=>5 A>2?045=85. > =5B, >?KB ?>2B>@8;8 - 8 ?>;CG8;>AL B> 65: A0<5F :>;NH:8, >452H8AL 2 1@0G=K9 =0@O4 8 A25@:0O 2A5<8 F25B0<8 @04C38, AB@>8; 87 B@02K 3=574>, ?@83;0H0; BC40 A0<>: 8 >E@0=O; ?>B><AB2>, O@>AB=> =0?040O =0 :064>3>, :B> ?@81;878BAO : 3=574C.  =5 CA?5;8 7>>;>38 >A<KA;8BL MB> =5>1KG=>5, ?> 8E <=5=8N, ?>2545=85 :>;NH:8, :0: 87 >AA88 ?>ABC?8;> 5I5 1>;55 A5=A0F8>==>5 A>>1I5=85. #65 402=> CG5=K5 >1@0B8;8 2=8<0=85 =0 8:@8=:8, :>B>@K5 8=>340 ?>?040;8AL 2 <0=B88 42CAB2>@G0BKE <>;;NA:>2. 'L8 MB> 8:@8=:8, :0: >=8 ?>?040NB 2 @0:CH:C, :>B>@0O >B <0;59H53> ?@8:>A=>25=8O B>BG0A 70E;>?K205BAO?  ?>:0 <=>385 7>>;>38 2KA:07K20;8 @07;8G=K5 4>304:8, @CAA:89 CG5=K9 0A;>2A:89 27O; MB8 8:@8=:8 40 8 2K@0AB8; 87 =8E @K1.  >:070;8AL MB8 B08=AB25==K5 @K1K A0<K<8 >1KG=K<8 3>@G0:0<8! > :0: ?>?0;0 8:@0 3>@G0:0 2=CB@L @0:CH:8? 0A;>2A:89 ?@>25; =01;N45=8O, 8 5<C C40;>AL C2845BL, :0: ?0@0 3>@G0:>2 <5G5B 8:@C, :0: >=8 CA?520NB <>;=85=>A=>, ?@5645 G5< 70E;>?=5BAO @0:CH:0, >B;>68BL 2 <0=B8N 8:@8=:C 8 >?;>4>B2>@8BL 55. 0725 MB> 1K; =5 C4828B5;L=59H89 A?>A>1 701>B8BLAO > ?>B><AB25?  2 1864 3>4C >B C65 8725AB=>3> =0< >;O 0@1>=L5 ?>ABC?8;> 5I5 >4=> A=>3AH810B5;L=>5 A>>1I5=85: ;018@8=B>20O @K1:0 <0:@>?>4, >18B0B5;L @8A>2KE ?>;59 8 :0=02 .6=>3> 8B0O, AB@>8B 4;O A2>53> ?>B><AB20 3=574> 87& 2>74CE0. 0@1>=L5 B0: 8 =5 C40;>AL 0::;8<0B878@>20BL 3C@0<8 8 4@C38E 3>AB59 87 B@>?8:>2 2 @5:0E $@0=F88: 745AL 4;O =8E 1K;> A;8H:>< E>;>4=>. > =5CB><8<K9 8AA;54>20B5;L =5 >3>@G8;AO. = 7025; <=>3> 0:20@8C<>2, AB0; ?>4>3@520BL ?><5I5=85, 345 >=8 AB>O;8, 8 A C2;5G5=85< =01;N40; 687=L =57=0:><KE @K1.  =5<C ?@>4>;60;8 ?>ABC?0BL 2A5 =>2K5 @K1K; G0ABL 87 =8E @07<=>68;0AL, 8 >= ?@>4020; 87;8H:8 ;N18B5;O< 0:20@8C<0. >2>5 C2;5:0B5;L=>5 70=OB85 AB0;> C45;>< =5 B>;L:> 18>;>3>2, => 8 A>25@H5==> =5 A2O70==KE A 5AB5AB25==K<8 =0C:0<8 ;N459. !0< 0@1>=L5, E>BO 8 1K; >4=8< 87 ?5@2KE 8<?>@B5@>2 8 B>@3>2F52 0:20@8C<=K<8 @K10<8, 2A5B0:8 2 =01;N45=8OE >AB020;AO ?>?@56=5<C A5@L57=K< 8 24C<G82K< 8AA;54>20B5;5<. >B ?>G5<C 53> =01;N45=8O ?@54AB02;O;8 1>;LH>9 8=B5@5A. 4=064K 0@1>=L5 70<5B8; 2 C3;0E 0:20@8C<0 A <0:@>?>40<8 3CABCN ?5=C <5;:8E ?C7K@L:>2. !B@0==>,- ?>4C<0; >=,- 0:20@8C< G8AB, 2>40 ?@>7@0G=0O, >B:C40 65 ?5=0? 5=C 2KG5@?0;8. > =0702B@0 >=0 ?>O28;0AL ?> 2A59 :@><:5 2>4K. %;>?LO ?;020;8 ?>A@548=5, AB>O;8 F5?>G:>9 ?> :@0O<. 0@1>=L5 >BA048; <0:@>?>4>2 2 4@C3>9 0:20@8C<. > =5 ?@>H;> 8 42CE =545;L, :0: 8 B0< 2>7=8:;0 ?5=0. 'B>B> BCB =5 B0:,- @5H8; 8AA;54>20B5;L 8 AB0; =01;N40BL 70 <0:@>?>40<8. = C2845;, :0: 87 70@>A;59 @0AB5=89 2K?;K;0 @K1:0 (AC4O ?> 4;8==K< ?;02=8:0< 8 >:@0A:5 MB> 1K; A0<5F), ?>4>H;0 : >4=>9 87 :CG5: ?5=K, ?;020NI59 =0 ?>25@E=>AB8 2>4K, ?>AB>O;0 ?>4 =59, 2=8<0B5;L=> >3;O45;0 55 8 70B5< <>@4>G:>9 :>A=C;0AL ?>25@E=>AB8 2>4K. 84=> 1K;>, GB> <0:@>?>4 =5A:>;L:> @07 3;C1>:> 24>E=C; 0B<>AD5@=K9 2>74CE. C GB> 6, ?>:0 2A5 4>2>;L=> >1KG=>,- ?>4C<0; 0@1>=L5. > =5 CA?5; >= B0: A:070BL A515, :0: =0G0;>AL =5>1KG=>5. 0:@>?>4 =5<=>3> >?CAB8;AO 2=87 8 2AB0; B0:, GB> =>A 53> CB:=C;AO A=87C 2 H0?:C ?5=K. '5;NAB8 53> 7042830;8AL, :070;>AL, >= GB>B> CA8;5==> 6C5B, 87> @B0 ?>;5B5;0 225@E B>=5=L:0O AB@C9:0 15;KE ?C7K@L:>2. =8 ?>4=8<0;8AL : ?>25@E=>AB8 2>4K 8 ?@8A>548=O;8AL : ?;020NI59 B0< ?5=5. 0: 70G0@>20==K9, A845; 0@1>=L5 C 0:20@8C<0.  ?5=K B5< 2@5<5=5< AB0=>28;>AL 2A5 1>;LH5, >=0 C65 =5 ?@>AB> ?;020;0 ?> ?>25@E=>AB8, 0 ?>4=8<0;0AL 3>@:>9 =04 2>4>9. "5?5@L <0;5=L:89 AB@>8B5;L :0: 1K @>2=O; 8 >:@C3;O; A2>5 A>>@C65=85. 7 C3;0 0:20@8C<0, 345 =0E>48;8AL 4@C385 <0:@>?>4K, : ?5=5 G0AB> ?@81;860;8AL @K1:8. > =0H <0:@>?>4 O@>AB=> 1@>A0;AO =0 =8E 8 >B3>=O; ?@>GL.  2A5 65 0@1>=L5 70<5B8;, GB> >4=C @K1:C >= >B3>=O; A>2A5< =5 B0:, :0: 4@C38E. = 3=0;AO 70 =59 B0:, A;>2=> =5 E>B5; 4>3=0BL,- =8 A28@5?>9 AB@5<8B5;L=>AB8, =8 7;>1=>3> =0A:>:0.  >=0 C?;K20;0, 1C4B> 83@0O A =8< 2 ?OB=0H:8, 0 ?>B>< A=>20 8 A=>20 ?>O2;O;0AL >:>;> ?5=K. /A=>, GB> MB> A0<:0,- @0AAC640; 0@1>=L5.- >65B 1KBL, ?0@0 A>18@05BAO <5B0BL 8:@C? > ?@8G5< BCB ?5=0? B25B 0@1>=L5 ?>;CG8; =0 A;54CNI89 45=L. 0=> CB@>< 70=O; >= A2>5 <5AB> >:>;> 0:20@8C<0.  2>B ?@8 ?5@2KE ;CG0E 2>AE>4OI53> A>;=F0 C2845; C4828B5;L=CN :0@B8=C. !=>20 : ?5=5 ?>4?;K;0 A0<:0, A=>20 A0<5F, AB>O2H89 ?>4 H0?:>9 ?5=K, ?>25@=C;AO : =59, => =0 MB>B @07 >=0 =5 1@>A8;0AL =0CB5:, 0 >= =5 :8=C;AO 70 =59. 15 @K1:8 A>H;8AL =540;5:> >B ?5=K, 8 24@C3 A0<5F 2AB0; ?>?5@5: ?CB8 A0<:8, ?@O<> ?5@54 55 =>A><, B5;> 53> A;53:0 87>3=C;>AL 4C3>9, ?;02=8:8 ?KH=> @0A?@028;8AL, 8 >= 7083@0; 2 ;CG0E CB@5==53> A>;=F0 2A5<8 F25B0<8 @04C38. -0:0O :@0A>B0,- ?@>H5?B0; ?>@065==K9 CG5=K9.  <0:@>?>4, A;>2=> ?>=8<0O, =0A:>;L:> >= ?@5:@0A5=, B0: 8 :@CB8;AO A25@:0NI59 @04C3>9 >:>;> A5@>9 A:@><=>9 ?>4@C38, 2A5 H8@5 8 H8@5 @0A?@02;OO A2>5 >?5@5=85 8 2@5<O >B 2@5<5=8 2AB@OE820O 2A5<8 ?;02=8:0<8. @0G=K5 B0=FK C @K1?! > 254L <5=O 70A<5NB, ?>?@>1C9 O B>;L:> 708:=CBLAO >1 MB><,- 4C<0; 0@1>=L5, =5 >B@K20O 273;O40 >B GC45A=>9 AF5=K 2 0:20@8C<5. B> =5 7=05B 2K@065=89 E>;>45=, :0: @K10, @K1LO :@>2L?  BCB B0:>9 B5<?5@0<5=B! 564C B5< A>1KB8O 2 0:20@8C<5 @072>@0G820;8AL A2>8< G5@54><. !0<5F ?>AB5?5==> ?>42830;AO ?>4 H0?:C ?5=K, A0<:0, A;>2=> 70G0@>20==0O 53> :@0A>B>9, ?>A;CH=> A;54>20;0 70 =8<.  24@C3 ?>4 ?5=>9 A;CG8;>AL A0<>5 =525@>OB=>5. !0<5F 2AB0; 25@B8:0;L=> 225@E 3>;>2>9 B0:, GB> 53> B5;> >:070;>AL ?>?5@5: B5;0 A0<:8, @K1:8 =5>6840==> A>3=C;8AL :>;LF>< 8& A60;8 4@C3 4@C30 2 >1JOB8OE. -B> ?>2B>@O;>AL A=>20 8 A=>20.  >48= 87 B0:8E <><5=B>2 2=87 ?>AK?0;8AL <5;:85 65;BK5 8:@8=:8. >;>: =5 1K;> 284=>, >=8 ?@>7@0G=K, => 8:@0 1K;0 284=0 >G5=L E>@>H>. '0ABL 8:@8=>: 2A?;K20;0 8 >AB0=02;820;0AL ?>4 H0?:>9 ?5=K, >AB0;L=K5 H;8 :> 4=C. 15 @K1:8 1@>A8;8AL E20B0BL @B>< 8:@8=:8. 5C65;8 54OB 8:@C? - <5;L:=C;0 <KA;L C 0@1>=L5. 5B, 2>B >=8 ?>4?;K20NB : ?5=5 8 2K?;52K20NB 8:@C 2 A0<CN A5@548=C. "0: 2>B 4;O G53> MB0 H0?:0 87 ?5=K - MB> 3=574>, 2 :>B>@>< 1C45B @072820BLAO 8:@0!  @K1:8 A=>20 A>H;8AL 2 >1JOB8OE, 8 A=>20 ?>AK?0;8AL 65;BK5 8:@8=:8. ">;L:> G5@57 G5BK@5?OBL G0A>2 8:@0 C A0<:8 8AAO:;0, 8 >B=>H5=8O @K1 A@07C 87<5=8;8AL. B 3@0F8>7=KE CE06820=89 A0<F0 =5 >AB0;>AL 8 A;540. ;>1=> 1@>A0;AO >= 2 ?>3>=N 70 A0<:>9, =0=>AO 59 A8;L=K5 C40@K.  873=0==0O A0<:0 2 C3;C 640;0, :>340 A0<5F >B?;K25B >B 3=5740. ">340 >=0 AB@5<8B5;L=> <G0;0AL : 3=574C, AB0@0OAL 70=OBL <5AB> ?>4 =8<. =0 =5C<5;> AC5B8;0AL, 25@B5;0AL, B> 8 45;> @07@CH0O ?;02=8:0<8 3=574> 8 @071@0AK20O 8:@8=:8 2 AB>@>=K. 0<5B82 ?@>8AE>4OI55, A0<5F <G0;AO A?0A0BL ?>B><AB2> 8 2=>2L 703>=O; A0<:C 2 C3>;. 0@1>=L5 >AB>@>6=> C40;8; 87 0:20@8C<0 4@C38E @K1 8 A0<:C B>65. = A?@0254;82> @5H8;, GB> 55 @>;L 70:>=G8;0AL.  <0:@>?>4>B5F =5 >BE>48; >B 3=5740. = GB>B> ?>?@02;O; 2 =5<, 2K?CA:0; AB@C9:8 2>74CE0, 1@0; 2 @>B 8:@8=:8 8 2=>2L 2K?;52K20; 2 A0<CN A5@548=C. @8 MB>< >:@0H5= >= 1K; O@:> 8 :@0A82>. 0G5< B0:0O >:@0A:0? - 704C<K20;AO 0@1>=L5. > >= B0: 8 =5 AC<5; >1JOA=8BL, ?>G5<C 2 ?5@8>4 @07<=>65=8O C <=>38E @K1 =5 B>;L:> =5B 70I8B=>9, <0A:8@CNI59, >:@0A:8, =>, =0>1>@>B, >=8 ?@8>1@5B0NB <=>3>:@0A>G=K9, :0: 3>2>@OB CG5=K5, =5@5AB>2K9 =0@O4. 54L O@:0O @K10, AB>OI0O C 3=5740, 3>@074> 1>;55 70<5B=0. ! B5E ?>@ ?@>H;> >:>;> AB0 ;5B, 0 70304:0 1@0G=>9 =5@5AB>2>9 >:@0A:8 @K1 =5 >1JOA=5=0 4> :>=F0 8 ?>=K=5. > 25@=5<AO : =0H5<C <0:@>?>4C. @>H5; 45=L, 8 0@1>=L5 70<5B8;, GB> C =5:>B>@KE 8:@8=>: AB0;8 284=K G5@=5=L:85 B>G:8 - 420 3;07:0 1C4CI59 @K1:8.  4@C385 8:@8=:8 >AB0;8AL 1;54=>65;BK<8 8 2A5 1>;LH5 15;5;8. 025@=>5, MB> =5>?;>4>B2>@5==K5 8:@8=:8, ?>4C<0; 8AA;54>20B5;L.- =8 1C4CB ?>@B8BLAO 8 70@060BL A>A54=85, 682K5. 0: 1K 8E C40;8BL 87 3=5740? > 2A:>@5 0@1>=L5 C2845;, GB> MB0 ?@>1;5<0 8=B5@5AC5B =5 B>;L:> 53>. 0:@>?>4>B5F BI0B5;L=> >A<0B@820; 2A5 3=574>. >B >= ?>4?;K; : <5@B2K< 8:@8=:0<, >AB>@>6=>, GB>1K =5 7045BL 682K5, 27O; 8E 2 @>B, 8 >B?;K2, 2K?;N=C;. 0 2B>@>5 CB@> 87 8:@8=>: ?>:070;8AL E2>AB8:8, 0 : :>=FC 4=O ?>O28;8AL 8 3>;>2:8 ;8G8=>:. =8 1K;8 :@>E>B=K5 8 A>2A5< ?@>7@0G=K5. 5C<5;> 45@30O E2>AB8:0<8, >=8 A ?><>ILN >A>1KE :;59:8E 2K@>AB>2 45@60;8AL A@548 ?5=K.  MB8 ?5@2K5 G0AK A2>59 687=8 <0;NB:8 =5 <>3;8 =8 ?;020BL, =8 ?8B0BLAO. KE0=85 C =8E >ACI5AB2;O;>AL =5 B>;L:> G5@57 601@K, 0 2A59 ?>25@E=>ABLN B5;0, 2 >A>15==>AB8 65 G5@57 1>30BK9 :@>25=>A=K<8 A>AC40<8 E2>AB. <5AB> 87OI=>3> 682>B8:0 C =8E 28A5; 1>;LH>9 ?> A@02=5=8N A> 2A5< B5;>< 65;B>G=K9 <5H>:. 3>B> A>45@68<>5 8 A;C68;> ?8I59 =0 ?5@2KE ?>@0E. >=5G=>, ACI5AB2>20=85 <0;5=L:>9 @K1:8 2 ?5@2K5 G0AK A8;L=> >B;8G05BAO >B 55 1C4CI59 687=8. 5;> 2 B><, GB> 87 8:@K 2K:;52K20NBAO =5 AD>@<8@>202H85AO, =>@<0;L=> 4KH0I85, ?8B0NI85AO, ?;020NI85 @K1:8, 0 ?>:0 B>;L:> ;8G8=:8. !?0A0BLAO 153AB2><, <0A:8@>20BLAO, 8A:0BL =081>;55 1>30BCN :8A;>@>4>< 2>4C >=8 5I5 =5 <>3CB, 8 <=>385 87 =8E ?>3810NB. 0: 65 @K10< A>E@0=8BL ?>B><AB2>, 5A;8 >=> B0:>5 15A?><>I=>5, 0 @O4>< AB>;L:> A>A5459, 65;0NI8E ?>;0:><8BLAO 8:@>9 8 ;8G8=:0<8? @8@>40 ?@54CA<>B@5;0 =5A:>;L:> 2KE>4>2 87 MB>3> ?>;>65=8O. >B >48= 87 =8E: C @K1 2 B5G5=85 687=8 <=>38E ?>:>;5=89 2K@01>B0;0AL 3830=BA:0O ?;>4>28B>ABL - =5:>B>@K5 87 =8E 2K<5BK20NB ?> =5A:>;L:C <8;;8>=>2 8:@8=>:. 52>;L=> ?>4C<05HL: A:>;L:> 65 4>;6=> 1KBL MB8E @K1 2 2>4>5<0E! 4=0:> 4> 27@>A;>3> A>AB>O=8O 4>6820NB =5<=>385. A5 >AB0;L=K5 381=CB =0 @07=KE AB048OE @0728B8O. @C3>9 2KE>4 - >E@0=0 ?>B><AB20 =0 ?5@2KE, A0<KE A;>6=KE MB0?0E @0728B8O. -B8< 70=8<05BAO ;81> >B5F, ;81> >10 @>48B5;O. >6=> ?@54?>;>68BL, GB> C @K1, >E@0=ONI8E ?>B><AB2>, <>;>48 ?@>?0405B 7=0G8B5;L=> <5=LH5 8, 7=0G8B, >=0 >AB05BAO 68BL 2 1>;LH>< :>;8G5AB25. > MB> =525@=>. @8@>40 >G5=L M:>=><=0. # @K1, >E@0=ONI8E ?>B><AB2>, G8A;> 8:@8=>: 3>@074> <5=LH5 - >=> @54:> ?@52KH05B 15002000, >1KG=> 65 8AG8A;O5BAO A>B=O<8 8 4065 45AOB:0<8. & @>H;> B@8 4=O, 2 B5G5=85 :>B>@KE <0:@>?>4>B5F 157 CAB0;8 CE06820; 70 <0;>?>4286=K<8 :@>H:0<8. 5;B>G=K9 <5H>: C <=>38E 87 =8E @0AA>A0;AO, G0AB8 B5;0 AB0;8 1>;55 ?@>?>@F8>=0;L=K<8. >B B5?5@L <>;>4L 2ABC?0;0 2> 2B>@CN D07C A2>53> @0728B8O. =0 <>3;0 C65 A2>1>4=> 45@60BLAO 2 B>;I5 2>4K - ?;020B5;L=K9 ?C7K@L =0G0; DC=:F8>=8@>20BL. @8=O2 3>@87>=B0;L=>5 ?>;>65=85, @K1:8 AB0;8 42830BLAO. !=0G0;0 A0<5F =5 ?>72>;O; 8< C?;K20BL 87 3=5740. = ;>28; 8E @B>< 8 2>42>@O; 2 3CIC ?5=K. > ?>AB5?5==> <>;>4L @071@540;0AL 2A5 40;LH5 8 40;LH5 >B 3=5740, 40 8 A0<> 3=574> 87 H0?:8 3CAB>9 ?5=K AB0;> ?@52@0I0BLAO 2 >B45;L=K5 E;>?LO 87 ?C7K@L:>2. 5=0 87 2>74CE0 8 A;N=>?>4>1=KE 2K45;5=89 <0:@>?>40 ?@>45@60;0AL @>2=> AB>;L:> 2@5<5=8, A:>;L:> ?>B@51>20;>AL 4;O =5@5AB0 @K1, @0728B8O 8:@K 8 ?5@5E>40 >B ;8G8=:8 : A2>1>4=> ?;020NI5<C <0;L:C. "5?5@L 3=574> 1K;> =5 =C6=>, >1>;>G:0 ?C7K@L:>2 =0G0;0 @07;030BLAO, 8 >=8 ;>?0;8AL 8 8AG570;8. 0 >48= 45=L >B 3=5740 =5 >AB0;>AL 8 A;540. >8AB8=5 3=574> 1K;> A45;0=> 87 =8G53>,- 70:;NG8; 0@1>=L5. >B B>340B> >= 8 A>>1I8;, GB> <0:@>?>4 45;05B 3=574> 87 2>74CE0. -7 2>74CE0?- ?>@078;8AL CG5=K5.- > ?>G5<C? 'B> 40NB MB8 ?C7K@L:8? 073>@5;AO A?>@, :>B>@K9 ?@>4>;605BAO 4> A8E ?>@. 4=8 CB25@640NB, GB> ?C7K@L:8 C;CGH0NB 307>2K9 @568<, B> 5ABL >1>30I0NB 2>4C 2>:@C3 <0;L:>2 :8A;>@>4><. @C385 AG8B0NB, GB> =07=0G5=85 ?C7K@L:>2 - ?@5;><;OBL 8 @0AA5820BL ?@O<K5 ;CG8 B@>?8G5A:>3> A>;=F0, :>B>@K5, ?> 8E <=5=8N, >?0A=K <0;L:0<. > <K =5 ?@8<5< CG0AB8O 2 A?>@5. CGH5 ?>A<>B@8<, GB> 45;0NB <0;L:8 <0:@>?>40.  <0;L:8 <564C B5< @0AAK?0;8AL ?> 2A5<C 0:20@8C<C. =8 2AN4C A>20;8 A2>8 :@>H5G=K5 3>;>2:8, GB>B> 2K8A:820;8 8 :>5:B> 87 =8E 4065 :;520;. > ?@>H5; 45=L, 8 8E AB0;> <5=LH5, 0 =0 B@5B89 - A>2A5< <0;>. -'5@B ?>15@8,- 2>A:;8:=C; 2 4>A045 0@1>=L5.- 0: 65 O =5 ?>4C<0; > :>@<5 4;O :@>H5:!  459AB28B5;L=>, MB> 1K;> 25;8G09H55 C?CI5=85. >340 65;B>G=K9 <5H>: ?>;=>ABLN @0AA>A5BAO 8 ;8G8=:0 ?@52@0B8BAO 2 <0;L:0, =0ABC?05B >48= 87 A0<KE >B25BAB25==KE 2 687=8 @K1:8 <><5=B>2, ?>60;C9, =5 <5=55 >B25BAB25==K9, G5< 2KE>4 87 8:@8=:8,- ?5@5E>4 : 0:B82=><C ?8B0=8N. @>H5G=K9 >@30=87< @0728205BAO =5 ?> 4=O<, 0 ?> G0A0<. = @0AE>4C5B <=>3> M=5@388, 8 55 =04> ?>AB>O==> G5@?0BL 2 ?8I5. 0;L:C ?@8E>48BAO A0<><C 701>B8BLAO > ?@>?8B0=88, B>340 :0: @0=LH5 >= ?>;CG0; 53> 87 65;B>G=>3> <5H:0.  A :064K< 4=5< ?8I8 B@51C5BAO 2A5 1>;LH5. >B BCBB> 8 ?@>8AE>4OB A0<K5 ?5G0;L=K5 4;O 0:20@8C<8AB0 A>1KB8O. A;8 2K =5 CA?5;8 >15A?5G8BL <>;>4L :>;>2@0B:0<8 8;8 8=DC7>@859 2 4>AB0B>G=>< :>;8G5AB25, >B ?>B><AB20 >AB0=CBAO 682K<8 ;8HL 548=8FK, 0 B> 8 25AL 2K2>4>: ?>381=5B. 0;8 871KB>: 682>3> :>@<0 - >?OBL ?;>E>: <0;L:0< 2 MB8 4=8 B@51C5BAO >A>15==> <=>3> :8A;>@>40, 0 8=DC7>@88 8 :>;>2@0B:8 A0<8 53> ?>3;>I0NB. K20NB 8 4@C385 154K. >;5=8;AO 0:20@8C<8AB AE>48BL =0 ?@C4, =0;>28BL :>;>2@0B>:, A>45@60I8E 2A5 =C6=K5 <0;L:0< ?8B0B5;L=K5 25I5AB20, 8 @5H8; 40BL 8< 4><0H=NN 8=DC7>@8NBCD5;L:C. > ?@8 MB>< =5 ?>A<>B@5; 2 <8:@>A:>?, GB> C =53> 45;05BAO 2 10=:5 A 10=0=>2K<8 :>@:0<8, 345 >= BCD5;L:C @072>48B.  55 B0< :>B =0?;0:0;; 2A5 >AB0;L=>5 - B>65 8=DC7>@8O, => 4@C30O. !B0; >= A:0@<;820BL 55 <0;L:0<. "5 @0ABCB, @072820NBAO, 0 ;N18B5;L A<>B@8B =0 A2>8E ?8B><F52 8 3;070< =5 25@8B. 'B> B0:>5: :B> 3>@10BK9, :B> :C@=>AK9, 0 C =5:>B>@KE ?>72>=>G=8: 30@<>H:>9 A;>65=. BG53>?  2A5 >B =5?@028;L=>3> ?8B0=8O 2 ?5@2K5 4=8, >B =54>AB0B:0 :>@<0 8 45D8F8B0 28B0<8=>2. >B =0A:>;L:> A;>65= ?5@5E>4 >B ;8G8=>G=>9 AB0488 : 0:B82=><C ?8B0=8N. 5 A@07C CG5=K5 >B:@K;8 MB>B :@CB>9 ?>2>@>B 2 687=8 @K1. 5 <C4@5=> ?>MB><C, GB> ?5@2K9 2K2>4>: <0:@>?>4>2 C 0@1>=L5 ?>381. 0B> 2B>@>9 C40;AO =0 A;02C: 745AL 8 :>@< 1K; 40= 2>2@5<O, 8 A0<F0 C1@0;8, :0: B>;L:> <0;L:8 @0A?;K;8AL: 2A5 @02=> >= C65 1K; 8< =5 =C65= 8 B>;L:> <>3 ?>3C18BL @57:8<8 42865=8O<8. 7 MB>3> 2B>@>3> 2K2>4:0 8 2K@>A;8 B5 <0:@>?>4K, :>B>@K5 @0A?@>AB@0=8;8AL 70B5< A@548 ;N18B5;59 0:20@8C<0 ?> 2A59 2@>?5. C 0 :0: >1AB>O;> 45;> A 4@C38<8 ;018@8=B>2K<8? C@0<8 B>65 2?5@2K5 @07<=>68;8AL C 0@1>=L5 2 1874 3>4C. > H8@>:>3> @0A?@>AB@0=5=8O @K1K =5 ?>;CG8;8: A;8H:>< C6 >=8 25;8:8 4> 60 A0=B8<5B@>2. 0B> B@8E>30AB@K 1KAB@> 70?>;=8;8 0:20@8C<K ;N18B5;59 1;03>40@O A2>59 :@0A>B5 8 =51>;LH><C @07<5@C. E 4065 AB0;8 =07K20BL 3C@0<8, => MB> =525@=>. 5@2K< 2 0:20@8C<0E ;N18B5;59 ?>O28;AO A5@K9 B@8E>30AB@ (2 1896 3>4C) - Trichogaster trichopterus trichopterus.  ?>B>< 1K; 22575= A >AB@>20 !C<0B@0 =515A=>3>;C1>9 B@8E>30AB@. 3> B0: 8 =0720;8 - 3>;C1>9 - ". trichopterus sumatranus.  1897 3>4C :0?8B0= 5A=8F:89 ?@8257 2 >A:2C 1>;LHCN ?0@B8N M:7>B8G5A:8E @K1. !@548 =8E 1K;8 8 0=010AK. K;8 B0< 8 C4828B5;L=>9 :@0A>BK BN;52K5 @K1:8 - 3@C4L C =8E 1K;0 >3=5==>9, 0 B5;> 1C4B> ?>:@KB> BN;5< 8;8 >1@K730=> ?5@;0<CB@>2K<8 :0?5;L:0<8. -B8 @K1:8 1K;8 2K;>2;5=K 2 3;C1>:8E ;5A=KE @CGLOE A G8AB>9 2>4>9. 5A=8F:89 @0AA:07K20;, GB> @CG59 1K; 7018B AB2>;0<8 45@52L52, :>@O30<8 8 ?@8H;>AL @0AG8I0BL @CA;> @CGLO. >MB><C C40;>AL ?>9<0BL A>2A5< =5<=>3> BN;52KE @K1>:. >B><AB20 >=8 =5 40;8 8 4065 =5 1K;8 2 B5 3>4K B>G=> >?@545;5=K. 4=> 1K;> OA=> - >=8 ?@8=04;560B : B@8E>30AB@0<.  B>;L:> 2 30E 3>40E =0H53> AB>;5B8O MB8 @K1:8 ?>O28;8AL, =0:>=5F, 2 0:20@8C<0E. "5?5@L 8E =07K20NB 65<GC6=K<8 B@8E>30AB@0<8 (8;8 3C@0<8) - ". leeri. 5C40G8 >6840;8 8 0=010A>2. > A8E ?>@ 0=010A 2 ;N18B5;LA:>< 0:20@8C<5 - 1>;LH0O @54:>ABL. A5 MB8 @K1:8 >B=>AOBAO : ;018@8=B>2K< 8 2A5 >=8 - @>48G8. AB5AB25==> ?@54?>;>68BL, GB> =5 B>;L:> AB@>5=85, => 8 ?>204:8, =0?@8<5@ A?>A>1 @07<=>65=8O, C =8E AE>4=K.  2 A0<>< 45;5, 2A5 >=8 45;0NB 3=5740 87 ?5=K, B>;L:> >4=8 =0 G8AB>< <5AB5, 4@C385 - C 70@>A;59 @0AB5=89, B@5BL8 - A 8A?>;L7>20=85< 2 ?5=5 G0AB8F MB8E @0AB5=89. A5 <5GCB 2 3=574> 8:@C, 8 A0<5F >AB05BAO =0 AB@065 ?>B><AB20. "5< 1>;55 AB@0==K< 48AA>=0=A>< ?@>72CG0;> 2 :=835 .$.>;>B=8F:>3> :20@8C< ;N18B5;O A>>1I5=85 > 682>@>4OI8E <0;09A:8E 3C@0<8. 2B>@ A0< =5 2845; 682>@>645=8O C MB>9 @K1:8 8 4065 A0<>9 @K1:8, 0 ?8A0; A> A;>2 >4=>3> =5<5F:>3> 8<?>@B5@0, >?C1;8:>202H53> A2>8 40==K5 2 6C@=0;5. > 8 =5<5F:89 0:20@8C<8AB =5 2845; =5@5AB0. @>AB> 2 1>G:5 A <0;09A:8<8 3C@0<8 >:070;AO F5;K9 2K2>4>: <0;L:>2. K C65 7=05<, :0: 2 B5 2@5<5=0, =0 @C1565 XIXXX 25:>2, ?5@52>78;8 @K1. >=5G=>, 70 4>;389 ?CBL 3C@0<8 <>3;8 @07<=>68BLAO, 0 <0;L:8 ?@8 =0;8G88 2 2>45 4>AB0B>G=>3> :>;8G5AB20 8=DC7>@89 4065 2K@0AB8. 8:0:>3> 682>@>4OI53> <0;09A:>3> 3C@0<8 =0 A0<>< 45;5 =5B. 5GL H;0 > ?5@2>< 22>75 2 2@>?C B0: =07K205<>3> H>:>;04=>3> 3C@0<8 - >G5=L :@0A82>9 8 F5==>9 A59G0A @K1:8.  @07<=>605BAO >=0, 459AB28B5;L=>, =5A:>;L:> 8=0G5, G5< >AB0;L=K5 ;018@8=B>2K5. > @K1:0 MB0 =5 682>@>4OI0O. (>:>;04=K9 3C@0<8 >G5=L =5>1KG=> >E@0=O5B 8:@C 8 <0;L:>2. > >1 MB>< 1C45B @0AA:070=> 2 3;025 K1:0 1>38=8 A84K. >B 8 2A5 ?@> 3=574> 87 2>74CE0. AB0;>AL B>;L:> ?>=OBL, A>7=0B5;L=> ;8 ;018@8=B>2K5 CE06820NB 70 A2>8< ?>B><AB2><? @>25@8< =0 <0:@>?>45. AB>@>6=> >B3>=8< A0<F0 >B 3=5740 A 8:@>9, ?>42545< ?>4 =53> ?;>H:C 8 2K=5< 87 0:20@8C<0. !0<5F =0G8=05B <5B0BLAO 2 ?>8A:0E 3=5740. ?CAB8< 2 0:20@8C< =0 ?@56=55 <5AB> 4@C3>5, 70@0=55 >B>1@0==>5 C 4@C3>3> A0<F0 3=574>, => 157 8:@K.  B5?5@L 2 40;L=5< C3;C >?CAB8< 3=574> A 8:@>9. 070;>AL 1K, <0:@>?>4 ?>9<5B, GB> 8:@0 2 4@C3>< <5AB5, 8 C945B : =59. 5B. = ?@>4>;605B CE06820BL 70 ?CABK< 3=574><, B> 5ABL ?@>4>;605B 8=AB8=:B82=K9 0:B A B>3> <><5=B0, =0 :>B>@>< 53> ?@5@20;8.  8:@0? >65B 1KBL, 87 =55 8 2K945B G0ABL <0;L:>2, 8 >=8 ?>?;K2CB ?> 0:20@8C<C, => A0<5F, BI5B=> >E@0=OO ?CAB>5 3=574>, 1C45B 8E C=8GB>60BL, :0: GC68E. @>45;05< 5I5 >48= >?KB: 2> 2@5<O >1JOB89 @07;CG8< ?0@C - C15@5< A0<F0. 'B> ?@54?@8<5B A0<:0? >;>2K5 ?@>4C:BK C =55 =0AB>;L:> 3>B>2K : =5@5ABC, GB> >=0 2K<5G5B 8:@C 8 157 A0<F0. :@8=:8, :>=5G=>, 1C4CB =5>?;>4>B2>@5==K<8, <5@B2K<8. > A0<:0 MB>3> =5 70<5B8B. =0 A>15@5B 2AN 8:@C 8 1C45B >E@0=OBL 55 2 B5G5=85 =5A:>;L:8E 4=59. "0:8< >1@07><, AB@>8B5;LAB2> 3=5740 8 >E@0=0 ?>B><AB20 C ;018@8=B>2KE - 459AB28O =5 A>7=0B5;L=K5, 0 8=AB8=:B82=K5.  :0:>2> 65 2A5B0:8 =07=0G5=85 ?C7K@L:>2 2>74CE0? >=5G=>, B5 CG5=K5, :>B>@K5 AG8B0NB, GB> 3=574> =C6=> 4;O B>3>, GB>1K @0AA5820BL ?@O<K5 ;CG8 A>;=F0, =5 ?@02K. E B>G:C 7@5=8O >?@>25@3;0 >4=0 87 ;018@8=B>2KE @K1>: - <0:@>?>4 5O, 8;8, :0: 53> 8=0G5 =07K20NB 70 O@:CN >:@0A:C, ?>;80:0=B<=>3>:@0A (Pseudosphronemus dayi). -B0 <0;5=L:0O @K1:0 45;05B 3=5740 B>;L:> ?>4 :0:8<=81C4L ?@54<5B><: H8@>:8< ?;020NI8< ;8AB><, 70B>?;5==>9 4>A:>9, :>@O3>9, 0, 2 0:20@8C<5 - 4065 ?>4 ?5@525@=CBK< =0 4=5 3>@H:><.  :0:>< 65 @0AA5820=88 ;CG59 A>;=F0 <>65B 84B8 @5GL, 5A;8 3=574> ?>AB@>5=> =0 3;C18=5, 40 5I5 2 ?5I5@5? 0B> 2B>@0O B>G:0 7@5=8O, GB> ?C7K@L:8 2>74CE0 - MB> 0::C<C;OB>@ :8A;>@>40, 8<55B B5?5@L 1>;55 25A:85 >A=>20=8O.  A0<>< 45;5, ?>;80:0=B 2>>1I5 6825B =0 4=5 A@548 :>@O3 8 2 ?5I5@:0E. "0< >= 8 2K?CA:05B 2 C3>;>: BCG8 2>74CH=KE ?C7K@L:>2. 'B> MB> - 3=574>? 5>1O70B5;L=>. @54AB028< A515 =0 <83, GB> C ?>25@E=>AB8 2>4>5<0 ;018@8=B>2KE @K1>: 645B 2@03. 'B> 45;0BL? K 7=05<, GB> 157 4>ABC?0 : 2>74CEC @K1:8 @0=> 8;8 ?>74=> ?>381=CB.  2>B >=8 2K=C645=K CAB@5<;OBLAO =025@E, =02AB@5GC 3815;8, ?>B><C GB> 2=87C 8E B>65 645B A<5@BL >B C4CHLO. =>5 45;> ?>;80:0=B. # =53> =5B =04>1=>AB8 <G0BLAO : ?>25@E=>AB8 - 70?0A ?>AB>O==> >1=>2;O5<KE ?C7K@L:>2 C =53> 5ABL 4><0.  5A;8 ?5I5@:0 A ?C7K@L:0<8 =0 <5;:>< <5AB5 ?>G5<C 8 =5 A45;0BL 745AL 3=574>? ;C1>:>9 2>4K <0;5: =5 ?5@5=5A5B, 53> 2>40 @074028B, 0 =0 <5;:>2>4L5 =5 2A5 ;8 @02=>, 345 3=574> - ?>4 ;8AB>< C ?>25@E=>AB8 8;8 ?>4 4>A:>9. >B ?>G5<C =525@=> CB25@645=85, GB> ;018@8=B>2K5 @K1K AB@>OB 3=5740 =0 ?>25@E=>AB8 2>4K 4;O @0AA5820=8O A>;=5G=KE ;CG59. > 8 >3@0=8G8BL @>;L 3=5740 B>;L:> B5<, GB> >=> C;CGH05B 307>2K9 @568<, B>65 =5;L7O.  3=5745 87 ?5=K A>7405BAO >A>10O A@540, 1;03>?@8OB=0O 4;O @0728B8O 8:@K 8 ;8G8=>: @K1. >@@840& 2 2>45 >= 835;L A:CG0;. 5B, 2 F5;>< >= 1K; >G5=L 4>2>;5= M:A?548F859. !0<K5 =525@>OB=K5 6C:8 >:070;8AL 2 53> :>;;5:F88. = C65 70@0=55 ?@54GC2AB2>20;, :0:>9 DC@>@ ?@>872545B 53> :>;;5:F8O, :>340, 2>72@0B82H8AL 87 ?>574:8 2 =48N 8 !80<, >= ?>:065B 55 CG5=K< 04@840. 0 GB> 04@84! "0:>5 <>6=> 1K;> 1K 2KAB028BL 4065 2 0@865. > AB>8;> 4>=C 835;N =0:>;>BL =0 ?@>1:C ?>A;54=53> ?>9<0==>3> 70 45=L 6CG:0 8 >B2;5GLAO >B A2>8E 70=OB89, :0: >= C65 =5 7=0;, :C40 A51O 4520BL. = =5 <>3 1@>48BL ?> 83@CH5G=K< C;8F0< 0=3:>:0, 53> =5 2;5:;8 B08=AB25==K5 72C:8 <5AB=>9 <C7K:8 8 M:7>B8G5A:89 2>AB>G=K9 1070@.  ?0<OB8 2>7=8:0;8 :0@B8=K @>4=>9 A?0=88, HC<=0O 0@A5;>=0, C7:85 C;>G:8 A@54=525:>2>3> ">;54>, :0D5 04@840.  60@:0O ACE0O A>;=5G=0O ?>3>40. !CE0O, G5@B ?>15@8, 0 =5 MB0 ?0@8;:0, 345 =>@<0;L=K9 G5;>25: >1;8205BAO ?>B>< 8 AB>=5B >B 4CH=KE 2;06=KE 8A?0@5=89. - ?>B>< O ;N1;N 070@B, 83@C, 25A5;L5,- 3>2>@8; >= :><?0=L>=C ?> M:A?548F88, ?540=B8G=><C C@02=>25H5==><C 8EB8>;>3C =5<FC 5@=:>?DC.- 5;L7O 65 B0: A 3>;>2>9 CE>48BL 2 A2>8E @K1, :0: MB> 45;05HL BK. '5;>25:C =C6=K @072;5G5=8O, HC<=K5, 2>;=CNI85 7@5;8I0. -E, 5A;8 1K <>6=> 1K;> ?>?0ABL A59G0A =0 :>@@84C& -/ =8:>340 =5 1K; =0 :>@@845,- ?@87=020;AO, C;K10OAL, 5@=:>?D.-  B5< =5 <5=55, :0: 2848HL, 682C, =5 C<8@0N. -"K ?@>AB> =5 ?>=8<05HL, GB> 3>2>@8HL,- 2>7<CI0;AO 4>= 835;L.- >@<0;L=K9 G5;>25: =5 <>65B 68BL 157 :>@@84K!  4>= 835;L, >B:07K20OAL 84B8 2 3>@>4, <@0G=> ;>68;AO A B@C1:>9 =0 :CH5B:C. 4=064K 5@=:>?D, >1KG=> B8E89 8 A?>:>9=K9, ?C;59 2;5B5; 2 :><=0BC. -835;L,- 70:@8G0; >=,- E>G5HL C2845BL :>@@84C? -B> A0<>5 070@B=>5, A0<>5 =525@>OB=>5 7@5;8I5! ->@@840 2 !80<5?- CA<5E=C;AO 4>= 835;L.- 0 C B51O 60@, <>9 4@C3. - G5@BC 60@,- 3@5<5; 8EB8>;>3.- 45209AO, A:5?B8:, O ?>:06C B515 B0:>5& > C;8F5 >=8 ?>GB8 1560;8. -0 ?>4>648 BK,- 3>2>@8; 4>= 835;L,- :0:0O <>65B 1KBL 2 !80<5 :>@@840?  B>@5@> 5ABL, 8 1K:8? -5B B>@5@>,- >B25G0; 5@=:>?D.-  1K:>2 B>65 =5B. 0B> 070@B0 1>;LH5, G5< =0 B2>59 :>@@845. >= 835;L =8G53> =5 <>3 ?>=OBL. =8 ?>41560;8 : 1>;LH><C =87:><C 740=8N 8, ?@>B8A=C2H8AL A:2>7L B>;?OI8EAO C 2E>40 ;N459, 2>H;8 2=CB@L. -48 AN40,- ?>BO=C; 5@=:>?D B>20@8I0 2 AB>@>=C. -'B> MB>, 2KAB02:0 @K1?- @07>G0@>20==> ?@>BO=C; 4>= 835;L. 4>;L AB5=K C7:>3> 4;8==>3> 70;0 AB>O;0 F5;0O 25@5=8F0 >48=0:>2KE 10=>:, 2 :064>9 87 :>B>@KE ?;020;0 >4=0 @K1:0, >B;8G02H0OAO >B 4@C38E B>;L:> >:@0A:>9 8 25;8G8=>9. -1@0B8 2=8<0=85, :0:85 :@0A02FK,- 2>AE8I5==> 3>2>@8; 5@=:>?D.- !<>B@8, <564C 10=:0<8 ?@>;>65=0 1C<030, B0: GB> @K1:8 =5 284OB 4@C3 4@C30. -0 >1JOA=8 65, 70G5< 2A5 MB>,- 27<>;8;AO 4>= 835;L.- A;8 MB> 2KAB02:0, B> ?>G5<C 2A5 >=8 >48=0:>2K5, 5A;8 MB>& ->B5@?8 <8=CB 45AOBL,- ?@5@20; 53> 5@=:>?D.- 45<:0 ;CGH5 2 70;.  :@C3;>< 70;5 <5AB0 1K;8 @0A?>;>65=K, :0: 2 F8@:5, 0<D8B50B@><. >A@548 70;0 AB>O; 1>;LH>9 AB>;, =0 =5< - H8@>:0O 10=:0 87 A25B;>3> AB5:;0. C1;8:0 ?>AB5?5==> 70=8<0;0 <5AB0. >= 835;L >1@0B8; 2=8<0=85, GB> 2A5 ?@8ACBAB2CNI85 1K;8 E>@>H> >45BK: ?>2848<><C, 2 70;5 1K;0 B>;L:> <5AB=0O 7=0BL. >A<>B@8<, GB> 2A5 MB> 7=0G8B,- ?>4C<0; 4>= 835;L, >3;O4K20O >682;5==> 3C4OICN B>;?C. =570?=> C40@8; 3>=3. !;C68B5;8 70428=C;8 1>:>2K5 ?>;>38, 8 7@8B5;8 >:070;8AL 2 ?>;C<@0:5. ">;L:> AB>; A 10=:>9 1K; O@:> >A25I5= ?040NI8< A25@EC, G5@57 >B25@AB85 2 :@KH5, A25B><. =>2L @0740;8AL 72C:8 3>=30, 2 ?>;>AC A25B0 2KH5; G5;>25: 8 GB>B> >1JO28;. C1;8:0 70HC<5;0, ?>A;KH0;8AL 2K:@8:8, ?> @O40< 701530;8 A;C68B5;8. -5 E>G5HL CG0AB2>20BL 2 83@5 2 B>B0;870B>@?- ?@>H5?B0; 5@=:>?D. -BAB0=L A> A2>8<8 HCB:0<8,- ?@>2>@G0; 4>= 835;L, 2A5 5I5 =5 ?>=8<0O, > G5< 845B @5GL. 564C B5< A;C68B5;8 2=5A;8 425 10=:8, 70:CB0==K5 2 B5<=K5 <5H:8, 8, ?>AB0282 8E @O4>< A 1>;LH>9, ?> :><0=45 A45@=C;8 ?>:@K20;0.  :064>9 87 10=>: 1K;> ?> @K1:5 - B>;L:> GB> 4>= 835;L 2845; B0:8E 2 D>95. 48= 87 A;C68B5;59 2AB028; 2 1>;LHCN 10=:C G5@=K9 I8B, B0: GB> ?>;CG8;>AL 420 >B45;L=KE ?><5I5=8O. 5;L:=C;8 420 A0G:0, 8 >15 @K1:8 >:070;8AL 2 1>;LH>9 10=:5, :0640O 2 A2>59 ?>;>28=5. -9! 9!- :@8:=C; @0A?>@O48B5;L, 8 I8B 87 10=:8 1K; C40;5=. K1:8 C2845;8 4@C3 4@C30 >4=>2@5<5==> 8 =0G0;8 <54;5==>, :0: 1K ?@8A<0B@820OAL, A1;860BLAO. >B >=8 ?>4>H;8 A>2A5< 1;87:> 8 >AB0=>28;8AL B0:, GB> 3>;>20 >4=>9 >:070;0AL C E2>AB0 4@C3>9. K1:8 2AB@OE=C;8AL 2A5< B5;>< 8 <54;5==> @0A?CH8;8 A2>8 ?;02=8:8. 515A=>3>;C1K5, ?5@5;820NI85AO 75;5=K< 8 B5<=>A8=8<, A O@:>:@0A=K<8 3;070<8, 601@0<8 8 1@NH=K<8 ?;02=8:0<8, >=8 2 MB>B <><5=B 1K;8 ?@5:@0A=K. > 70;C, 70<5@H5<C 4> MB>3>, ?@>H5; >4>1@8B5;L=K9 3C;.  @K1:8 A=>20 @07>H;8AL, 70=O;8 BC 65 ?>78F8N, @0A?@028;8 4> ?@545;0 ?KH=K5 ?;02=8:8, A;53:0 ?>:0G820O 8<8.  24@C3& 70; @07@078;AO :@8:><, ;N48 ?>2A:0:0;8 A <5AB, @07<0E820O @C:0<8.  ?5@2K9 <><5=B 4>= 835;L =5 ?>=O;, GB> A;CG8;>AL. 0 <8=CBC 5<C ?>:070;>AL, GB> >= 1@548B, GB> >= C A51O 4><0, 2 A?0=88, ?@8ACBAB2C5B =0 :>@@845. N48 A 070@B>< :@8G0B GB>B> B>@5@>, 0 B>B& >= 835;L CI8?=C; A51O 70 =>3C. 0 =5B 65, >= 2 0=3:>:5, 0 =5 2 ">;54>. !B@0AB8 =0:0;O;8AL - :@8:8, A?>@K, A28AB, @07<0E820=85 255@0<8.  B>;L:> BCB 4>= 835;L 2A?><=8; ?@> @K1. = 273;O=C; =0 10=:C 8 =5 ?>25@8; A2>8< 3;070<. C40 4520;8AL ?KH=K5 A ?;02=K<8 42865=8O<8 :@0A02FK?  10=:5 <5B0;8AL 420 75;5=>3>;C1KE >1>@2KH0 8, O@>AB=> ?>B@OA0O @07>@20==K<8 2 :;>GLO ?;02=8:0<8, =0=>A8;8 4@C3 4@C3C 1KAB@K5 8, 2848<>, 25AL<0 GC2AB28B5;L=K5 C40@K. "5?5@L C65 4>= 835;L =5 >B@K20; 273;O40 >B 10=:8. = 4065 ?@8<5B8; >4=C 87 @K1 - C =55 1K; A>25@H5==> >B>@20= A?8==>9 ?;02=8: - 8 AB0; 1>;5BL 70 =55. A:>@5 >= C65 :@8G0; 8 =58AB>2AB2>20;, :0: 8 >AB0;L=K5 7@8B5;8.  :>340 >4=0 @K10 >1@0B8;0AL 2 153AB2>, 0 4@C30O AB0;0 55 C1820BL, A;C68B5;8 A<5=8;8 10=:C, 8 2 1>9 2ABC?8;0 =>20O ?0@0. >= 835;L 701K; > A:C:5.  ?5@2K9 65 25G5@ >= ?@>83@0; 2 B>B0;870B>@ 2A5, GB> C =53> 1K;>. >765 >= =0CG8;AO >?@545;OBL A8;C 8 ;>2:>ABL 1>@F>2 5I5 =0 ?@5420@8B5;L=>9 2KAB02:5 CG0AB=8:>2 A>ABO70=89. "0< >= =0<5G0;, =0 :0:8E @K1 AB028BL 2 83@5& 5@=:>?D B>@65AB2>20; - 53> B>20@8I 1>;LH5 =5 AB@040; A?;8=><. >340 4>= 835;L 25@=C;AO 2 A?0=8N, >= >G5=L 2K3>4=> @50;87>20; A2>8 :>;;5:F88.  ?>B>< =0?8A0; :=83C > ?CB5H5AB288 2 =48N 8 !80<.  =59 F5;0O 3;020 1K;0 ?>A2OI5=0 @K1L59 :>@@845. > G8B0B5;8 =5 A@5038@>20;8 =0 MB> A>>1I5=85. =8 C65 ?@82K:;8, GB> 2 :=830E > 40;5:8E ?CB5H5AB28OE ?@0240 1K;0 >18;L=> A4>1@5=0 =51K;8F0<8.  1892 3>4C 2 2@>?C ?@81K; B@0=A?>@B A =>2K<8 =52840==K<8 ;018@8=B>2K<8 @K10<8. 0 AE>4AB2> E2>AB>2KE ?;02=8:>2 A E2>AB>< ?5BCE0 8E =0720;8 ?5BCH:0<8. > =0AB>OI55, =0CG=>5, =0720=85 1K;> 4@C3>5 - Betta splendens (15BB0 - <5AB=>5 =0720=85 =0 /25).  2@>?C A=0G0;0 ?@8257;8 48:CN D>@<C MB8E @K1. =8 ?5@5;820;8AL 2A5<8 F25B0<8 @04C38, A>>B25BAB2CO A2>5<C 284>2><C =0720=8N (25;8:>;5?=K9). >765 1K;8 ?@82575=K 1>;55 :@C?=K5 8 4@0G;82K5 @K1:8 4@C3>3> 2840. E =0720;8 . pugnax (2>8=AB25==K9).  B>;L:> : :>=FC AB>;5B8O 2 0:20@8C<0E ;N18B5;59 ?>O28;8AL =0AB>OI85 1>9F>2K5 @K1:8 - B5 A0<K5, > :>B>@KE ?8A0; 4>= 835;L. E =5 2AB@5B8HL 2 ?@8@>45, 2 48:>< A>AB>O=88. @0A=K5, 75;5=K5, A8=85, A ?KH=K< >?5@5=85< 8 2C0;52K<8 4;8==K<8 ?;02=8:0<8, >=8 1K;8 2K@0I5=K 8A:CA=K<8 A80<A:8<8 @K1>2>40<8. BAN40 8 =0720=85 - 1>9F>20O @K1:0, 20@80=B :0<1>4689A:89. >2CN ?>@>4C C40;>AL A>740BL =5 A@07C. 02=K<402=> @K1>2>4K 0<1>468 >1@0B8;8 2=8<0=85 =0 1>9F>2CN @K1:C.  AB@0=0E .3>>AB>G=>9 788 >=0 AG8B0;0AL =5?@8:>A=>25==>9. K1:0 ?@82;5:0;0 ?>@078B5;L=>9 :@0A>B>9 >?5@5=8O, 2 :>B>@>< 1K;8 ?>GB8 2A5 F25B0; >B45;L=K5 65 >A>18 >B;8G0;8AL 5I5 8 >G5=L ?KH=K<8 ?;02=8:0<8. "0:8E @K1 2K;02;820;8, ?><5I0;8 2 70:@KBK5 10AA59=K 8 A:@5I820;8 <564C A>1>9. "0: A;CG09=0O >A>15==>ABL - C4;8=5==K5 ?;02=8:8 - AB0;0 ?>AB5?5==>, G5@57 <=>385 ?>:>;5=8O, ?@87=0:>< ?>AB>O==K<, =0A;54AB25==K<. 5 >AB0;0AL 157 2=8<0=8O 8 >:@0A:0 @K1. E AB0;8 3@C??8@>20BL ?> :0:><CB> >4=><C ?@5>1;040NI5<C F25BC. >AB5?5==> 2K45;8;8AL 75;5=0O, 3>;C10O 8 >A>15==> :@0A820O 1>@4>20O ;8=88 1>9F>2KE @K1.  MB8< B@5< ?@81028;8AL 2 =0H5 2@5<O 15;0O 8 G5@=0O 20@80F88. :@0A:0 @K1 AG8B05BAO >G5=L E>@>H59, 5A;8 F25B, ?@8ACI89 40==>9 20@80F88, =5 8<55B ?@>1;5A:>2 4@C3>3>. "0:8E @K1 8 2 =0H5 2@5<O 2AB@5B8BL 4>2>;L=> B@C4=>. 5B=5B 40 8 <5;L:=5B 2 873810E ?;02=8:0 A8=59 @K1:8 75;5=K9 <5B0;;8G5A:89 1;5A: 8;8 C G8AB>:@0A=>9 @K1:8 =0 ?;02=8:0E ?>O2;O5BAO GCBL 70<5B=0O 3>;C10O >B>@>G:0. '8ABK5 F25B>2K5 20@80F88 :0<1>4689A:>9 1>9F>2>9 @K1:8 A ?KH=K<8 A?8==K<8, 0=0;L=K<8 8 E2>AB>2K<8 ?;02=8:0<8 - A0<K5 F5=8<K5 C 0:20@8C<8AB>2. =8 A>2A5< ?>GB8 A25;8 =0 =5B :C;LBC@C 1>9F>2KE @K1>:, 27OBKE 87 ?@8@>4=KE 2>4>5<>2.  5I5 >4=0 E0@0:B5@=0O G5@B0 MB8E @K1 - 4@0G;82>ABL A0<F>2. %>@>H> 2K:>@<;5==K5, =>@<0;L=> 2K@0I5==K5, >=8 =5 <>3CB A?>:>9=> 2845BL 4@C3 4@C30 8 BCB 65 1@>A0NBAO 2 1>9, @2CB ?@>B82=8:C ?;02=8:8, ;8H0OAL 2 4@0:5 8 A>1AB25==KE C:@0H5=89. >MB><C >B>1@0==KE A0<F>2 1>9F>2KE @K1 =5;L7O 45@60BL 2<5AB5. > 8 >B45;L=> 8E A>45@60BL =5 @5:><5=4C5BAO - >=8 B5@ONB >:@0A:C, AB0=>2OBAO 2O;K<8, 68@5NB. 0: 65 1KBL? !0<F>2 =04> @07<5AB8BL B0:, GB>1K >=8 ?>AB>O==> G5@57 AB5:;> 2845;8 4@C3 4@C30. ">340 >=8 4>;3>5 2@5<O =0E>4OBAO 2 1>52>9 D>@<5 8 G0AB> AB0=>2OBAO 2 1>52>5 ?>;>65=85, B> 5ABL @0A?@02;ONB A2>8 ?;02=8:8 8 O@:> >:@0H820NBAO. %>GC ?@54>AB5@5GL >B =5?@028;L=>9 >F5=:8 MB>9 E0@0:B5@=>9 G5@BK 1>9F>2KE @K1>:. =8 =5 B0:85 C6 A28@5?K5, :0: :06CBAO A ?5@2>3> 273;O40 8 :0: > =8E @0AA:07K20NB 2 =5:>B>@KE :=830E. A5 45;> 2 CA;>28OE, ?@8 :>B>@KE 2AB@5G0NBAO 4@C3 A 4@C3>< A0<FK.  ?@8@>45 >=8 45<>=AB@8@CNB A2>N :@0A>BC 8 A8;C, 0 ?>B>< A8;L=59H89 ?@>3>=O5B A;01>3> A> A2>59 B5@@8B>@88.  0:20@8C<5 2A5 ?@>8AE>48B B>G=> B0: 65, B>;L:> A;01><C C1560BL =5:C40.  B>340 A8;L=K9 A0<5F 2K=C645= 2ABC?8BL 2 1>9, 254L A2>59 B5@@8B>@859 >= AG8B05B 25AL =51>;LH>9 0:20@8C<. 0: 2848<, 2 CA;>28OE =52>;8 4@0G;82>ABL @K1>: ?@52@0I05BAO 2 15760;>AB=CN A28@5?>ABL. -B0 ?@8@>4=0O =5B5@?8<>ABL A0<F>2 4@C3 : 4@C3C 8 1K;0 8A?>;L7>20=0 68B5;O<8 0<1>468, "08;0=40, =4>=5788 4;O ?@>2545=8O @K1L8E 1>52. K1>: - CG0AB=8:>2 A>ABO70=89 - 3>B>2OB >A>1K< >1@07><. E 2K@0I820NB =0 =081>;55 ?8B0B5;L=KE :>@<0E, ?@8G5< :064CN @K1:C 45@60B >B45;L=>. ;O @0728B8O 8 CA8;5=8O 8=AB8=:B82=>9 4@0G;82>AB8 A0<F0< G0AB> ?>:07K20NB A>?5@=8:0 G5@57 AB5:;>. 5@54 1>5< CAB@0820NB 2KAB02:C, 345 A?>@BA<5=>2 3@C??8@CNB ?> F25BC, D>@<5 8 25AC.  @K1L8E 1>OE @025=AB2> 25A0 A>ABO70NI8EAO B>65 >1O70B5;L=>. 1KG=CN 1>9F>2CN @K1:C 4>2>;L=> ?@>AB> :C?8BL 2 MB8E AB@0=0E, => D0<8;L=>3> @5:>@4A<5=0 - ?>B><:0 8725AB=KE G5<?8>=>2 @K1L53> 1>O - 4>AB0BL B@C4=> 8 AB>8B >= >G5=L 4>@>3>. "0:8E @K1 2;045;LFK 15@53CB. =8 ?@82>7OB 8E : <5ABC A>ABO70=89 4=O 70 G5BK@5 4> 1>O, GB>1K @K1:8 <>3;8 >B4>E=CBL >B 4>@>38 8 =01@0BLAO A8;. >A;5 MB>3> ?@>2>48BAO BI0B5;L=K9 >A<>B@ @K1 8 8E @0A?@545;ONB ?> >:@0A:5, 25;8G8=5 8 25AC. >340 ?C1;8:0 ?>7=0:><8BAO A CG0AB=8:0<8 A>ABO70=8O 8 2K15@5B, 70 :>3> 1>;5BL, @K1>: =5ACB 2 3;02=K9 70;, 345 ?5@5A06820NB 2 10=:C 4;O 1>O. 5@2>5 7=0:><AB2> 1>9F>2 8 8E 2708<=0O >F5=:0 2K7K20NB =081>;LH89 068>B06 C 7@8B5;59: 8<5==> 2 MB> 2@5<O <>6=> ?@54?>;>68BL, C :0:>9 @K1:8 1>;LH5 H0=A>2 =0 ?>154C. 8B20 AG8B05BAO =>@<0;L=>9, 5A;8 >15 @K1:8 0:B82=> =0=>AOB 4@C3 4@C3C C40@K. >340 65 >4=0 87 =8E >1@0I05BAO 2 153AB2>, A>ABO70=85 70:0=G8205BAO 8 ?@5A;54>20B5;L >1JO2;O5BAO ?>1548B5;5<. >A;5 1>O @K1>: A@07C, ?>:0 >4=0 =5 C18;0 4@C3CN, @0AA06820NB, 8 E>7O520 >B2>7OB 8E 4><>9, 345 BI0B5;L=> 70 =8<8 CE06820NB. 1KG=> C65 G5@57 <5AOF >=8 A=>20 3>B>2K : 1>N. !@548 ;018@8=B>2KE 7 ?@54K4CI8E 3;02 2K C7=0;8, :0: ?@>E>48; ?@>F5AA 0::;8<0B870F88 ;018@8=B>2KE @K1 2 ;N18B5;LA:8E 0:20@8C<0E. >7=0:><8;8AL A 8=B5@5A=K<8 8 :@0A82K<8 @K1:0<8. > =5 A> 2A5<8.  B5?5@L =5 <5H05B >AB0=>28BLAO 8 ?>425AB8 =5:>B>@K5 8B>38, E>BO > 2A5E ;018@8=B>2KE O =5 @0AA:06C - ?@>AB> <5AB0 =5 E20B8B 2 :=835. 'B> <K 7=05< A53>4=O >1 MB8E @K10E? 5:>340 2A5E 8E >1J548=8;8 2 >4=> A5<59AB2> Anabantidae. K=5 A8AB5<0B8:0 ;018@8=B>2KE 7=0G8B5;L=> CA;>6=8;0AL, A5<59AB2 B5?5@L C65 ?OBL. @54AB028B5;8 B@5E 87 =8E 8=B5@5A=K 4;O 0:20@8C<8AB>2. 0G=5< A A5<59AB20 Osphronemidae. => A>AB>8B 87 >4=>3> @>40 8 >4=>3> 2840, A>2@5<5==>5 =0CG=>5 =0720=85 :>B>@>3> Osphronemus goramy (2> 2B>@>< A;>25 ">" ?@>87=>A8BAO :0: >C). 0: C65 1K;> A:070=>, MB> 4>2>;L=> :@C?=K5 @K1K 8 2 ;N18B5;LA:8E 0:20@8C<0E =5 2AB@5G0NBAO. B>@>5 A5<59AB2> - Belontidae - 1>;55 <=>3>G8A;5==>, >=> A>AB>8B 87 ?OB8 ?>4A5<59AB2, :064>5 87 :>B>@KE 2:;NG05B =5A:>;L:> 284>2 @K1. !N40 65 >B=>AOBAO 8 <0:@>?>4K. E =0 A53>4=O 8725AB=> B@8 2840. (8@>:>5 @0A?@>AB@0=5=85 2 0:20@8C<0E ?>;CG8; Macropodus opercularis. -B> 70 =8< =01;N40; 0@1>=L5. > :0: 87<5=8;AO >18B0B5;L B@>?8:>2 70 AB>;5B85 687=8 2 0:20@8C<5! !53>4=O MB> <0;>?@82;5:0B5;L=0O A5@0O A :>@8G=520BK<8 ?>;>A:0<8 @K1:0.  <564C B5< 2 AB0@KE 0:20@8C<=KE :=830E 55 =07K20;8 @09A:>9 @K1:>9, ?0@04=>9 @K1:>9, 2>AE8I0;8AL 55 25;8:>;5?85<. 'B> 65 A;CG8;>AL, <>65B 1KBL, @0=LH5 1K; 4@C3>9 <0:@>?>4? 0, 4@C3>9.  ABC45=G5A:85 3>4K O G0AB5=L:> 703;O4K20; 2 >48= ;5=8=3@04A:89 7>><03078=, 345 <>5<C C2;5G5=8N 0:20@8C<>< A8<?0B878@>20;0 AB0@5=L:0O ?@>402I8F0 8=0 $54>@>2=0. 4=064K >=0 3>2>@8B: -%>B8B5, ?>:06C GC4>?  4>AB0;0 87?>4 ?@8;02:0 1>;LHCN 10=:C A ?0@>9 @K1. > :0:8E! !>@>: ;5B A B5E ?>@ <8=C;>, 0 O 4> A8E ?>@ 8E OA=> 286C ?5@54 A>1>9. -B> 1K;8 <0:@>?>4K 25;8G8=>9 A ;04>=L. B ?KH=>3> E2>AB>2>3> ?;02=8:0 >BE>48;8 425 3>;C1K5 =8B8 ?> 8 A0=B8<5B@>2 (<K 87<5@8;8). 0 1>:0E G5@54>20;8AL 3>;C1K5 8 :@>202>:8@?8G=K5 25@B8:0;L=K5 ?>;>AK. @C4L 8 1@NH=K5 ?;02=8:8 - 0;K5.  B@8 =5?0@=KE - A?8==>9, 0=0;L=K9, E2>AB>2>9 - ?>@060;8 O@:>ABLN 3>;C1>3> 8 ?C=F>2>3>. >4 AB0BL MB><C 3830=BC 1K;0 8 :@C?=0O A0<:0 (2<5AB5 A =8BO<8 - >:>;> 20 A0=B8<5B@>2). >B MB> 1K; ?0@04! 0: O =8 C<>;O; 8=C $54>@>2=C, 70?>;CG8BL MB8E :@0A02F52 <=5 =5 C40;>AL.  1>;LH5 B0:8E <0:@>?>4>2 O =8:>340 =5 2AB@5G0;. C40 65 4520;8AL @09A:85 @K1:8? E ?>3C18;8 8=1@848=3 (1;87:>@>4AB25==>5 A:@5I820=85) 8 ?@5=51@568B5;L=>5 >B=>H5=85 : 5AB5AB25==K< ?>B@51=>ABO< @K1 (682CB ?@8 20 ! 8 4065 ?@8 16 - 8 ;04=>, 54OB ACE>9 :>@< - =C 8 E>@>H>).  2 @57C;LB0B5 - 2K@>645=85 8 453@040F8O 0:20@8C<=>9 ?>?C;OF88 <0:@>?>40. >AAB0=>28BL 1K;>5 25;8:>;5?85 MB>9 @K1:8 B5?5@L >G5=L B@C4=> - 4;O MB>3> A5;5:F8>=5@0< =04> 4>;3> @01>B0BL. B>@>9 284 - . concolor - B>65 25;8:>;5?5=. >:0 2 7028A8<>AB8 >B =0AB@>5=8O H>:>;04=K5 8;8 A>2A5< G5@=K5, :@0A=>20BK5 25@B8:0;L=K5 ?>;>AK GCBL 284=K, 3>@;>, 3@C4L, 1@NH=K5 ?;02=8:8 - ?C=F>2K5, 0 =5?0@=K5, E>BO 8 =5 B0: :@0A>G=K, :0: C >1KG=>3> <0:@>?>40, => >B>@>G5=K O@:>9 3>;C1>9 :09<>9. >;C1K< A25@:0NB 8 :>=G8:8 1@NH=KE ?;02=8:>2, :@><:0 E2>AB>2>3> - A ?KH=>9 10E@><>9. 0: 4@03>F5==>ABL 257 O MB8E @K1>: 87 5@;8=0. -B> 1K;> 2 1974 3>4C.  ?>B>< GB> 2KH;>? 0: B>;L:> 8E =0G0;8 @072>48BL 2 <0AA>2KE :>;8G5AB20E 2A5, :><C =5 ;5=L, =0G0;AO ?@>F5AA 2K@>645=8O. @0A02FK ?@52@0B8;8AL 2 A5@KE =527@0G=KE @K1, 8 =0 A53>4=O >=8 ?>B5@O=K. 5B, <0:@>?>4K - MB> @K1K 4;O ;N1OI53> 8E 0:20@8C<8AB0. =8 4>;6=K 68BL =5 2 <0AA5, 0 :0: :>@>;8: ?@8 8=48284C0;L=>< CE>45, 2 >?B8<0;L=KE CA;>28OE - 2>40 =5 E>;>4=55 25 !, A0<K5 ;CGH85 682K5 :>@<0, =5?5@5=0A5;5==K9 2>4>5<. AB0B8, B5E, :B> ?>65;05B 70=OBLAO 8<8, E>GC ?@54C?@548BL: C G5@=>3> <0:@>?>40 5ABL 4C@=0O ?@82KG:0 ?>AB>O==> A>20BLAO 2 A0<K5 C7:85 I5;8, 345, 70AB@O2, >= <>65B ?>381=CBL.  B@8E>30AB@0E O C65 3>2>@8;. #?><O=C ;8HL 5I5 >48= 284 - Trichogaster microlepis. -B> A>2A5< 3>;C10O @K1:0 157 2AO:8E ?OB5= A 70102=>9 2KBO=CB>9 <>@4>G:>9 - :065BAO, GB> >=0 :C@=>A0O. > 2 =0H8E 0:20@8C<0E *0`bxz  6 8 : < > @ B D F ~ ˱ufuUfuf j}hAUmHnHujhUmHnHuhmHnHu2jhgWh>*B*UmHnHphuhmHnHuhgWh0J!mHnHu$jhgWh0J!UmHnHu h_khc6|jh_khc6|Uhwhw5h,hb5CJaJh)5CJaJh_khb5CJaJbxB d & N^lxv: r6 $a$gdw$a$gd,6P 4 6 8 : j l n źӑőwźfӑő jqhAUmHnHu2jhgWh>*B*UmHnHphuhmHnHu jwhAUmHnHujhUmHnHuhmHnHuhgWh0J!mHnHu$jhgWh0J!UmHnHu2jhgWh>*B*UmHnHphu " $ X Z \ ^ ` b d f h    " $ & ( * b d źӑőwźfӑő jehAUmHnHu2jhgWh>*B*UmHnHphuhmHnHu jkhAUmHnHujhUmHnHuhmHnHuhgWh0J!mHnHu$jhgWh0J!UmHnHu2jhgWh>*B*UmHnHphu d f h , . 0 2 ` b d źӑőwźfӑő jYhAUmHnHu2jhgWh>*B*UmHnHphuhmHnHu j_hAUmHnHujhUmHnHuhmHnHuhgWh0J!mHnHu$jhgWh0J!UmHnHu2jhgWh>*B*UmHnHphu   @BDHJLNPR BDźӑőwźfӑő jMhAUmHnHu2jhgWh>*B*UmHnHphuhmHnHu jShAUmHnHujhUmHnHuhmHnHuhgWh0J!mHnHu$jhgWh0J!UmHnHu2jhgWh>*B*UmHnHphu DFHfhjPRTXZ\^`bźӑőwźfӑő jA hAUmHnHu2j hgWh>*B*UmHnHphuhmHnHu jG hAUmHnHujhUmHnHuhmHnHuhgWh0J!mHnHu$jhgWh0J!UmHnHu2jhgWh>*B*UmHnHphu @BDF źӑőwźfӑő j5 hAUmHnHu2j hgWh>*B*UmHnHphuhmHnHu j; hAUmHnHujhUmHnHuhmHnHuhgWh0J!mHnHu$jhgWh0J!UmHnHu2j hgWh>*B*UmHnHphu  &(*^`bfhjlnp XZźӑőwźfӑő j)hAUmHnHu2j hgWh>*B*UmHnHphuhmHnHu j/ hAUmHnHujhUmHnHuhmHnHuhgWh0J!mHnHu$jhgWh0J!UmHnHu2j hgWh>*B*UmHnHphu Z\^  246jlnrtvxz|źӑőwźfӑő jhAUmHnHu2jhgWh>*B*UmHnHphuhmHnHu j#hAUmHnHujhUmHnHuhmHnHuhgWh0J!mHnHu$jhgWh0J!UmHnHu2jhgWh>*B*UmHnHphu  "Z\^`źӑőwźfӑő jhAUmHnHu2jhgWh>*B*UmHnHphuhmHnHu jhAUmHnHujhUmHnHuhmHnHuhgWh0J!mHnHu$jhgWh0J!UmHnHu2jhgWh>*B*UmHnHphu   024hjlprtvxz,.0468:<>vxźӑőwźfӑő jhAUmHnHu2jhgWh>*B*UmHnHphuhmHnHu j hAUmHnHujhUmHnHuhmHnHuhgWh0J!mHnHu$jhgWh0J!UmHnHu2jhgWh>*B*UmHnHphu xz|  FHJL~źӑőwźfӑő jhAUmHnHu2j|hgWh>*B*UmHnHphuhmHnHu jhAUmHnHujhUmHnHuhmHnHuhgWh0J!mHnHu$jhgWh0J!UmHnHu2jhgWh>*B*UmHnHphu ,.0dfhlnprtv(*,02468:rtźӑőwźfӑő jhAUmHnHu2jphgWh>*B*UmHnHphuhmHnHu jhAUmHnHujhUmHnHuhmHnHuhgWh0J!mHnHu$jhgWh0J!UmHnHu2jvhgWh>*B*UmHnHphu tvx"$&(VXZźӑőwźfӑő jhAUmHnHu2jdhgWh>*B*UmHnHphuhmHnHu jhAUmHnHujhUmHnHuhmHnHuhgWh0J!mHnHu$jhgWh0J!UmHnHu2jjhgWh>*B*UmHnHphu 6pv2 |!!!,'.'`'(+,/1r2&6 8f9;F?jB& &&&&&&&&&&&&&gdc6|gdgdgdc6| *,.bdfjlnprt  VXźӑőwźfӑő jhAUmHnHu2jXhgWh>*B*UmHnHphuhmHnHu jhAUmHnHujhUmHnHuhmHnHuhgWh0J!mHnHu$jhgWh0J!UmHnHu2j^hgWh>*B*UmHnHphu XZ\|~.02fhjprtvxzźӑőwźfӑő jhAUmHnHu2jLhgWh>*B*UmHnHphuhmHnHu jhAUmHnHujhUmHnHuhmHnHuhgWh0J!mHnHu$jhgWh0J!UmHnHu2jRhgWh>*B*UmHnHphu "$&,.0246nprt    > @ źӑőwźfӑő jhAUmHnHu2j@hgWh>*B*UmHnHphuhmHnHu jhAUmHnHujhUmHnHuhmHnHuhgWh0J!mHnHu$jhgWh0J!UmHnHu2jFhgWh>*B*UmHnHphu @ B D v x z !4!6!8!l!n!p!v!x!z!|!~!!!źӑőwźfӑ[WP h_khhbjh_khc6|U j!hAUmHnHu2j4!hgWh>*B*UmHnHphuhmHnHu j hAUmHnHujhUmHnHuhmHnHuhgWh0J!mHnHu$jhgWh0J!UmHnHu2j: hgWh>*B*UmHnHphu!!Z"\"$$.'))83:3r5t5AABBBBCCCC,G.GHHKKKKLL:LxzprjlΫЫ:<ƻȻHJBD$&02HJ JLLNFHz|^`~>@,.8:~hD] h_khba44`6@ 4 l&&&&& &&& & & &&&&& &&&&&&&&&&&gdc6|gdc6|XZ  &("" $"$4(6(F1H11166@@DHFHHHHH[[^^`^VaXa`bbbbbddffi ikkPlRlnmpmnntovoood{f{{{V|X|pr02pr8:,.hjVXZ\ h_khbhD]a | \R r%n)025@7"= ?CGORUVWY_:cfVf\g&&&&& &&& &&&&&&& &&&&&& &&&&&gdc6|\gDkqr6u&wj~RX TԛhܣĨ"vd &&&& &&&&&&&& &&&&&&&&&&& &&gdc6|gdc6|\Ÿ֢آХҥLNZ\\^hj`b24  LNjlxz"$rt~:<:< "$@B  (*hD] h_khba6@> xJJ d&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&& & &&gdc6|gdc6|4"6"$$$$%%((,,x.z."1$1n3p3<6>688??AA@GBGGGGGJJNNlNnN~RRTTZW\WYY [[[[` `eeff h hhhnipiiidjfjjjmmmmoopp ttvv{ {2}4}N}P}}}(* h_khbhD]a4 #% *0t5V89 ?nCGLQW[bFeLfDjsPw~ln&& &&&&&&&& && &&&&& &&&&&&gdc6|gdc6|&(`b.0np24xzrtғԓ,.LN(*jl,.ȥʥ|~dfƻȻ4668&("$FH^`&(NPhD] h_khbaȄFТ>FԿ>Vp&&&&& &&& &&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&gdc6|TN0N V ,r 6"%'.)6.1N58~<CH&&&&&&&&&&&&& & &&&&&&&&& &&gdc6|gdc6|ln        bdlnRT(*xz>@""X#Z#%%`&b&''j'l'***+22":$:BBCCMMOOLONOtUvUUUUUUUjVlVVV h_khbhD]aHLNN,O>P"TtUUjVWZn[]``fzghh0iiklmqrut|&&&&&&&&&&&& &&&&&&&&&&&& &gdc6|gdc6|VVV|X~XZZ[[n[p[[[[[]]]^__cczg|ggggghhhh0i2iVjXjllnnNnPnpp.t0tLuNufuhu$v&vR|T|ړܓ¡>@prFHvxVX*,8:  hD] h_khbat|PVVΊ tD,dP> \~|ܺTnnJ&& & & &&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&& &&&&&gdc6|Z\<>  bdln|~TV"$tv$&@B    XZ:<NP"$,..0!!8!:!##B$D$&&''((** + +&+(+ h_khbhD]aJD.P2Vxh\ >p&rt X$j%&&&& & & &&&&&&&&&&&& &&&&&&&gdc6|gdc6|j% ') +x+|-/01,112^468<R?\A\F@HKMORUWY[b^ b&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&gdc6|(+^+`+--..00001122 33,3.3R3T344F6H6r7t788CChEjE>G@GGG4K6KtLvLLLTMVMOOXXDZFZ^^b`d`vdxd2h4hhhjhoo8o:oppppqq*s,s~uuww||,|.|^`(*ƌȌڑܑ(hD] h_khba b(c^finrtytրvPNz6pzȥ2&&&&&& &&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&gdc6|gdc6|(*<>,.`b`bHJ  tv^`,.(*XZlnTVrtrt:<xztv@B"$PR`bPR46ln  ( * VX h_khbhD]a2dRn BP2b(l&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&& &&&&&&&&gdc6|gdc6|2 d<(h V:6l(!"&p(r(&&&& &&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&gdc6| "$HJnp "*,H$J$~''))V,X, //0000H2J24499n@p@LLSSTTX XXXYY]]d^f^nnoouu|}~}x~z~~~tvDFpr’rtFH֥إڦܦhD] h_khbar((+`./41r23d5&7X:=D@FHMPQzTLW2Y|_\adZgHifm(nn&&&&&&&&&&& &&&&&&&& &&&&&&&&gdc6|gdc6|nFsHw|yz0~.ЋtpDjdd&Z&&&&&&&&&&& &&&& &&& &&&&& &&&&&gdc6|"$`b4646jl @B24fhZ\np,.BDvxvx8: "PRz|     "  h_khbhD]a6L8Zdv JJ$ ` &&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&gdc6|gdc6|`  hX(!$&>&@&l&)*+0,,d/811163J44&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&gdc6|gdc6|" $$R%T%))))******0,2,>,@,p,r,....81:1d1f111112233.404>:@:V:X:|:~:l?n?????x@z@AABBLL*P,PNPPPpQrQSSTT.T0TbTdT8V:V$Y&Y`YbYr\t\\\\\______aaaaaabhD] h_khba45>:; >l?@>EEFIKpNOTQRSSTUVWXY\ZZ<\]l__`&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&gdc6|`abdfj.nnqrsuNv|B,؅ȇ*V\&&&&&&&& &&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&gdc6|gdc6|bbbbteveppppqqttuu@}B}*,VXЍҍ&(\^~$&BD>@jl4668@Bvx(*  XZtvlnHJ h_khbhD]aHܟ ΢dڪr ι rF$tR&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&gdc6|Rjj\VXfF*@$\n$0<   l&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&gdc6|JfhFHXZRTfhVXRT  LNpr!!##--d-f-".$.z/|////0\0^00000`2b2t2v222$3&3J3L3|3~3333333444444D5F5`5b55hD] h_khbalRD!@&B&b&( +-z/\0>11`2$334D567|77B9`:J;;<&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&gdc6|gdc6|5577.707|7~777B9D99999`:b:::::J;L;z;|;;;<<f>h>^A`AAAAA B"BCCEEEEPMRMPPQQTT2Y4YhYjY2\4\^^aaaagghhRkTkssss*w,w~ww "lntv h_khbhD]a<$>>^AAB2DEI~J*M^NPR UWZR^fbbdhkmlrvvy~}~~&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&gdc6|~~d.J ^8*6P2()V.6337:>@CGLOQ&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&gdc6|gdc6|vړܓNPjlTV\^œ"##@$B$V'X',,//44D5F5H6J666h9j9$;&;>>AA"B$BDDzE|EHHII@JBJTLVLLMNM(N*NUUbVdVYxZzZ`[b[[[cccczg|gvixijjnnpnnnnnUhD] h_khb`@07=>284=>AB59 B@8E>30AB@>2 7=0G8B5;L=> 1>;LH5, G5< ACI5AB2C5B 2 ?@8@>45 (G5BK@5 2840 8 >48= ?>4284). -B> @57C;LB0B A5;5:F8>==>9 @01>BK ;N18B5;59 0:20@8C<0. "0:, A5;5:F8>=5@0<8 2K2545=K B@8E>30AB@ A B5<=K< <@0<>@=K< @8AC=:>< =0 3>;C1>< D>=5 (20@80=B - ?5@54=OO G0ABL B5;0 3>;C10O, 704=OO - 2 B5<=KE @072>40E), 7>;>B>9 3C@0<8 A 65;BK< D>=>< 8 :@0A=>20BK< @8AC=:>< ?>;>A, 65;BK<8 ?OB=KH:0<8 =0 ?;02=8:0E 8 4@. A5 B@8E>30AB@K E>@>H> C6820NBAO 4@C3 A 4@C3>< 8 1>;LH8=AB2>< 0:20@8C<=KE @K1, 2A5 ;N1OB G8ABK5, 70A065==K5 @0AB5=8O<8 0:20@8C<K. > =04> 8<5BL 2 284C, GB> MB8 @K1:8 ;53:> ?@>ABC60NBAO, 0 >B >4=>>1@07=>3> :>@<0 701>;520NB. 01>;52H0O @K10 2A5 2@5<O :0G05BAO =0 >4=>< <5AB5 - 2?5@54=0704, 2?5@54=0704. >@>9 4>AB0B>G=> ?>2KA8BL B5<?5@0BC@C 2>4K 4> 2528 !, 8 :0G0=85 ?@5:@0I05BAO. @NH=K5 ?;02=8:8 B@8E>30AB@>2 ?@52@0B8;8AL 2 4;8==K5 >AO70B5;L=K5 =8B8. =8 ?>4286=K, 8 @K1:0 2A5 8<8 >IC?K205B. >6=> =01;N40BL 8 B0:CN B@>30B5;L=CN :0@B8=C: ?0@0 B@8E>30AB@>2 ?>3;068205B MB8<8 =8BO<8 4@C3 4@C30. > 2@5<O =5@5AB0 >4=8 A0<FK B@8E>30AB@>2 AB0=>2OBAO ?>GB8 G5@=K<8, 4@C385 O@:> >:@0H820NBAO. 0B5@K5 A0<FK 65<GC6=>3> B@8E>30AB@0 8<5NB =5?0@=K5 ?;02=8:8 A 4;8==>9 10E@><>9. @8 A>45@60=88 AB09:>9 MB8 @K1:8 ?C3;82K 8 ?@OGCBAO 2 70@>A;OE >B G5;>25:0. 0 ?>@F859 2>74CE0 >1KG=> CAB@5<;O5BAO : ?>25@E=>AB8, :0: ?> :><0=45, 2AO AB0O. I5 @07 ?>2B>@N: 70;>3 CA?5E0 A>45@60=8O B@8E>30AB@>2 - G8ABK9, >75;5=5==K9, E>@>H> >A25I5==K9 0:20@8C< A @>2=>9 B5<?5@0BC@>9 2>4K 8 @07=>>1@07=K<8 :>@<0<8; 2 @0F8>= B@8E>30AB@>2 2E>4OB =87H85 75;5=K5 2>4>@>A;8, :>B>@K5 >=8 ?>AB>O==> I8?;NB. ;87:8 : B@8E>30AB@0< @K1K 87 @>40 Colisa. 51>;LH0O @K1:0 (4> 5 A0=B8<5B@>2) !. lalia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chuna). # A0<F0 >B :>=F0 @K;0 G5@57 3;07 4> A5@548=K 0=0;L=>3> ?;02=8:0 ?@>E>48B @0745;8B5;L=0O :>A0O ?>;>A0: 2A5, GB> =865,- B5<=>A5@>5, ?>@>9 4065 G5@=>5, 2A5, GB> 2KH5,- :@0A=>:>@8G=52>5. -B>B 284 =5 AB>;L B@51>20B5;5= : CA;>28O< A>45@60=8O, :0: ;O;8CA. 5B@51>20B5;L=K 8 420 >AB0;L=KE 2840 :>;87 - 3>;C10O !. labiosa 8 A5@>:>@8G=520O A B5<=K<8 ?>;>A0<8 !. fasciata. >A;54=OO - <0;5=L:0O E8I=8F0. -B8E @K1 ;CGH5 A>45@60BL >B45;L=> >B ;O;8CA0. ;O =8E =C6=K B0:85 65 CA;>28O, :0: 4;O <0:@>?>40. "5?5@L ?>3>2>@8< > 7=0:><KE =0< 1>9F>2KE @K1:0E. 0 A53>4=O 8725AB=> 16 ?@8@>4=KE 284>2 @>40 Betta. > 8E =04> @0745;8BL =0 425 3@C??K ?> A?>A>1C @07<=>65=8O. !5<L 284>2 AB@>OB ?5==>5 3=574>, 0 452OBL - 2K=0H820NB ?>B><AB2>& 2> @BC.  =0H8E 0:20@8C<0E MB8 452OBL ?>:0 =5 2AB@5G0NBAO, 0 B0:>9 8=B5@5A=K9 A?>A>1 701>BK > ?>B><AB25 O >?8HC =865. 7 @K1 ?5@2>9 3@C??K C 0:20@8C<8AB>2 5ABL B>;L:> >48= =0BC@0;L=K9 ?@8@>4=K9 284 - . imbellis (=52>8=AB25==K9). -BC =51>;LHCN @K1:C (4> 5,5 A0=B8<5B@0) ?@8257 87   ..0F:528G.  >:@0A:5 A0<F>2 A>G5B0NBAO G5@=K5, A8=85, 3>;C1K5 8 ?C=F>2K5 B>=0. 5;8:>;5?5= :@C3;K9 A 10E@><>9 ?> :@0O< E2>AB>2>9 ?;02=8:: 255@ O@:8E 3>;C1KE ;CG59 (?@><56CB:8 <564C =8<8 G5@=K5) 8 H8@>:89 @C18=>2K9 :0=B ?> :@0N. >=5F G5@=>3>;C1>3> 0=0;L=>3> ?;02=8:0 B>65 @C18=>2K9, 1@NH=K5 ?;02=8:8 B@5EF25B=K5: G5@=K5, ?>B>< ?C=F>2K5, >AB@K5 :>=G8:8 - 3>;C1K5.  0:20@8C<5 0F:528G0 O C2845; 45AOB:8 MB8E :@0A02F52. !0<FK 2A5 2@5<O 45<>=AB@8@>20;8 A2>N :@0A>BC 4@C3 ?5@54 4@C3><, => =8 @07C =5 2ABC?8;8 2 4@0:C (imbellis 254L!). 8:B>@ 5B@>28G ?>40@8; <=5 MB8E @K1>:, ?>O28;8AL >=8 8 C 4@C38E ;N18B5;59. / 8E @0725; 8 B>65 @0A?@>AB@0=8;. > @0725 <>3;8 MB8 @K1:8, @0AAG8B0==K5 =0 B>=:>3> F5=8B5;O, 2K45@60BL :>=:C@5=F8N A @K=>G=K< 20;>< 1>;55 :@C?=KE 8 O@:8E - 3>;C1KE, 75;5=KE, :@0A=KE, 15;KE 8 B. 4.- :0<1>4689A:8E Betta splendens?  @57C;LB0B5 =52>8=AB25==K9 :@0A025F =0 A53>4=O C65 =5 2AB@5G05BAO 2 =0H8E 0:20@8C<0E. 1 >AB0;L=KE 2840E @>40 Betta 3>2>@8BL =5 ?@8E>48BAO, C =0A 2AB@5G0NBAO B>;L:> F25B>2K5 20@80=BK :0<1>4689A:>9 D>@<K.  A5<59AB2C Belontidae >B=>AOBAO 8 <5;:85 284K, >1J548=O5<K5 2 3@C??C :0@;8:>2KE 3C@0<8,- C65 C?><8=02H89AO ?>;80:0=B, @K1K @>4>2 Trichopsis (>4=0 87 =8E ?>;CG8;0 =0720=85 2>@G0I0O @K1:0 - A ?><>ILN ?C7K@59 2>74CE0 >=0 87405B 72C:8 ?>4 2>4>9) 8 Parosphronemus. A5 MB8 A:@><=K5 87OI=K5 >18B0B5;8 0:20@8C<0 B@51CNB : A515 2=8<0=8O 8 E>@>H8E CA;>289 A>45@60=8O, B0:8E, :0: 4;O ;O;8CA0.  A>A54AB25 A 1>;55 :@C?=K<8 @K10<8 >=8 ?>AB5?5==> 2K<8@0NB 8 A53>4=O 2AB@5G0NBAO @54:>.  >B45;L=K5 A5<59AB20 2K45;5=K =010=B84K (Anabantidae) (2 788 : MB><C A5<59AB2C >B=>A8BAO B>;L:> >48= 284 - Anabas testudineus) 8 Helostomidae A >4=8< @>4>< 8 284>< - F5;CNI8<AO 3C@0<8 (Helostoma temminckii). >A;54=89 ?>;CG8; A2>5 =0720=85 70 ;N1>?KB=CN >A>15==>ABL: 425 @K1:8 AF5?;ONBAO >BB>?K@5==K<8 3C10<8 8 F5;CNBAO - B>;:0NB 4@C3 4@C30 2?5@54=0704. @8 MB>< ?>; @K1>: =5 8<55B 7=0G5=8O. 5@A89 > B0:>< ?>2545=88 <=>65AB2>, => >:>=G0B5;L=KE >1JOA=5=89 ?>:0 =5B. >B >4=0 87 25@A89: 3C1K MB8E @K1 ?@52@0I5=K 2 B5@:8 (>=8 2A5 2@5<O A>A:01;820NB 2>4>@>A;52K5 >1@0AB0=8O), 8 ?>F5;C8 - A?>A>1 2708<=>9 >G8AB:8 B5@>:. > ?>F5;C8 8725AB=K 8 C 4@C38E @K1, =5 8<5NI8E 3C1B5@>:, =0?@8<5@ C F8E;>2KE. 5;>AB><K - 4>2>;L=> :@C?=K5 @K1K (4> 15 A0=B8<5B@>2), 2 =0H8E 0:20@8C<0E @072>4OBAO 8 @0A?@>AB@0=5=K 425 @07=>284=>AB8 - A5@>9 8 7>;>B8AB>@>7>2>9 >:@0A:8.  ?>B><AB25 >4=>9 ?0@K <>3CB 1KBL 8 me 8 4@C385 >A>18. K1:8 <8@=K5, 8=>340, ?@0240, AA>@OBAO <564C A>1>9, => 157 ?5G0;L=KE ?>A;54AB289.  D@8:5 A5<59AB2> Anabantidae ?@54AB02;5=> @K10<8 A A>2A5< 4@C38<8 E0@0:B5@8AB8:0<8. -B> 1>;55 8;8 <5=55 A28@5?K5 E8I=8:8 @>40 Ctenopoma 2 1>;LH8=AB25 A2>5< 4;8=>9 >B 11 4> 20 A0=B8<5B@>2. A5 :B5=>?><K 45;OBAO =0 701>BOI8EAO > A2>5< ?>B><AB25 (5 284>2) 8 =5 ?@>O2;ONI8E 701>BK (11 284>2). 4=064K AC4=>, =0 :>B>@>< ?;020; ..(0H8=, 2AB0;> =0 @5945 2 CABL5 @5:8 >=3>. ;53 02;>28G A<0AB5@8; 87 <5H:>28=K A0G>: 8 >B?@028;AO 2 ?;02=8 =0 ?@><KA5;. !B>O ?> :>;5=> 2 2>45, >= 2K;>28; =5A:>;L:> @K1. !@548 =8E 1K;0 =51>;LH0O, 4;8=>9 56 A0=B8<5B@>2, A5@>3>;C10O A B5<=K<8 ?>?5@5G=K<8 ?>;>A0<8 @K1:0, :>B>@CN C65 2 5=8=3@045 >?@545;8;8 :0: Ctenopoma nanum. >340 MB8 0D@8:0=:8 ?>A5;8;8AL 2 <>5< 4><5, O =5 A><=520;AO, GB> C286C 2 0:20@8C<5 3=574> 4;O 8:@K. 40BL ?@8H;>AL 4>;3> - =5 E>BOB =5@5AB8BLAO 8 2A5 BCB, E>BO A0<FK O2=> CE06820;8 70 A0<:0<8. 4=064K ?@83;O45;AO: 10BNH:8!- ?> :@><:5 0:20@8C<0, C A0<KE AB5=>:, B> BCB, B> B0< ?;020NB 8:@8=:8. K@0AB8; O =5A:>;L:8E <0;L:>2, ?5@540; 8E A2>5<C 4@C3C ..0E0@>2C, :>B>@><C ?>4G8=O;0AL ;N10O @K1:0. >340 O ?>5E0; 2 5@;8=, ?>257 42C< ?@8OB5;O< 45AOB:0 420 :B5=>?><.  ?@>8725; A5=A0F8N: >:070;>AL, MB8E @K1 2 2@>?5 =5B. @>=8O AC4L1K: B5?5@L B0< MBC @K1:C @072>4OB, 0 C =0A >=0 8AG57;0 - =5 708=B5@5A>20;0 ;N18B5;59. >?@>1C5< AC<<8@>20BL 2A5, GB> <K 7=05< > @07<=>65=88 ;018@8=B>2KE. >;LH8=AB2> 0780BA:8E @K1 MB>9 3@C??K AB@>OB ?5==K5 3=5740 - C B@8E>30AB@>2 2KA>B>9 4> 5 A0=B8<5B@>2 2 25@H8=5 =04 ?>25@E=>ABLN 2>4K 8 4> 35 A0=B8<5B@>2 2 480<5B@5, 0 C :>;87 - A>2A5< <0;5=L:85. 5==>5 3=574> - ?@8A?>A>1;5=85 4;O A>E@0=5=8O 8:@K 2 A8;L=> ?@>3@5205<KE 2>4>5<0E, 345 :@09=5 <0;> :8A;>@>40. :@8=:8 <0:@>?>40 A=0165=K 1>;LH>9 68@>2>9 :0?;59 8 ?>MB><C ;53G5 2>4K. 5@5AB ?@>8AE>48B ?>4 3=574><, 8:@8=:8 2A?;K20NB 8 >:07K20NBAO 2 ?5=5. # 2K;C?82H8EAO ;8G8=>: 68@>20O :0?;O ?5@2>5 2@5<O A>E@0=O5BAO 2 65;B>G=>< <5H:5, 8 >=8 A2>1>4=> 45@60BAO C ?>25@E=>AB8. # 1>9F>2>9 @K1:8 2=5H=OO :0@B8=0 =5@5AB0 0=0;>38G=0, => ?@8A?>A>1;5=85 : ?@8?>25@E=>AB=><C @0728B8N H;> 4@C38< ?CB5<. :@0 8<55B <5;:85 68@>2K5 :0?5;L:8 8 BO65;55 2>4K. 5@5AB, :0: 8 C <0:@>?>40, ?@>8AE>48B ?>4 ?5==K< 3=574><, => 8:@0 B>=5B. !0<5F ?>A;5 :064>3> =5@5AB>2>3> 0:B0 A>18@05B 8:@C 2 @>B 8 A A8;>9 2K1@0AK205B 55 A=87C 2 ?5=C. 1>;>G:0 8:@8=>: C 1>9F>2KE @K1>: =5 3;04:0O, :0: C <0:@>?>40, 0 A:;04G0B0O. :@8=:8 2>=70NBAO 2 ?5=C, 8 ?C7K@L:8 2>74CE0, 70AB@520O 2 A:;04:0E, 45@60B 8:@C =0 ?;02C. -B> 3>2>@8B > B><, GB> @K1:8 ?@8H;8 : 2K@0I820=8N ?>B><AB20 2 ?5==>< 3=5745 @07=K<8 ?CBO<8. # ?>;80:0=B0 ?5==>5 3=574> <>65B =0E>48BLAO 8 =0 3;C18=5. 0@;8:>2K5 3C@0<8 - B@8E>?A8AK - >1@07CNB <0;> ?5=K 8 @07<5I0NB 55 ?>4 H8@>:8<8 ;8ABLO<8. 5;>AB><K ?5=K =5 45;0NB, 0 A0<5F 2K?CA:05B =0 ?>25@E=>ABL A5:@5B, >B :>B>@>3> ?>;CG05BAO 2O7:>5 <0A;O=8AB>5 ?OB=>.  MB>< ?@>7@0G=>< ?OB=5 ;560B =0 ?>25@E=>AB8 =5>E@0=O5<K5 8:@8=:8. 5@54 2K:;52>< ;8G8=>: A5:@5B =0G8=05B @07;030BLAO, ?>4 =8< 2 <0AA5 @072>4OBAO 8=DC7>@88. 5@5E>4OI85 : 0:B82=><C ?8B0=8N <0;L:8 A@07C ?>;CG0NB 2 4>AB0B:5 :>@<. 04> A:070BL, GB> MB> ?OB=> ;N18B5;L 0:20@8C<0 <>65B 8 =5 70<5B8BL - >=> 254L ?@>7@0G=>5, 0 A:>?;5=85 8=DC7>@89 ?>4 =8< B5< 1>;55 ?@>?CAB8BL. >=01;N409B5, ?@8A<>B@8B5AL. 0: B>;L:> <0;L:8 @0A?;K2CBAO, >B A5:@5B0 =5 >AB0=5BAO 8 A;540. ;020NI0O 8:@0 =07K205BAO ?5;038G5A:>9. '0ABL :B5=>?>< AB@>8B ?5==>5 3=574>, C 4@C3>9 - ?5;038G5A:0O 8:@0 157 3=5740, => A0<5F >E@0=O5B <5AB> 55 A:>?;5=8O, B@5BL8 2>>1I5 =5 ?@>O2;ONB 701>BK > A2>59 ?5;038G5A:>9 8:@5. !0<K9 8=B5@5A=K9 A?>A>1 @07<=>65=8O - A>E@0=5=85 ?>B><AB20 2> @BC C =5:>B>@KE 284>2 @>40 Betta 8 <0;09A:>3> H>:>;04=>3> 3C@0<8. > > 2K=0H820=88 ?>B><AB20 H>:>;04=K< 3C@0<8 2> @BC <K ?>3>2>@8< 2 A;54CNI59 3;025. K1:0 1>38=8 A84K  1798 3>4C 87 $@0=F88 2 38?5B =0 :>@01;OE >B?@028;0AL 2>5==0O M:A?548F8O. 5=5@0; 0?>;5>= >=0?0@B AB028; A2>59 F5;LN 70E20B8BL !525@=CN D@8:C. 'B>1K 8<5BL 2>7<>6=>ABL A@07C >F5=8BL ?> 4>AB>8=AB2C 702>520==CN 75<;N, >=0?0@B 4>18;AO >B B>340H=53> ?@028B5;LAB20 $@0=F88 - 8@5:B>@88 - @07@5H5=8O 27OBL A A>1>9 CG5=KE - 8AB>@8:>2, 35>3@0D>2, 7>>;>3>2, 1>B0=8:>2. >:0 D@0=FC7A:0O 0@<8O 25;0 2>5==K5 459AB28O, CG5=K5 70=8<0;8AL 8AA;54>20=8O<8. =8 >A<0B@820;8 538?5BA:85 ?8@0<84K, 7=0:><8;8AL A B>=:>9 EC4>65AB25==>9 @57L1>9 4@52=8E =0 :0<=5. 0 MB8E @5;L5D=KE :0@B8=0E 1K;8 87>1@065=K ;N48 2 AB0@8==KE >45O=8OE, A 2KA>:8<8 ?@8G5A:0<8, <=>385 - A C4;8=5==K<8 G5@5?0<8. K;> >G5284=>, GB> MB> 4@52=85 538?BO=5. > :0: 1>;55 B>G=> ?@54AB028BL >1;8: 538?BO=8=0 ?@>H;>3>? >;=>ABLN ;8 @8AC=>: A>>B25BAB2C5B 459AB28B5;L=>AB8 8;8, <>65B 1KBL, >= AB8;87>20=? #G5=K5 @5H8;8 >1@0B8BLAO : 87>1@065=8O< 725@59. A;8 8E >1;8: =0 :0@B8=0E A>>B25BAB2C5B B><C, GB> 5ABL =0 A0<>< 45;5, 7=0G8B, 8 ;N48 <=>3> 25:>2 =0704 2K3;O45;8 8<5==> B0:.  682>B=KE =0 :0<=OE 3@>1=8F 1K;> 87>1@065=> 1>;55 G5< 4>AB0B>G=>. #G5=K5 ?@83;0A8;8 =0 A>25B <>;>4>3> B0;0=B;82>3> 7>>;>30 - CG0AB=8:0 M:A?548F88. -B> 1K; >DD@C0 !5=B;5@ - 2?>A;54AB288 7=0<5=8BK9 CG5=K9. A<>B@5;8 @8AC=:8 8 CAB0=>28;8, GB> 682>B=K5 87>1@065=K 4>2>;L=> ?@024>?>4>1=>. ">;L:> 2 >4=>< <5AB5 !5=B;5@ C482;5==> ?>4=O; 1@>28: =0 :0<=5 1K;0 2KA5G5=0 @K10 A =5?><5@=> @074C2H59AO 3>;>2>9 8 2 =55AB5AB25==>9 ?>75 - E2>AB 704@0= :25@EC, 0 3>;>20 ?>GB8 ;568B =0 4=5. ->NAL, GB> MB> D0=B078O EC4>6=8:0,- A:070; >DD@C0. "0:>9 ?>7K @K10 >1KG=> =5 ?@8=8<05B, ?> :@09=59 <5@5 74>@>20O.  <>59 :>;;5:F88 5ABL MB8 @K1K, => C =8E A>2A5< =5 B0:85 =5?@>?>@F8>=0;L=> >3@><=K5 3>;>2K. @>H;8 3>4K. #G5=K5 $@0=F88 C5E0;8 87 38?B0.  B>;L:> 2> 2B>@>9 ?>;>28=5 ?@>H;>3> 25:0 745AL ?>O28;0AL =0CG=0O M:A?548F8O 87 2@>?K. ! 1>;LH8< 8=B5@5A>< 87CG0;8 7>>;>38 @5;L5D=K5 87>1@065=8O B@5EBKAOG5;5B=59 402=>AB8. =>3> 8=B5@5A=>3> =0E>48;8 >=8 2 MB8E @8AC=:0E. > ?>?@56=5<C 8E A<CI0;0 @K10, A2>5>1@07=> 87>3=C2H0O E2>AB :25@EC.  ?>G5<C C =55 B0:0O =5?@>?>@F8>=0;L=> :@C?=0O 3>;>20 ?@8 =51>;LH>< B5;5?  A0<>< 45;5, ?>G5<C?- ;><0; 3>;>2C >48= 87 CG5=KE.- 54L @K10 87>1@065=0 =0AB>;L:> @50;8AB8G=>, GB> A@07C <>6=> >?@545;8BL, GB> MB> 1C;LB8 (B0: 7>2CB 55 <5AB=K5 68B5;8). > C 1C;LB8 =>@<0;L=>5 A>>B=>H5=85 3>;>2K 8 B5;0. >G5<C 65 4@52=89 EC4>6=8:, B0: 25@=> 87>1@060O 4@C38E @K1, @5H8; 87<5=8BL A515 2 87>1@065=88 1C;LB8?  5A;8& - C CG5=>3> 4065 4CE 70E20B8;> >B MB>9 <KA;8,- 0 5A;8 4@52=85 7=0;8 1>;LH5 =0A >1 MB>9 @K1:5? >65B 1KBL, <K =5 2A5 7=05< > 55 ?>204:0E?  >= >B?@028;AO 2 1;8609H89 ?>A5;>:, GB>1K @0AA?@>A8BL @K10:>2 > 1C;LB8. -C;LB8& A25@:=C; 15;>A=56=K<8 7C10<8 <>;>4>9 @K10:,- MBC <5;>GL <K =5 ;>28<. C40 55 A>10: B>;L:> :>@<8BL. --B> 254L =5 @K10,- 70A<5O;AO 4@C3>9,- <K =0;>28< B515 4@C38E @K1, 1>;LH5 8 2:CA=55. - <>65B 1KBL, 3>A?>48=0 8=B5@5AC5B >48= A5:@5B 1C;LB8?- A?@>A8; B@5B89. -0:>9 A5:@5B?- <>;=85=>A=> ?>25@=C;AO : =5<C 8AA;54>20B5;L. ->948 : AB0@><C CE0<<54C, >= @0AA:065B B515& !B0@8: 4>;3> 6520; 3C10<8 8 2>@>H8; ?0;>G:>9 ?5A>:, ?>B>< ?>4=O; =0 52@>?59F0 2KF25BH85 3;070: -8:><C 87 GC60:>2 =5 >B:@K205< <K A>:@>25==K5 B09=K =0H8E 75<5;L 8 2>4. > BK =5 A >@C685< ?@8H5; : =0<, 8 <K 2848<, :0: BK 87> 4=O 2 45=L A<>B@8HL 2 =0H8 A5B8. "K B0: 65 ;N18HL =0H8E @K1, :0: <K, 8 BK =5 A45;0; =0< 2@540. >MB><C O >B:@>N B515 B09=C 1C;LB8. 02=K<402=>, :>340 5I5 8 ?@0454>2 =0H8E =5 1K;>, 68; =0 A25B5 2;0AB8B5;L 5@E=53> 8 86=53> 38?B0 ?> 8<5=8 A8@8A. = =0CG8; ;N459 @KBL :0=0;K, >@>H0BL 75<;N 8 2K@0I820BL =0 =59 1>30BK5 C@>608. # =53> 1K;0 :@0A028F065=0 - 40@CNI0O <8@C ?;>4>@>485 A840. > 68; B>340 2 5@E=5< 38?B5 8 7;>9 7028AB;82K9 !5B. = C18; 1;03>@>4=>3> A8@8A0, 0 B5;> 53> @07@C18; =0 :CA:8 8 @071@>A0; ?> 2A5<C A25BC. >@L:> @K40;0 =5AG0AB=0O A840. 065 ?>:;>=8BLAO <>38;5 A2>53> ;N18<>3> ?>25;8B5;O >=0 =5 <>3;0.  B>340 ?>:;O;0AL A840 =09B8 2A5 :CA:8 B5;0 A8@8A0, A>548=8BL 8E 2>548=> 8 ?>E>@>=8BL <C60 4>;6=K< >1@07><. >;3> E>48;0 >=0, @K40O, ?> @>4=>9 75<;5 8 A>18@0;0 :CA:8 B5;0 A8@8A0.  :>340 A>1@0;0 C65 ?>GB8 2A5, C2845;0, GB> =5 E20B05B ;8HL =5A:>;L:8E :CA>G:>2 2 1>:C. =>2L >1>H;0 >=0 2AN 75<;N, => =8345 =8G53> =5 =0H;0. ">340 ?>=O;0 >=0, GB> 8A:0BL =04> 2 8;8AB>< 4=5 8;0, => @0725 =0945HL GB>=81C4L 2 <CB=>9 2>45? KH;0 >=0 =0 15@53 8 3>@L:> 70?;0:0;0. 4@C3 2848B: 2K?;K205B 87 2>4K @K1:0 8 45@68B 2> @BC <0;5=L:89 :CA>G5:. ->7L<8, > A840, >48= 87 :CA>G:>2 B5;0 A8@8A0,- A:070;0 @K1:0.- / 1K;0 1K @040 2K=5AB8 B515 >AB0;L=K5, => C <5=O A;8H:>< <0;5=L:89 @>B8:. #A;KH0;8 MB8 A;>20 1>38 8 A45;0;8 B0:, GB> C MB>9 @K1:8 AB0; =5?><5@=> @0ABO3820BLAO @>B. !?CAB8;0AL @K1:0 =0 4=> 8 2K=5A;0 >48= 70 4@C38< :CA>G:8 B5;0 A8@8A0. >E>@>=8;0 A840 B5;> <C60.  B5< 2@5<5=5< @>A 8 <C60; 55 AK=. = AB0; ?@5:@0A=K< 8 A8;L=K< 2>8=><, ?>H5; : !5BC 8 C18; 53>.  :0: B>;L:> ?0; :>20@=K9 !5B, 1>38 2>A:@5A8;8 A8@8A0 8 A45;0;8 53> 2<5AB5 A 65=>9 A84>9 1>65AB20<8 ?;>4>@>48O. >340 A840 AB0;0 1>38=59, 2A?><=8;0 >=0 > <0;5=L:>9 @K1:5, :>B>@0O ?><>3;0 59 A>1@0BL B5;> A8@8A0.  >B<5B8;0 >=0 55 1>65AB25==K< 7=0:>< - >B=K=5 AB0;0 MB0 @K1:0 @>60BL A2>8E 45B59 G5@57 @>B.  7>2CB MBC @K1:C 1C;LB8. -@0A82K9 <8D,- A:070; CG5=K9, :>340 AB0@8: C<>;:.- > BK >15I0; <=5 >B:@KBL A5:@5B 1C;LB8? -> O 65 @0AA:070; > =5< B515, GC6575<5F,- C4828;AO AB0@K9 @K10:.- 54L O 65 ?>2540; B515, :0: >B<5B8;0 A840 <0;5=L:CN @K1:C. --B> A:07:0, AB0@8:,- A:070; CG5=K9. - 2 A:07:C =04> 25@8BL. 0;>28, GC6575<5F, =5A:>;L:> 1C;LB8, ?>A048 8E 2 1>G:C, <>65B, B515 ?>2575B& !B@0==> 2A5 MB>,- @0AAC640; ?> 4>@>35 4><>9 CG5=K9.- >=5G=>, O =5 ?LO= 8 =5 A>H5; A C<0, GB>1K ?>25@8BL, GB> <0;L:8 C 1C;LB8 ?>O2;ONBAO =0 A25B 87> @B0. > ?>G5<C AB0@8: B0: C?>@=> A>25B>20; ?>=01;N40BL 70 @K1:>9? !B0@K9 G5;>25: 4>@>68B A2>8< 02B>@8B5B><. 5 AB0=5B >= B0: HCB8BL. 'B>B> BCB =5 B0:. # CG5=>3> =5 1K;> A A>1>9 0:20@8C<0 8;8 AB5:;O==>9 10=:8. = =0;>28; =5A:>;L:> 1C;LB8 8 1@>A8; 8E 2 G0=. 064K9 45=L ?>4E>48; >= : G0=C 8 A<>B@5; =0 @K1>:.  >=8 ?;020;8 8 @5728;8AL, A25@:0O =0 A>;=F5 A5@51@8AB>;8;>2K<8 1>:0<8. @>H;> =5A:>;L:> =545;L, 8 2 G0=5 ?>O28;8AL <>;>4K5 @572K5 @K15H:8. =8 =5 1K;8 ?>E>68 =0 15A?><>I=KE <0;L:>2, 2KH54H8E =5402=> 87 8:@K. >65B 1KBL, 1C;LB8 - 682>@>4OI0O @K1:0?- ?>4C<0; CG5=K9.- !B@0==>, A@548 @K1 MB>9 3@C??K 5I5 =5 8725AB=0 =8 >4=0 682>@>4OI0O. > B>340 >B:C40 65 B0:85 <0;L:8? #G5=K9 AB0; 2=8<0B5;L=55 A;548BL 70 @K10<8. "5?5@L >= ?>4E>48; : G0=C B8E>B8E>, ?@O<>B0:8 ?>4:@04K20;AO : =5<C.  2>B >4=064K >= C2845; ?>A@548 G0=0 =0 A25B;>< D>=5 ?>:@K202H53> 4=> ?5A:0 AB09:C :@>E>B=KE @K1>:. =8 ?;020;8 2A5 2<5AB5 8 GB>B> 2A5 2@5<O :;520;8. #G5=K9 A45;0; @57:89 H03 : G0=C  8 2 MB>B <><5=B ?@>87>H;> AB@0H=>5.  AB09:5 ?>4A:>G8;0 >4=0 87 27@>A;KE @K1 8 2 >48= <83 ?@>3;>B8;0 2A5E <0;L:>2! -E BK 15AB8O!- 2A:@8G0; 2 >BG0O=88 CG5=K9 8 C65 AE20B8; A0G>:, GB>1K 872;5GL @K1C 87 B5<=>3> C3;0, :C40 >=0 <5B=C;0AL, :0: 24@C3 2=570?=0O <KA;L >1>63;0 53>.- !B>9,- ?@>H5?B0; >= A0< A515.-  :0: >=0 8E 5;0? =0 AB>O;0 225@E E2>AB><. 25@E E2>AB><! C 40, B0: 65, :0: =0 @8AC=:5 3@>1=8FK !0::0@0. 5 <>65B 1KBL? 5B, <>65B! >AB>9, ?>AB>9, 0 254L =0 10@5;L5D5 ?5@54 =>A>< MB>9 @K1K EC4>6=8: =0=5A =0 :0<=5 :0:85B> HB@8E8. C :>=5G=>, B0< 5ABL HB@8E8!  =8:B> =5 >1@0I0; =0 =8E 2=8<0=8O.  254L MB> =5 GB> 8=>5, :0: 87>1@065=8O <0;L:>2. 0, 40, 4@52=89 EC4>6=8: 8 87>1@078; 1C;LB8 2 B>B <><5=B, :>340 >=0 5AB A2>8E <0;L:>2& > ?>G5<C >=0 5AB 8E? = ?@8=5A ABC;, A5; 2 B5=8 C G0=0 8 ?>?@>A8; 53> =5 15A?>:>8BL. >A86C 4> 25G5@0 8, <>65B 1KBL, GB>=81C4L C286C,- @0AAC640; >=. > 4> 25G5@0 640BL =5 ?@8H;>AL. = C2845;, :0: >4=0 87 @K1 2K?;K;0 =0 A5@548=C. 0: 65 O =5 70<5B8; @0=LH5,- C4828;AO CG5=K9,- 254L C =55 A>2A5< B0:0O 65 :@C?=0O 3>;>20 ?@8 B>=:>< B5;5, :0: =0 10@5;L5D5. K1:0 15A?>:>9=> ?;020;0 B0<, 345 2>40 E>@>H> ?@>3@520;0AL A>;=F5<. 4@C3 >=0 =0:;>=8;0 3>;>2C 2=87, B>GL2B>GL :0: =0 10@5;L5D5, 8& # CG5=>3> >B C60A0 70H525;8;8AL 2>;>AK. K1:0 @0A:@K;0 @>B, 8 87> @B0 C =55 ?>AK?0;8AL 682K5 <0;L:8. -'5@B>2I8=0,- 2>A:;8:=C; CG5=K9,- =020645=85 :0:>5B>! @8 MB>< >= =0:;>=8;AO : G0=C, @K1:0 B>BG0A 2AB0;0 225@E E2>AB>< 8 - 6668:!- 2A5 <0;L:8 >:070;8AL C =55 2> @BC. #G5=K9 C65 =8G53> =5 ?>=8<0;. = AE20B8; A0G>: 8 2K;>28; @K1:C. -B409 <0;L:>2, :@>2>604=0O!- 70:@8G0; >=, 87> 2A5E A8; B@OE=C2 @K1:C 2 A0G:5. > @K1:0 45@60;0 @>B 70:@KBK<, 8 =8 >48= <0;5: =5 2K?0;. -C =8G53>, O 2A5 @02=> @07>6<C B2>9 @>B,- 2>7<CB8;AO CG5=K9 8 ?>A048; 55 2 AB0:0=. = E>B5; ?8=F5B>< 872;5GL <0;L:>2, =>, :>340 ?>4=O; AB0:0= 8 @>B @K1:8 AB0; ?@>A25G820BL =0A:2>7L, >= C2845;, GB> 2 =5< :>?>H0BAO 682K5 G5@B>G:8. -"0: MB> 65 <0;L:8!- ?>@078;AO CG5=K9.- =0G8B >=0 8E =5 AJ5;0? ">340 >= 2K?CAB8; @K1:C 2 G0=, A5; @O4>< 8 AB0; @07<KH;OBL. 5B, @>60BL G5@57 @>B - 2 MBC A:07:C >= ?>25@8BL =5 <>3. 45O > ?>540=88 2K2>4:0 B>65 >B?0;0. AB020;>AL ?@54?>;>68BL, GB> <0;L:8 :0:8<B> >1@07>< ?>?040;8 2 @>B 8 4> :0:>3>B> 2>7@0AB0 68;8 B0<, :0: 2 157>?0A=>< C1568I5. 525@>OB=>5, ?>@078B5;L=>5 >B:@KB85! > MB> 1K;> 459AB28B5;L=> B0:. Haplochromis multicolor - B0: =0720; CG5=K9 1C;LB8 - =51>;LH0O A25B;0O @K1:0. >4>2>5 =0720=85 >7=0G05B ?@>AB> >:@0H5==K9, 284>2>5 - <=>3>F25B=K9. 070;>AL 1K, >4=> ?@>B82>@5G8B 4@C3><C. 0 A0<>< 45;5 8 B> 8 4@C3>5, ?> ACI5AB2C, 25@=>. !25B;>A5@CN <0;>?@82;5:0B5;L=CN >:@0A:C 1C;LB8 8<55B 2 >1KG=>5 2@5<O. > 2 ?5@8>4 =5@5AB0 A0<:0 AB0=>28BAO 1>;55 B5<=>9, 0 A0<5F ?5@5;8205BAO 2A5<8 F25B0<8 @04C38. !?8=0 8 1>:0 53> 2 MB> 2@5<O A25B;>;8;>2K5 A <54=K< >B;82><, =0@C6=0O AB>@>=0 G5HC5: 1;5AB8B B> 3>;C1K<, B> @>7>2K< F25B><. 0 A25B;>:>@8G=52>< A?8==>< ?;02=8:5 - 420 @O40 3>;C1>20B>75;5=KE A ?5@;0<CB@>2K< 1;5A:>< ?OB5=, MB8 65 ?OB=0 @0AAK?0=K ?> 4@C38< ?;02=8:0< 8 ?> 3>;>25 @K1:8. > :@0O< 601@ 420 1>;LH8E ?OB=0 - G5@=>5 8 <54=>:@0A=>5.  ?5@8>4 =5@5AB0 A0<5F 1C;LB8 2?>;=5 >?@024K205B A2>5 284>2>5 =0CG=>5 =0720=85. >340 @K1:8 2K45;ONBAO 2 ?0@C, >=8 2K18@0NB C:@><=K9 C3>;>:, >1KG=> >:>;> :>@=59 2>4=>3> @0AB5=8O, 8 =0G8=0NB :@C68BLAO 2 B0=F5. @5<5=0<8 A0<5F >?CA:05BAO :> 4=C 8 E2>AB>< @071@0AK205B ?5AG8=:8. 1@07C5BAO =53;C1>:0O O<:0 480<5B@>< 56 A0=B8<5B@>2. A;8 2 =59 >1=0@C6820NBAO :@C?=K5 ?5AG8=:8 8 <5;:85 :0<=8, A0<5F E20B05B 8E @B>< 8 >B=>A8B 40;5:> >B 3=5740. 0:>=G82 AB@>8B5;LAB2>, A0<5F A=>20 AB0=>28BAO @O4>< A A0<:>9, 3>;>2>9 : 55 E2>ABC, 8 @K1:8 =0G8=0NB <54;5==> :@C68BLAO. -B> 8 5ABL 8E 1@0G=K9 B0=5F, 2 E>45 :>B>@>3> ?@>8AE>48B =5@5AB. :@0 ?0405B 2 O<:C 8 ?>;8205BAO <>;>:0<8. :@8=>: =5<=>3> - 2A53> =5A:>;L:> 45AOB:>2, 254L >=8 B0: E>@>H> 70I8I5=K, 8 >BE>4 1C45B =525;8:. >340 8:@0 2K<5B0=0, A0<:0 >?CA:05BAO 2=87 8 0::C@0B=> A>18@05B 2 @>B 2A5 8:@8=:8. "5?5@L ?0ABL C =55 AB0=>28BAO 1>;LH0O - =86=OO G5;NABL M;0AB8G=0O 8 A8;L=> @0ABO38205BAO. >;55 42CE =545;L >1@5G5=0 <0BL =>A8BL 2> @BC A2>5 ?>B><AB2>. >:0 8:@8=:8, 0 70B5< 8 <0;L:8 =0E>4OBAO 2> @BC - ?8B0BLAO A0<:5 =5;L7O. =0 A8;L=> EC455B. B AB@>9=>9 @0=LH5 @K1:8 >AB05BAO ;8HL =5?><5@=> 1>;LH0O 3>;>20 8 B>I55 B5;>, B>GL2B>GL :0: =0 10@5;L5D5. >=5G=>, A0<:5 2 MB> 2@5<O >G5=L E>G5BAO 5ABL.  5A;8 >=0 2848B :>@<, B> AB@5<8B5;L=> 1@>A05BAO : =5<C, => BCB 65, A;>2=> 2A?><=82 > A2>59 25;8:>9 <8AA88, >AB0=02;8205BAO 8 B>;L:> 273;O4>< ?@>2>605B 70<0=G82>3> 8 0??5B8B=>3> G5@2O:0. >AB>O==> 2BO3820O G5@57 @>B 2>4C 4;O A>1AB25==>3> 4KE0=8O, A0<:0 ><K205B A25659, 1>30B>9 :8A;>@>4>< 2>4>9 8 A2>8 8:@8=:8. @><5 B>3>, >=0 2@5<5=0<8 8E :0: 1K ?5@5652K205B, ?5@5:0BK20O =86=85 =025@E, GB>1K >=8 =5 A;56820;8AL. K;C?82H85AO 87 8:@K ;8G8=:8 ;560B ?5@2>5 2@5<O 2 157>?0A=>AB8 2 A2>5< C1568I5. >340 65 >=8 ?5@5E>4OB : AB0488 0:B82=>3> ?8B0=8O, C <0B5@8 ?@8102;O5BAO E;>?>B. "5?5@L 59 ?@8E>48BAO 8A:0BL 1>30BK5 8=DC7>@859 <5AB0 2 2>4>5<5, 8 B0< >=0 AB0=>28BAO 2 E0@0:B5@=CN ?>7C - E2>AB>< :25@EC 8 >B:@K205B @>B. 0;L:8 2KA:0:820NB =0@C6C 8 =0G8=0NB ;>28BL 8=DC7>@89.  MB> 2@5<O 8 <0BL <>65B, =0:>=5F, ?>72>;8BL A515 ?>;>28BL :>@<. > >=0 7>@:> A;548B 70 B5<, GB> ?@>8AE>48B 2>:@C3. >B C?0;0 =0 2>4C GLOB> B5=L 8;8 @K1:0 ?>GC2AB2>20;0, GB> :B>B> ?;K25B AN40. 0BL B>BG0A >B:@K205B @>B 8 ?>4=8<05B E2>AB: "@52>30!  2A5 :@>H:8 3C@L1>9 CAB@5<;ONBAO 2 157>?0A=>5 C1568I5.  24@C3 =5 2A5? 4@C3 >48= 8;8 420 7045@60;8AL 8 =5 2845;8 A83=0;0 B@52>38?  8< 8 =5 >1O70B5;L=> 2845BL 53>. >340 A0<:0 AB0=>28BAO 2 ?>7C B@52>30, >=0 ?@>872>48B A2>8< B5;>< E0@0:B5@=CN 281@0F8N. -B8B> A83=0;K 8 4>E>4OB 4> <0;L:>2 8 2>A?@8=8<0NBAO >A>1K< GC2AB28B5;L=K< >@30=>< @K1 - 1>:>2>9 ;8=859. =8 =5 B>;L:> ?5@540NB 2A5< <0;L:0<, GB> 8E 7>25B <0BL, => 8 C:07K20NB, 345 2 40==K9 <><5=B >=0 =0E>48BAO. >B ?>G5<C A> 2A5E AB>@>= <0;L:8 <G0BAO : A?0A8B5;L=><C @BC, =8 =0 <8=CBC =5 A><=520OAL 8 =5 87<5=OO =0?@02;5=8O. > 8 745AL, :>=5G=>, =5B =8:0:>3> ?@>O2;5=8O @07C<0. #G5=K5 ?@>45;0;8 B0:>9 M:A?5@8<5=B: 2> 2@5<O ?@>3C;:8 >=8 87JO;8 87 0:20@8C<0 A0<:C. 0 B0: ;>2:> - A ?><>ILN AB5:;O==>3> A0G:0,- GB> <0;L:8 4065 =5 70<5B8;8 ?@>?068 A2>53> C1568I0.  70B5< : AB09:5 <0;L:>2 ?@81;878;8 8A:CAAB25==> A45;0==CN @K1:C 8 ABC:=C;8 ?> 0:20@8C<C. 0;L:8 B>BG0A :8=C;8AL 8A:0BL @>B <0B5@8 8 70?;K;8 2 ;>2CH:C - >B25@AB85 2 8A:CAAB25==>9 @K1:5.  ?>B>< @K1:C ?>25@=C;8 2=87 >B25@AB85<"@B><", 8 <0;L:8 A=>20 2K?;K;8 =0@C6C. A5 MB> @57C;LB0B ?>@078B5;L=>9 A8;K 8 F5;5A>>1@07=>AB8 5AB5AB25==>3> >B1>@0, 2 E>45 :>B>@>3> C @K1 2K@01>B0;0AL B0:0O 70I8B=0O @50:F8O =0 2@03>2. "5?5@L, ?>7=0:><82H8AL A C4828B5;L=K< A?>A>1>< >E@0=K ?>B><AB20 C 1C;LB8 (:AB0B8, A53>4=O C MB>9 @K1:8 C65 =>2>5 =0720=85 - Pseudocrenilabrus multicolor), <>6=> 25@=CBLAO 8 : 70304:5 <0;09A:>3> 682>@>4OI53> 3C@0<8. B:@>5< 8740==CN 2 1984 3>4C <>=>3@0D8N 8725AB=>3> H254A:>3> 7=0B>:0 B@>?8G5A:8E @K1 5;L<CB0 8=B5@0 018@8=B>2K5 @K1K (8740=0 2 (BCB30@B5 =0 =5<5F:>< O7K:5). >B GB> 3>2>@8BAO 2 :=835 ?> 8=B5@5ACNI5<C =0A 2>?@>AC. K1:0 1K;0 2?5@2K5 22575=0 2 2@>?C 2 1905 3>4C 59E5;LB><. = AG8B0; 55 682>@>4OI59, B0: :0: <0;L:8, 459AB28B5;L=>, ?>O28;8AL ?@8 B@0=A?>@B8@>2:5. 5OA=>ABL A> A?>A>1>< @07<=>65=8O H>:>;04=>3> (<0;09A:>3>) 3C@0<8 A>E@0=O;0AL 4> ?OB845AOBKE 3>4>2, :>340 =0G0;AO @53C;O@=K9 8<?>@B MB8E @K1. ">340B> 8 C2845;8 0:20@8C<8ABK, :0: @07<=>605BAO MB>B 3C@0<8: @K1:8, :0: 8E @>48G8, 4@C385 3C@0<8, B@8E>30AB@K, AB@>8;8 ?5==>5 3=574>, =>& 3=574> 1K;> >G5=L <0;5=L:8<, @KE;K<, MD5<5@=K<, >=> 1KAB@> @07@CH0;>AL. 4=0:>, :0: >:070;>AL, 2 =5< 8 =04>1=>AB8 >A>1>9 =5 1K;>: ?>A;5 B8?8G=KE 4;O ;018@8=B>2KE =5@5AB>2KE 83@ ?>4 3=574>< ?0@0 2K<5BK20;0 2 3=574> 8:@C 8 <>;>:8, 0 70B5< A@07C 65 A0<:0 7018@0;0 O9F0 2 @>B. 065BAO 2A5 OA=>? 5 BCBB> 1K;>. "0:>9 A?>A>1 >E@0=K ?>B><AB20 E0@0:B5@5= 4;O H>:>;04=KE 3C@0<8, 2K;>2;5==KE 2 >?@545;5==>< @09>=5. >340 65 AB0;8 ?>ABC?0BL MB8 @K1K 87 4@C38E <5AB >18B0=8O 2 0;09788, =0 !C<0B@5, 0;8<0=B0=5, B> 2KOA=8;>AL, GB> 8 A?>A>1 @07<=>65=8O C =8E 8=>9. 0?@8<5@, >=8 >B:;04K20NB 8:@C 2 ;560I89 =0 3@C=B5 3>@H>:, 2 ?5I5@:C.  2>B 40;LH5 .8=B5@ 2KA:07K205B 25AL<0 8=B5@5A=CN <KA;L. B @8AC=:>2 =0 3@>1=8F5 !0::0@0 =0A >B45;ONB BKAOG5;5B8O, 7=0G8B, A?>A>1 A>E@0=5=8O ?>B><AB20 2> @BC C 1C;LB8 1K; 8725AB5= 5I5 4@52=8<. =>5 45;> - C <0;09A:>3> 3C@0<8. K <>65< ?@54?>;>68BL,- ?8H5B 8=B5@,- GB> 8<55< 45;> A 5I5 =57025@H5==K< ?@>F5AA><, :>340 ?5==>5 3=574> C65 O2;O5BAO @C48<5=B><, 0 ?5@5E>4 : 2K=0H820=8N 8:@K 8 <0;L:>2 2> @BC 5I5 =5 AB0; 2A5>1I8< 8 >1O70B5;L=K<.  254L 2 A0<>< 45;5: <K ?>G5<CB> A> H:>;L=KE ;5B ?@82K:;8 AG8B0BL, GB> M2>;NF8>==K5 8 040?B0F8>==K5 ?@>F5AAK :>340B> ?@>8AE>48;8, 0 =K=5 <K =01;N405< C65 3>B>2K5 8E @57C;LB0BK. 0;09A:89 3C@0<8 >?@>25@305B MB> 701;C645=85 - ?@>F5AAK ?@>8AE>4OB 8 2 =0H8 4=8. 04> B>;L:> C<5BL 8E @073;O45BL 8 ?>=OBL. 5@=5<AO, >4=0:>, : =0H5<C 1C;LB8 8 53> 1;8609H8< @>48G0<. <5AB5 A MB>9 @K1:>9 <K =0G8=05< 7=0:><8BLAO A >1H8@=K< A5<59AB2>< &8E;84>2K5 (Cichlidae). N18B5;8 0:20@8C<0 =07K20NB MB8E @K1 F8E;840<8. !5<59AB2> =0AG8BK205B =5A:>;L:> 45AOB:>2 @>4>2 8 A>B=8 284>2. &8E;84K @0A?@>AB@0=5=K 2 &5=B@0;L=>9 8 .6=>9 <5@8:5, 2 D@8:5 8 0;>9 788, =0 04030A:0@5 8 2 =488. 5:>B>@K5 >18B0B5;8 0D@8:0=A:8E 2>4>5<>2 >B:;04K20NB 8:@C =0 70@0=55 >G8I5==K5 ?;>A:85 :0<=8.  =8< >B=>AOBAO 87402=0 ?>?C;O@=K9 C 0:20@8C<8AB>2 E@><8A:@0A025F (Hemichromis bimaculatus) 8 =5402=> 22575==0O 2 =0HC AB@0=C :@0A=0O F8E;840 (. lifalili). K1:8 B0: ?>E>68, GB> @07;8G8BL 8E <>65B B>;L:> A?5F80;8AB: >:@0A:0 C ?5@2>3> :@0A=>:8@?8G=0O, C 2B>@>3> - 28H=52>:@0A=0O, =0 6015@=>9 :@KH:5 B5<=>5 ?OB=>, 420 ?OB=0 2 F5=B@5 B5;0 8 =0 E2>AB>2>< AB51;5, B5;> ?>:@KB> @O40<8 3>;C1KE B>G5:.  C B5E 8 C 4@C38E 70 ?>B><AB2>< CE06820NB >10 @>48B5;O. 0102=> =01;N40BL, :0: ?> 0:20@8C<C 3C;O5B A5<59AB2> MB8E @K1 - 2?5@548 ?0?0, ?>7048 <0<0, 0 ?>A@548=5 BCG:0 G5@B>G5:<0;5G:>2.  5I5 70102=55 2845BL, :0: >=8 @07><, A;>2=> ?> :><0=45, ?>2>@0G820NB 2 AB>@>=C 8;8 =0704. @C385 @K1K MB>9 65 3@C??K - ?5;L28:0E@><8AK (Pelvicachromis pulcher) ?>;CG8;8 C 0:20@8C<8AB>2 =0720=85 ?>?C309G8:>2 70 D>@<C @K;0, =0?><8=0NI53> :;N2 ?>?C30O, 8 O@:CN @07=>F25B=CN >:@0A:C, 87 :>B>@>9 ?@5645 2A53> 1@>A0NBAO 2 3;070 <0;8=>2>5 1@NH:> A0<:8 8 =515A=>3>;C1K5 ?;02=8:8 A0<F0. -B8 =51>;LH85 (4> 12 A0=B8<5B@>2) @K1:8 >B:;04K20NB 8:@C 2 ?5I5@:8, C:@KB8O, 2 0:20@8C<5 - 2 ?>;>65==K9 =0 1>: 3>@H>:. #E068205B 70 ?>B><AB2>< ?@58<CI5AB25==> A0<:0, 2@5<5=0<8 - A0<5F.  >A=>2=>< 65 >= =0E>48BAO =04 3=574><, >E@0=OO 53> 157>?0A=>ABL. ABL C ?5;L28:0E@><8A>2 ;N1>?KB=0O >A>15==>ABL: >=8 <>3CB >B:070BLAO >B =5@5AB0 2 A0<>< G8AB>< 8 C4>1=><, A B>G:8 7@5=8O 0:20@8C<8AB0, 3>@H>G:5. > AB>8B MB>B 65 3>@H>: 703;C18BL 2 ?5A>:, 70AK?0BL G0AB8G=> ?5A:>< 87=CB@8, :0: A0<5F A@07C =0G8=05B ?@>O2;OBL : =5<C 8=B5@5A.  G5< BCB 45;>? >AB@>9:0 3=5740 - @KBL5 2E>40 2 ?5I5@:C, >G8AB:0 55 ?>25@E=>AB8, ?><8<> G8AB> ?@0:B8G5A:>9, 2K?>;=O5B 8 4@C3CN DC=:F8N, A2O70==CN A D878>;>3859 @K1. >;>2>5 A>7@520=85 A0<>:, :0: ?@028;>, 70?074K205B ?> A@02=5=8N A A>7@520=85< A0<F>2.  4;O CA?5H=>3> =5@5AB0 =5>1E>48<0 A8=E@>==0O 3>B>2=>ABL @K1 : 2K<5BK20=8N 8:@K 8 <>;>:. @8@>40 ?@54?8A0;0 A0<F0< A>25@H0BL F5;CN A5@8N 459AB289, AB8<C;8@CNI8E CA:>@5==>5 A>7@520=85 ?>;>2KE ?@>4C:B>2 C A0<:8. 45AL 8 @0A?@02;5==K5 ?;02=8:8, 8 O@:>ABL >:@0A:8, 8 B0=FK 2>:@C3 A0<:8, 8 4065 =56=K5 >1JOB8O C 3=5740 (2A?><=8B5 <0:@>?>4>2). # ?5;L28:0E@><8A>2, :@><5 2A53> ?@>G53>, A0<5F AB@>8B 3=574> 2 ?@8ACBAB288 A0<:8. >B ?>G5<C 3>B>2K9 8 G8ABK9 3>@H>: =5 ?@82;5:05B @K1: 8< =C65= A0< ?@>F5AA ?@83>B>2;5=8O 3=5740 :0: 206=59H89 AB8<C; : =5@5ABC. ;020NI85 ;8ABLO 8 682K5 48A:8 !:065HL, BK <=5, =0:>=5F, A>3;0A5= 8;8 =5B? -5 7=0N, ?@02>.  5A;8 :0?8B0= =5 A?8B? -5=O9 B>340 =0 A51O, =0 A2>N B@CA>ABL.  O ?>H5;. '5@=0O B5=L 2KA:0;L7K205B 87 :C1@8:0, >AB>@>6=> :@045BAO : 1>@BC ?0@>E>40. CH=0O B@>?8G5A:0O =>GL ?>28A;0 =04 =5>1JOB=>9 @5:>9, 8 B>;L:> @>AAK?L 72574 =0 =515 40 3@>74L >3=59 40;5:>3> 0=0CA0 A25@:0NB 2 =5?@>3;O4=>9 B5<=>B5. %5;L<CB >AB>@>6=> ?5@5;5705B G5@57 ?>@CG=8 8 =0G8=05B A?CA:0BLAO : 2>45. 0;L, GB> $@8F AB@CA8;, ?@8E>48BAO 459AB2>20BL 2 >48=>G:C. C =8G53>, >3 40AB C40GC. '5@B ?>15@8, :0:>5 A8;L=>5 B5G5=85, B0: 8 =5A5B 2 AB>@>=C! >4=0;O65<:0 =0 25A;0. %5;L<CB 3@515B 87> 2A5E A8;, 0 15@530 2A5 =5B 8 =5B. 3@><=0O 1571@56=0O @5:0 AB@5<8B5;L=> =5A5B A2>8 G5@=K5 2>4K : 40;5:><C >:50=C.  :065BAO, GB> ;>4>G:0 A >4=8< 3@51F>< =5 2 A8;0E ?@>B82>AB>OBL <>I=><C 157>AB0=>2>G=><C ?>B>:C. > %5;L<CB 3@515B 8 3@515B.  GB>1K =5 4C<0BL > AB@0H=>9, =5ACI59AO ?>4 :8;5< O;8:0 1574=5 G5@=>9 2>4K, >= 2A?><8=05B @>4=>9 0<1C@3, 15A54C A 4@C3><, 8725AB=K< @K1>2>4>< 0BB5. --B>, 4>;6=> 1KBL, >4=0 87 A0<KE >@838=0;L=KE 8 :@0A82> >:@0H5==KE @K1.- 0BB5 2AB05B 8 A=8<05B A ?>;:8 B>;ABCN :=83C.- >B, ?>A;CH09, GB> ?8H5B > =59 5=@8 59BA, BK 254L 7=05HL 53> :=83C 0BC@0;8AB =0 <07>=:5. 4=064K <8<>, =5 A?5H0, ?@>?;K; =51>;LH>9 :>AO: :@0A82>9 @K1K A G5@=>9 ?>;>A:>9 ?> 1>:0< - <57>=0CBK. "C75<FK =07K20NB MBC @K1C 0:0@010=459@0. K1K MB8 >G5=L :@0A82K, 8 :>AO: 8E ?@54AB02;O; ?@5;5AB=>5 7@5;8I5. -"K ?>=8<05HL,- ?@>4>;60; 0BB5,- :0:CN A5=A0F8N 2K720;> 1K ?>O2;5=85 MB>9 @K1K 2 2@>?5? %5;L<CB =5 B>;L:> ?>=8<0;. = 4065 ?>4AG8B0;, A:>;L:> A<>3 1K 70@01>B0BL, ?@>402 <57>=0CB A2>5<C 4@C3C 0BB5. > :>340 ?0@>E>4, 345 %5;L<CB A;C68; <0B@>A><, ?@81K; =0 @594 C 0=0CA0, :0?8B0= >1JO28;, GB> 2 3>@>45 A28@5?AB2CNB A@07C B@8 2840 B@>?8G5A:>9 ;8E>@04:8 8 :><0=45 70?@5I05BAO ?>:840BL :>@01;L. >B 8 ?@8H;>AL %5;L<CBC ?>:8=CBL :>@01;L =>GLN, B09:><, =5 257B8 65 1>G>=>: >1@0B=> 2 0<1C@3 ?CABK<. >:0 <0B@>A ?@54020;AO 2>A?><8=0=8O<, 15@53 ?@81;878;AO.  5I5 G5@57 ?>;G0A0 O;8: %5;L<CB0 2>H5; 2 C7:85, ?>@>AH85 :0<KH>< ?@>B>:8. 45AL >= 1@>A8; 25A;0 8 27O;AO 70 A0G>:. 0?8B0= 2A5B0:8 ?@>2540; > =>G=>9 M:A?548F88 %5;L<CB0. 5@54 2A5< AB@>5< >BG8B0; >= 53> 70 =0@CH5=85 ?@8:070 8 >HB@0D>20; =0 50 <0@>:. > =0 >1@0B=>< ?CB8 :0?8B0= =5 @07 A?CA:0;AO 2 <0B@>AA:89 :C1@8:, GB>1K ?>A<>B@5BL =0 70102=KE @K1, 54CI8E 2 2@>?C 2 1>G:5.  1910 3>4C ?5@2K5 682K5 <57>=0CBK ?@81K;8 2 0<1C@3. 0CG=>5 =0720=85 <57>=0CBK - Mesonauta festivum (AB0@>5 =0720=85 - Cichlasoma festivum). -B0 F8E;07><0 >G5=L :@0A820. > ?>G5<C C =55 B0:0O AB@0==0O >:@0A:0?  45;> 2 B><, GB> 4;O <0A:8@>2:8 A0<>9 =56=>9 8 CO728<>9 G0AB8 B5;0 - 3;070 - G5@57 =53> ?@>E>48B :>A0O G5@=0O ?>;>A0, A:@04K20NI0O O@:>G5@=K9 7@0G>:; 4;O MB>3> 65 8<55BAO 8 2B>@>9 3;07 - ?OB=> >:>;> E2>AB0. >;>AK, 84CI85 G5@57 3;07, <K 2848< C <=>38E @K1. >A0O ?>;>A0 <57>=0CBK 8<55B 8 4@C3>5 =07=0G5=85: E8I=8: =5 A@07C <>65B @07>1@0BLAO, 2 :0:CN AB>@>=C ?;K25B @K10. # @>4AB25==8:0 <57>=0CBK Cichlasoma facetum B5<=K5 ?>;>AK 84CB ?> B5;C 8 25@B8:0;L=>, 8 3>@87>=B0;L=>. 0 A25B;>< A>;=5G=>< <5AB5, =04 65;BK< ?5A:>< @K1:0 A;>2=> 2KF25B05B, D>= B5;0 AB0=>28BAO 65;BK<, 0 ?>;>AK GCBL ?@>A25G820NB. 0B> 2 B5=8 8;8 2 @07JO@5==>< A>AB>O=88 F8E;07><0 B5<=55B. 8B5;8 15@530 0;0BK, 345 >18B05B !. facetum, 40;8 59 =0720=85 G0=G8B> (8=>340 3>2>@OB - :0=E8B>), GB> >7=0G05B - A28=LO.  459AB28B5;L=>, G0=G8B> F5;K<8 4=O<8 @>NB 3@C=B.  5A;8 2 0:20@8C<5 AB>OB 3>@H:8 A @0AB5=8O<8, G0=G8B> 8 BCB =0254CB A2>9 ?>@O4>:: ;10<8 A428=CB 3>@H:8 2 C3>;, 0 2A5 @0AB5=8O 0::C@0B=> >1:CA0NB C :>@=59 8 A3>=OB 2A?;K2H85 AB51;8 2 >4=C AB>@>=C.  A:>;L:> =8 AB0@09AO ?> CB@0< =02>48BL ?>@O4>: 2 0:20@8C<0E, 2A5 @02=> : 25G5@C G0=G8B> ?5@545;0NB 2A5 ?>A2>5<C. 57>=0CBK 3>@074> ?@8OB=55, >=8 =8G53> =5 @>NB 8 =5 4>AB02;ONB ;8H=8E E;>?>B; ?@0240, 5A;8 8< ?>=@02OBAO @0AB5=8O, >=8 <>3CB A E@CAB>< C=8GB>68BL 8E. > 2>72@0B8<AO A=>20 =0 <07>=:C - 745AL 5I5 =5<0;> F8E;84 64CB A =0<8 7=0:><AB20. >B ?;K25B A5@>3>;C10O A ?KH=K<8 ?;02=8:0<8 @K1:0. # =55 A<5H=0O 2KBO=CB0O <>@4>G:0, 157>184=0O 8 4>1@>4CH=0O. > @K1:0 2=570?=> 70<5B8;0 =0A, =5 8A?C30;0AL, 1@>A8;0AL =02AB@5GC 8& 'B> MB>?! !B@0H=0O G5BK@5E3;070O @>60 A 28H=52>:@0A=>9 10E@><>9. >7=0:><LB5AL - Cichlasoma meeki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terophyllum altum, P. dumirelii 8 . scalare. A5 >=8 H8@>:> @0A?@>AB@0=5=K 2 ;N18B5;LA:8E 0:20@8C<0E 8 B0: ?5@5?CB0;8AL 2 @57C;LB0B5 A:@5I820=8O, GB> @07;8G8BL 8E 8 >?@545;8BL 284 <>65B ;8HL A?5F80;8AB. > @K1:8 MB8 >:070;8AL 8=B5@5A=K 5I5 8 B5<, GB> 8E D>@<0 8 >:@0A:0 4>2>;L=> ;53:> 87<5=ONBAO ?>4 2;8O=85< A8;L=>459AB2CNI8E 25I5AB2 - 3>@<>=>2, 4>102;O5<KE 2 2>4C. KOA=8;>AL B0:65, GB> =5:>B>@K5 87 =>2KE ?@87=0:>2 A:0;O@88 ?5@540NB ?> =0A;54AB2C, =>, :>=5G=>, =5 2A5< @K1:0< 2 ?>B><AB25, 0 ;8HL =57=0G8B5;L=>9 G0AB8. "0:, 0:20@8C<8ABK;N18B5;8 ?CB5< 8A:CAAB25==>3> >B1>@0 2K25;8 ?>;CG5@=KE 8 G5@=KE, 2C0;52KE, 7>;>B8ABKE, 1>@4>2KE 8 4065 3>;C1KE ?B5@>D8;;C<>2.  2A5B0:8 ?0;L<0 ?5@25=AB20 A@548 0:20@8C<=KE @K1 ?@8=04;568B =5 A:0;O@8O<, 0 48A:CA0<. 8A:CA, 459AB28B5;L=>, =0?><8=05B 682>9, :@0A82> @0A:@0H5==K9 48A:. -B8 @K1:8 1K;8 2?5@2K5 >?8A0=K 2 1840 3>4C. @8=04;560B >=8 : @>4C Symphysodon.  10AA59=5 <07>=:8 2AB@5G05BAO <=>3> F25B>2KE D>@< MB>9 @K1K. 0 A53>4=O 8E >1=0@C65=> 23, 0 2 0:20@8C<0E 2K2545=K 8 381@84K MB8E D>@<. A5 >=8 ?@8=04;560B >4=><C 284C S.discus. 8A:CAK - B>65 >18B0B5;8 70@>A;59 B@>AB=8:0 2 A@54=5< B5G5=88 <07>=:8, ?>MB><C B5;> 8E 2 E>45 M2>;NF88 A?;NI8;>AL A 1>:>2, 0 1@NH=K5 ?;02=8:8 C4;8=8;8AL 4;O ?>445@60=8O @02=>25A8O. > ?@8A?>A>1;5=85 MB8E @K1 H;> 8=K< ?CB5<, ?>MB><C 8 D>@<0 B5;0 C =8E 48A:>284=0O, 0 =5 ;8AB>284=0O. ?5@2K5 682K5 48A:CAK ?@81K;8 2 0<1C@3 =5704>;3> 4> ?5@2>9 <8@>2>9 2>9=K. > 0:20@8C<8ABK 2@>?K C7=0;8 > =8E 7=0G8B5;L=> ?>765, 2 1921 3>4C, 0 =0G0;8 @072>48BL B>;L:> 2 1933<. 4=0:> 8 A53>4=O 48A:CAK O2;ONBAO <5GB>9 BKAOG 0:20@8C<8AB>2. :070;>AL, GB> =5@5AB MB8E C4828B5;L=KE @K1 25AL<0 =5>1KG5=, 40 8 : B><C 65 8 =5 2A5340 1K205B C40G=K<. 54;5==> 8 25;8G5AB25==> ?;020NB 48A:CAK A@548 70@>A;59 0<07>=A:8E @0AB5=89, ?>2>@0G820OAL B> >4=8<, B> 4@C38< O@:> @0A:@0H5==K< 1>:><. =8 >G5=L 1>OBAO HC<0. >60;C9, MB8 @K1K - >4=8 87 A0<KE :0?@87=KE 0:20@8C<=KE ?8B><F52. "5<?5@0BC@0 4;O =8E 4>;6=0 1KBL =5 =865 28 !. >4C A;54C5B 2A5 2@5<O 0M@8@>20BL 8 5654=52=> G0AB8G=> 70<5=OBL, ?@8G5< 65AB:>ABL =5 4>;6=0 ?@52KH0BL 5, 0 ?>:070B5;L @ <>65B :>;510BLAO 2 ?@545;0E 5,96,7. @8 B0:8E CA;>28OE, >18;L=>< :>@<5 8 O@:>< >A25I5=88 @K1:8 A>7@520NB 4;O =5@5AB0 8 2 >48= 87 25A5==8E 4=59 =0G8=0NB G8AB8BL ;8AB - A>2A5< :0: A:0;O@88. # 48A:CA>2 B>65 =5B 2=5H=8E ?>;>2KE @07;8G89. ">;L:> 2 ?5@8>4 =5@5AB0 C A0<:8 2K428305BAO =51>;LH>9 O9F5:;04. =>385 F8E;84K CE06820NB 70 A2>8< ?>B><AB2><. > 1>;LH8=AB2> 87 =8E <5G5B 8:@C =0 :0<=8, 2 ?5I5@:8 (2 0:20@8C<0E - 2 ?>;>65==K5 =0 1>: 3>@H:8). 5@5AB 48A:CA>2 ?@>B5:05B B0: 65, :0: C A:0;O@89: A0<:0 8 A0<5F ?>;7CB 1@NH:>< ?> ;8ABC A=87C 225@E, >AB02;OO ?>;>A:8 >?;>4>B2>@5==>9 8:@K. > G0ABL 8:@8=>: ?0405B =0 4=>, 8 A0<5F ?>418@05B 8E 8 ?@8:@5?;O5B =0 ;8AB : <5ABC :;04:8. K:;52 ?@>8AE>48B G5@57 4856 G0A>2. >48B5;8 CE06820NB 70 8:@>9 8 ;8G8=:0<8, >1<0E820O 8E ?;02=8:0<8. @5<5=0<8 >=8 H525;OB =>2>@>645==KE, ?5@5<5I0NB 8E @B>< A <5AB0 =0 <5AB>. -'B> 65 BCB =5>1KG=>3>?- A?@>A8B5 2K.- A5 :0: C A:0;O@89. > 2>B =0ABC?8; 2B>@>9 45=L 687=8 <0;L:>2, 8 :@>H:8, :0: ?> :><0=45, A=O;8AL A ;8AB0 8 ?CAB8;8AL ?;020BL. K 1@>A8;8AL 70 8=DC7>@859, 254L ?5@8>4, :>340 <0;L:8 =0G8=0NB ?;020BL, A>2?0405B A <><5=B><, :>340 8< =C65= ?5@2K9 :>@<. > =5 B>@>?8B5AL, 8=DC7>@88 <0;L:0< =5 =C6=K. @8AO45< C 0:20@8C<0 8 ?>=01;N405< 2=8<0B5;L=>. 0;L:8 =5 ?@>AB> ?;020NB 2 B>;I5 2>4K, >=8, A;>2=> ?B8G:8 :>;81@8, ?>@E0NB 2>7;5 >4=>9 87 27@>A;KE @K1. 'B> >=8 45;0NB, ?>G5<C 2A5, :0: >48=, ?>25@=C;8AL 3>;>2:0<8 : 1>:0< @K1K, ?>G5<C, @01>B0O 2A5<8 ?;02=8G:0<8, =5 42830NBAO A <5AB0? 5B, >=8 42830NBAO, >=8 A;>2=> GB>B> A:;52K20NB A 1>:>2 48A:CA0. 0 B5;5 C @K1K 65;B>20B0O <0AA0, 5NB> 8 ?8B0NBAO <0;L:8. 0AAK AB0=>28BAO 2A5 <5=LH5, 0 682>B8:8 :@>H5: 2A5 1>;LH5. < B@C4=> B5?5@L 45@60BLAO 3>@87>=B0;L=>, >=8 C65 =5 ?>@E0NB, 0 ?@K30NB 225@E 3>;>2>9. > 2>B >=8 >A540NB =0 A?8=C 8 1>:0 >4=>3> 87 @>48B5;59, ?@8:@5?;OOAL : 53> :>65 ?@8A>A:0<8, @0A?>;>65==K<8 =0 8E 1@NH:0E. >340 >48= 87 48A:CA>2 CAB0=5B 2>78BL =0 A515 :@>E>B=KE <0;L:>2, >= >A>1K< 42865=85< A83=0;878@C5B 4@C3><C, 8 B>B =5<54;5==> ?>4?;K205B 8 AB0=>28BAO ?0@0;;5;L=> ?5@2><C. K10 A <0;L:0<8 @57:> 2AB@OE8205BAO, >=8 B>BG0A A@K20NBAO A 55 B5;0 8 CAB@5<;ONBAO :> 2B>@><C @>48B5;N. >GLN 48A:CAK 2K18@0NB H8@>:89 ;8AB, ?>4 :>B>@K< 682>9 3@>74LN ?>28A05B 2A5 <=>3>G8A;5==>5 ?>B><AB2>.  27@>A;K< @K10< =5 4> A=0. AN =>GL =0AB>@>65==> AB>OB >=8 >:>;> ;8AB0 8 CA8;5==> <0HCB ?;02=8:0<8, A>74020O 6828B5;L=K9 B>: 2>4K. 0ABC?05B @0AA25B, 8 3>;>4=K5 <0;L:8, AB@5<3;02, =5ACBAO : @>48B5;O<, GB>1K A=>20 =018BL A2>8 682>B8:8 B08=AB25==K< 10;L70<>< 687=8. 8HL =0 2>AL<K5 ACB:8, :>340 <0;L:8 4>AB83=CB 4;8=K 8 <8;;8<5B@>2, >=8 =0G8=0NB ?@>O2;OBL 8=B5@5A : <5;:8< 40D=8O<. ">340 65 ?>72>;OB A515 ?>5ABL 8 @>48B5;8. > 5I5 =5 >4=C =545;N <>;>4L 1C45B ?;020BL ?>4 >E@0=>9 27@>A;KE @K1. "5;> <0;L:>2, :0: 8 C A:0;O@89, 8<55B 2=0G0;5 B8?8G=CN 4;O 1>;LH8=AB20 @K1 D>@<C, 0 >:@0A:0 8E - G5@=K5 25@B8:0;L=K5 ?>;>AK =0 A5@>< D>=5. >60;C9, >=8 =5 ?>E>68 =5 B>;L:> =0 27@>A;KE 48A:CA>2, => 8 2>>1I5 =0 F8E;84. #4828B5;L=K 8 3;070 48A:CA>2 2 @0==5< 2>7@0AB5: >=8 157687=5==K5, A25B;>A5@K5, 2 B> 2@5<O :0: C 27@>A;KE @K1 7@0G:8 01A>;NB=> G5@=K5. 5A><=5==>, 48A:CAK =5 B>;L:> A0<K5 :@0A82K5 87 0:20@8C<=KE @K1, => 8 A0<K5 C4828B5;L=K5. 540@>< AG8B05BAO, GB> @072545=85 48A:CA>2 - 2KAH0O H:>;0 0:20@8C<=>3> 8A:CAAB20. #4828B5;L=K5 @K1K ?@5A=>2>4=KE @8D>2  1970 3>4C <>9 ?@8OB5;L0:20@8C<8AB AJ5748; 2 0@H02C. >A;5 53> 2>72@0I5=8O <K 2AB@5B8;8AL. -C GB> 2K 2845; 2 >;LH5? -@54AB02L, B0< A@548 0:20@8C<8AB>2 ?>20;L=>5 C2;5G5=85 0D@8:0=A:8<8 F8E;840<8. -'B> 65 >=8 =0H;8 8=B5@5A=>3> 2 MB8E 0D@8:0=F0E? @8OB5;L ?>40@8; <=5 425 ?0@K 87 ?@82575==KE F8E;84. -B> 1K; =>2K9 4;O <5=O 284 <5;0=>E@><8A0. @0A820O @K1:0 - B5<=>A8=OO, A?8==>9 ?;02=8: O@:>3>;C1>9, >B 3;070 : E2>ABC 845B B0:0O 65 3>;C10O ?>;>A0. ><5AB8; O MB8E =>2>A5;>2 2 >48= 87 0:20@8C<>2. 82CB, ?;020NB, :>@<OBAO. 0: 8 4@C385 0:20@8C<=K5 @K1:8. 0: 8 8725AB=K5 <=5 F8E;84K 87 .6=>9 <5@8:8 8 D@8:8, > :>B>@KE O G0AB8G=> @0AA:070; C65 2 MB>9 :=835. >@>G5, ?@8G8= ?>20;L=>3> C2;5G5=8O F8E;840<8 O B0: 8 =5 ?>=O;. ! B5< 8 ?@85E0; 2 1974 3>4C 2 5@;8=. #2845; 2 <03078=0E C9<C =>2KE 4;O <5=O F8E;84 87 D@8:8. >4828;AO 8E >18;8N 8 @07=>>1@078N. >2AB@5G0; 8E 8 2 0:20@8C<0E =5:>B>@KE ;N18B5;59. &8E;84K :0: F8E;84K, B>;L:> GB> =>2K5 4;O =0A.  2>B :0:B> 25G5@><, :>340 O ?>GB8 25AL 45=L ?@>25; 2 7>>?0@:5, ?@83;0A8; <5=O 4><>9 682H89 =5?>40;5:C .@N;L<095@. K ?>4=O;8AL =0 ;8DB5, 2>H;8 2 :20@B8@C., 8&  BCB O C2845; GC4>! 5B, B@5EB>==K9 0:20@8C< =0 452OB>< MB065 1;>G=>3> 4><0 - MB> B>65, :>=5G=>. =5>1KG=>. > GC4> 1K;> 2=CB@8 0:20@8C<0. "0< F8@:C;8@>20;>, ?5@5;820;>AL, :>=F5=B@8@>20;>AL 8 @0AA@54>B>G820;>AL @04C6=>5 >1;0:> 87& @K1. !0<KE @07=>>1@07=KE ?> >:@0A:5. 07=KE ?> 25;8G8=5.  2A5 - F8E;84K! -!:>;L:> 65 8E 745AL?- A?@>A8; O 2 ?>;=>< ?>B@OA5=88. -, =5 7=0N,- =51@56=> <0E=C; @C:>9 @N;L<095@.- C<0N, >:>;> B@5EA>B. K ?8;8 :>D5, :C@8;8, 15A54>20;8, 0 O 2A5 =5 <>3 >B>@20BL 3;07 >B C4828B5;L=>9 @04C38, ?5@5;820NI59AO C 1>:>2KE AB5=>: 0:20@8C<0. C B>GL2B>GL :0@B8=0 :>@0;;>2KE @8D>2, :>B>@CN ?>:07K20NB 2 :8=>. >AB5?5==> O AB0; ?@8E>48BL : <KA;8, GB> A86C =5 ?@>AB> 2>7;5 >3@><=>3> 0:20@8C<0, =0?>;=5==>3> :@0A>G=K<8 @K10<8, 0 2>7;5 ?@8=F8?80;L=> =>2>3> B8?0 :><=0B=>3> 2>4>5<0. 7 ?8AL<0 5@15@B0 :A5;L@>40, 02B>@0 8 8740B5;O <=>38E :=83 > B@>?8G5A:8E @K10E: !59G0A O ?>43>B>28; : 8740=8N 25;8:>;5?=CN :=83C  D@8:0=A:85 F8E;84K >75@ 0;028 8 "0=30=L8:0 . / ?@8H;N B515 MBC :=83C 8 BK C2848HL, GB> MB> A>2A5< =>20O AB@0=8F0 2 0:20@8C<8AB8:5. 7 ?8AL<0 L5@0 0<0@:0, 48@5:B>@0 84@>18>;>38G5A:>9 AB0=F88 2 80@@8F5 ($@0=F8O): !:>@> O 2K;5B0N 2 0;028, 345 420 <5AOF0 <K 1C45< 70=8<0BLAO M;5:B@>;>2>< @K1.  ?@>3@0<<5 <>59 @01>BK - M;5:B@>;>2 45:>@0B82=KE 284>2 @K1 4;O 0:20@8C<>2.  >A=>2=>< MB> F8E;84K. 5:>B>@K5 87 =8E >G5=L @54:8 8 AB>OB 2 !( 1>;55 1000 4>;;0@>2&  8AB>@88 0:20@8C<8AB8:8 4>2>;L=> G5B:> 2K45;ONBAO =5A:>;L:> ?5@8>4>2, :>340 ?@54?>GB5=85 >B4020;>AL B5< 8;8 8=K< @K10<. !=0G0;0 2 :><=0B=KE 8 A04>2KE 2>4>5<0E A>45@60;8 2AOG5A:85 @07=>284=>AB8 7>;>BKE @K1>:.  60705 3>4K ?@>H;>3> 25:0 AB0;8 C2;5:0BLAO A>45@60=85< 8 @072545=85< 45:>@0B82=KE B@>?8G5A:8E @K1, ?@8G5< 8=B5@5A : =8< 70 <8=C2H85 AB> A ;8H=8< ;5B =5 B>;L:> =5 C30A, => 4065 2>7@>A. -B><C A?>A>1AB2CNB 420 ?@>F5AA0. ! >4=>9 AB>@>=K, =0CG=>?>8A:>2K5 M:A?548F88 2 =0H8 4=8 22>4OB 2 :C;LBC@C 0:20@8C<0 2A5 =>2K5 8 =>2K5 284K. ! 4@C3>9 AB>@>=K, 2A5 1>;LH55 G8A;> 284>2 @K1 AB0@0=8O<8 0:20@8C<8AB>2M:A?5@8<5=B0B>@>2 ?5@52>4OBAO 87 3@C??K 040?B8@>20==KE 2 :0B53>@8N 0::;8<0B878@>20==KE 2 0:20@8C<0E, B> 5ABL @072>48<KE, 8 MB8 @K1K AB0=>2OBAO 4>ABC?=K<8 <=>38< ;N18B5;O<. >=5G=>, ?@82;5:05B 8 B>, GB> B@>?8G5A:85 @K1K, :0: ?@028;>, 8<5NB O@:CN <=>3>F25B=CN >:@0A:C 8 8=B5@5A=K5 18>;>38G5A:85 >A>15==>AB8. 0 D>=5 MB>9 ?>AB>O==>9 ;N128 : M:7>B0< 87 B@>?8G5A:8E ?@5A=KE 2>4>5<>2 B> 2>7=8:0NB, B> A?040NB 2>;=K <>4K. 0 @C1565 XIXXX 25:>2 <>4=K<8 1K;8 45:>@0B82=K5 20@L5B5BK 7>;>B>9 @K1:8 (2C0;5E2>AB, B5;5A:>? 8 4@.). >340 65 2 =0G0;5 MB>3> AB>;5B8O 2 0:20@8C<0E ?>O28;AO <5G5=>A5F 8 2KOA=8;0AL 53> A?>A>1=>ABL ;53:> A:@5I820BLAO A 2840<8 ?;OB8?5F8;88 (B5?5@L >=8 >B=>AOBAO : >4=><C @>4C) 8 =0A;54>20BL 2A5 <=>3>>1@0785 8E >:@0A:8, 2>7=8:;0 <>40 =0 A5;5:F8>==K5 F25B>2K5 @07=>284=>AB8 MB8E @K1. >74=55 A5;5:F8>=5@0< C40;>AL ?>;CG8BL 8 @07=K5 ?> D>@<5 ?;02=8:8. 82>@>4:8 ?>;L7CNBAO CA?5E>< 4> A8E ?>@. A;54 70 <5G5=>AF0<8 =0ABC?8;0 ?>@0 8E 1;87:>9 @>4AB25==8FK 3C??8 - <0;5=L:>9 ?@>AB59H59 @K1:8, 4>ABC?=>9 4065 =0G8=0NI8< 0:20@8C<8AB0<. C??8 >:070;0AL 25;8:>;5?=K< A5;5:F8>==K< <0B5@80;><, 8 : =0AB>OI5<C 2@5<5=8 ?>;CG5=> <=>65AB2> C4828B5;L=KE ?> :@0A>B5 @07=>284=>AB59. N18B5;8 3C??8 - =081>;55 3@0<>B=K5 >?KB=K5 0:20@8C<8ABK, >=8 @0718@0NBAO 2 >A=>20E 35=5B8:8 8 A5;5:F88, ?@>2>4OB :>=:C@AK, CAB@0820NB 3C??8H>C 8 :>=3@5AAK. > 2>B C65 .:A5;L@>4 ?8H5B > =>2>9 AB@0=8F5 2 0:20@8C<8AB8:5 - 0D@8:0=A:8E F8E;840E. 'B> 2 =8E =>2>3>? 54L 87402=0 C 0:20@8C<8AB>2 ?>?C;O@=K 2KE>4FK 87 D@8:8 - E5<8E@><8A:@0A025F, E@><8A1C;LB8, <>70<18:A:0O B8;O?8O 8 4@. '5< 65 70<5G0B5;L=K 0D@8:0=A:85 F8E;84K 87 >75@ 0;028 8 "0=30=L8:0? > ?@5645 G5< >B25B8BL =0 MB>B 2>?@>A, 40209B5 CB>G=8<, GB> B0:>5 ?@5A=>2>4=K5 0:20@8C<=K5 @K1K. -B8 @K1K ?>?040NB 2 0:20@8C<K 87 @5:, @CGL52, ?@C4>2, >75@, @54:>87 MABC0@852. 8>B>?0<8 A;C60B ?;>A:85 ?5AG0=K5 8;8 3;8=8ABK5 3@C=BK, @0A?>;>65==K5, 5AB5AB25==>, 3>@87>=B0;L=>, 1>;55 8;8 <5=55 3CABK5 70@>A;8 ?@5A=>2>4=KE 8;8 MABC0@=KE (A>;>=>2>4=KE) @0AB5=89. !;54>20B5;L=>, :0: 1K 3;C1>: =8 1K; ;N18B5;LA:89 0:20@8C< (0 3;C165 <5B@0 >= =5?@0:B8G5= - B@C4=> >A25I0BL 8 CE06820BL 70 =8<), 2A5 @K1K @0A?>;030NBAO 8 ?5@5<5I0NBAO 2 =5< 2 3>@87>=B0;L=>9 ?;>A:>AB8, 70=8<0O A>>B25BAB25==> M:>;>38G5A:8< >A>15==>ABO< ?@84>==K5 7>=K =0 4=5 8 C 4=0, 7>=C A@54=53> C@>2=O (>4=8 - 2 70@>A;OE, 4@C385 - =0 CG0AB:0E, A2>1>4=KE >B @0AB5=89), 7>=C C ?>25@E=>AB8 2>4K. @0:B8G5A:8 @K1K @54:> ?5@5<5I0NBAO ?> 25@B8:0;8, 40 8 B> =0 :>@>B:>5 2@5<O (: ?>25@E=>AB8 70 :>@<>< 8;8 0B<>AD5@=K< 2>74CE><, 8;8, =0>1>@>B, 70 :>@<>< : 3@C=BC). !>>B25BAB25==> MB><C 2A5 ?@5A=>2>4=K5 0:20@8C<K >D>@<;ONBAO ?> 548=><C ?@8=F8?C - 3@C=B, 2 :>B>@>< C:>@5=5=K @0AB5=8O, 8=>340 =0 =5< 8<5NBAO C:@KB8O - ?5I5@:8, ?>;>65==K5 =0 1>: 3>@H:8. K20NB 0:20@8C<K 8 157 @0AB5=89, B0: :0: =5:>B>@K5 N6=>0<5@8:0=A:85 8 0D@8:0=A:85 F8E;84K 157=0456=> ?>@BOB 8 C=8GB>60NB 8E. =>340 2 C3;C 0:20@8C<0 45;0NB A:0;C 87 :0<=59. -B8 20@80F88 =5 =0@CH0NB ?@8=F8?0 3>@87>=B0;L=>3> >1@070 687=8 >18B0B5;59 0:20@8C<0.  <>65B ;8 1KBL 4@C3>9 ?@8=F8?? 0, =0 :>@0;;>2KE 0B>;;0E. 45AL @K1K >18B0NB C 25@B8:0;L=>9 A:0;K, 0B>;;0, 2AO 8E 687=L ?@>E>48B =0 @07=KE MB060E MB>9 A:0;K. 0 @C156>< 8 C =0A 2 ?>A;54=85 3>4K 2A5 ?>?C;O@=55 AB0=>2OBAO <>@A:85 0:20@8C<K, :0: ?C1;8G=K5, B0: 8 ;N18B5;LA:85. # ;N18B5;59 ?>O28;8AL 4065 0:20@8C<K, A=0165==K5 CAB0=>2:0<8 4;O 8<8B0F88 ?@8;82>2 8 >B;82>2.  <>@A:8E 0:20@8C<0E A>45@60B :>@0;;>2KE @K1>:, :>B>@K5 G0AB> 7=0G8B5;L=> :@0A8255 A2>8E ?@5A=>2>4=KE A>@>48G59. > 8 2 MB8E 2>4>5<0E B@C4=> ?>AB@>8BL 25@B8:0;L=K9 >:50=8G5A:89 :>@0;;>2K9 0B>;;, >1KG=> @K1K 682CB 8 ?5@5<5I0NBAO B>65 2 3>@87>=B0;L=>9 ?;>A:>AB8. >B B5?5@L <>6=> ?>4@>1=55 @0AA:070BL, GB> O C2845; 2 0:20@8C<5 .@N;L<095@0 8 2 G5< =>287=0 0D@8:0=A:8E F8E;84. @54AB02LB5 A515 :>;>AA0;L=K9 2>4>5< 01A>;NB=> 157 @0AB5=89. >I=K5 D8;LB@K >15A?5G820NB :@8AB0;L=CN G8AB>BC 2>4K.  ?@>B82>?>;>6=KE :>=F0E 0:20@8C<0 87 G5@=KE ?;>A:8E :0<=59 A;>65=K 25@B8:0;L=K5 0B>;;K A CABC?0<8 8 =8H0<8.  24>;L MB8E =51>A:@51>2 2LNBAO <=>3>F25B=K5 @K1K. @C??0<8 8 2 >48=>G:C. AG570NB 2 =8H0E 8 ?>O2;ONBAO 2=>2L. 5@5<5I0NBAO ?> MB060< B> 225@E 3>;>2>9, B> 2=87.  2A5 MB> :@C68BAO, A25@:05B ?> C3;0<.  A5@548=0 - 3>@87>=B0;L=0O ?;>A:>ABL - ?CAB0. 8HL 87@54:0 G5@57 =55 B>@>?;82> ?@>?;K20NB @K1K: 3>@87>=B0;L=>5 ?5@5<5I5=85 4;O =8E =5B8?8G=>, >=8 A?5H0B >B >4=>3> 0B>;;0 : 4@C3><C. >74=55, C 4@C3>3> 15@;8=A:>3> 0:20@8C<8AB0 .@N35 O C2845; B0:>9 65 >3@><=K9 2>4>5<, => 2 F5=B@5 53> @>A;0 @>I0 <5B@>2KE 0?>=>35B>=>284=KE :@8?B>:>@8=, 2 :>B>@>9 ?@OB0;8AL A>2A5< :@>H5G=K5 @K1:8. -!;CG09=> @0725;8AL 2 MB>< 0:20@8C<5,- >1JOA=8; @N35,- => :@C?=K5 @K1K 8E =5 B@>30NB. >B B5?5@L O <>3 A:070BL, 2 G5< >A>15==>AB8 F8E;84 87 0;028 8 "0=30=L8:8. -B>, 459AB28B5;L=>, 1K;> GB>B> =>2>5, =5>1KG=>5 4;O >18B0B5;59 ?@5A=>2>4=>3> 0:20@8C<0.  A@07C <=5 70E>B5;>AL C7=0BL, :0:>2K 5AB5AB25==K5 CA;>28O >18B0=8O @K1. "0=30=L8:0 8 0;028 ?@8=04;560B : :@C?=59H8< >75@0< ?;0=5BK. ;>I04L ?5@2>3> 31 900 :204@0B=KE :8;><5B@>2, 2B>@>3> - 30 800 (4;O A@02=5=8O: ?;>I04L 09:0;0 - 33 000). ;C18=0 >75@0 "0=30=L8:0 1>;55 1500 <5B@>2, 0;028 - >:>;> 750. > E8<8G5A:8< A2>9AB20< 2>4K >10 >75@0 ACI5AB25==> >B;8G0NBAO >B 1>;LH8=AB20 2>4>5<>2, >B:C40 ?@>87>H;8 =0H8 0:20@8C<=K5 @K1K. >:070B5;L :8A;>B=>AB8 (@) 2>4K 2 "0=30=L8:5 >B 8,6 4> 9,2, 2 0;028 - >B 7,7 4> 8,6. ;O 1>;LH8=AB20 0:20@8C<=KE @K1 MB0 2>40 A;8H:>< I5;>G=0O, 8< =C6=K ?>:070B5;8 @ 5,77,2 (A;01>:8A;0O 8 =59B@0;L=0O), >18B0B5;8 65 MB8E >75@ G0E=CB 8 381=CB ?@8 B0:8E 7=0G5=8OE @.  >1>8E >75@0E 65AB:>ABL 2>4K 1520, B0: :0: 2 =59 A>45@68BAO 1>;LH>5 :>;8G5AB2> @0AB2>@5==KE A>;59. 5@530 <5AB0<8 :@CB> CE>4OB 2 3;C18=C.  1>;LH8=AB25 A2>5< >=8 A>AB>OB 87 :@C?=KE :0<=59, >1@>AH8E 2>4>@>A;O<8.  "0=30=L8:5 5ABL 3;C1>:> ?>4 2>4>9 ?;>A:85 ?5AG0=K5 ?>;O=K, ?>@>AH85 =53CABK<8 70@>A;O<8 @0AB5=89. >>1I5 @0AB5=89 2 >75@0E <0;>. 770 >A>15==>AB59 A>AB020 2>4K 8 70<:=CB>AB8 MB8E 2>4>5<>2 745AL AD>@<8@>20;AO A?5F8D8G5A:89 284>2>9 A>AB02 @K1.  >A=>2=>< MB> A2>5>1@07=0O F8E;>20O D0C=0, ?> A2>8< >A>15==>ABO< >G5=L AE>60O A D0C=>9 B@>?8G5A:8E >:50=8G5A:8E >AB@>2>2 8 @8D>2. @0240, 2 =51>;LH>< :>;8G5AB25 2AB@5G0NBAO 8 ?@54AB028B5;8 4@C38E A5<59AB2 @K1. > <K 1C45< 3>2>@8BL > F8E;840E.  0;028 8E 250 284>2, 0 5A;8 AG8B0BL @0AK 8 F25B>2K5 CAB>9G82K5 D>@<K, B> 375! 8HL =5<=>385 87 =8E 2AB@5G0NBAO 8 2 4@C38E 2>4>5<0E D@8:8, 1>;LH8=AB2> M=45<8G=K.  "0=30=L8:5 @57C;LB0B 5I5 1>;55 ?>@078B5;L=K9: 2A5 150 284>2 F8E;84 - M=45<8:8, B> 5ABL :@><5 MB>3> >75@0 =5 2AB@5G0NBAO =8345. 07<5@K F8E;84 20@L8@CNB >G5=L @57:>: A0<0O :@C?=0O ?@52KH05B A0<CN <5;:CN 2& 300 @07! >;LH8=AB2> @K1 ?@845@68205BAO 3;C18=K 15 <5B@>2, =5:>B>@K5 284K >18B0NB =0 3;C18=0E >B 30 4> 215 <5B@>2.  B0:8E 70<:=CBKE 2>4>5<0E 8AB>@8G5A:8 D>@<8@>20=85 284>2>3> @07=>>1@078O ?@>8AE>48;> ?CB5< 4825@35=F88 - @0AE>645=8O ?@87=0:>2, D>@<8@>20=8O M:>;>38G5A:8E @0A, @07=>284=>AB59, 0 70B5< C65 35=5B8G5A:8 CAB>9G82KE 284>2. >A:>;L:C 8AE>4=K< <0B5@80;>< 4;O MB>3> 284>2>3> @07=>>1@078O 1K;8 ?@54AB028B5;8 F8E;84, 2=>2L >1@07>20==K< 2840< ?@8H;>AL 70=8<0BL M:>;>38G5A:85 =8H8, :>B>@K5 2 4@C38E 2>4>5<0E 70=OBK ?@54AB028B5;O<8 8=KE A5<59AB2.  0:20@8C<0E 8725AB=>9 A?5F80;8AB:8 ?> F8E;840< 2 5@;8=5 8>;K 5@5:5 <>5 2=8<0=85 ?@82;5: 1KG>: - ?;>A:0O @K10 A H8@>:>9 3>;>2>9, 3;070<8, >1@0I5==K<8 :25@EC, H8@>:8<8 3@C4=K<8 ?;02=8:0<8.  ?;020;0 >=0, :0: 1KG>:,- =5C:;N65, @K2:0<8, ?><>30O ?;02=8:0< AB@CO<8 2>4K, A A8;>9 2K1@0AK205<K<8 87?>4 H8@>:8E 6015@=KE :@KH5:. "8?8G=K9 1KG>:, ;8HL A?8==>9 ?;02=8: 4@C3>9 D>@<K. :070;>AL, >48= 87 284>2 B8;O?88, 70<5AB82H59 >BACBAB2CNI8E 2 MB8E >75@0E 1KG:>2. 5:>B>@K5 284K ?A524>B@>D5CA>2 ?@8>1@5;8 3C1KA:@51:8 8 A>A:01;820NB 2>4>@>A;8 A :0<=59 - A>2A5< =5B8?8G=>5 4;O F8E;84 70=OB85, MB8< 70=8<0NBAO @K1K 4@C38E A5<59AB2. ABL F8E;84K, @>NI85 8 >BF56820NI85 ?8IC G5@57 F548;:C 87 >A>1K< >1@07>< CAB@>5==KE 601@. # 4@C38E F548;:0 ?@8A?>A>1;5=0 4;O C;02;820=8O ?;0=:B>=0 8 ?;020NI53> 2 2>45 =5:B>=0. ABL E8I=8:8 8 5ABL ?>42>4=K5 AB5@2OB=8:8, ?8B0NI85AO B>;L:> ?040;LN. !B>;L 65 @07=>>1@07=K 8 A?>A>1K @07<=>65=8O. 4=8 F8E;84K >B:;04K20NB 8:@C =0 :0<=8 8 >E@0=ONB 55 8 <0;L:>2, 4@C385 2K=0H820NB ?>B><AB2> 2> @BC. >;>B0O B8;O?8O 40AB 70 >48= =5@5AB >:>;> 4300 8:@8=>:, 0 :@0A02FKB@>D5CAK - =5 1>;55 510 :@C?=KE :@0A=KE, :0: :;N:20, O8F. ABL 284K, :>B>@K5 CAB@0820NB 3=5740 B>;L:> 2 @0:>28=0E <>;;NA:>2. CB5H5AB2CO =0 :>@01;5 83;L, '.0@28= ?>A5B8; 0;0?03>AA:85 >AB@>20 8, 8AA;54CO 284K <5AB=KE 2LN@:>2, 2KA:070; ?@54?>;>65=85, GB> >=8 ?@>8AE>4OB >B >4=>3> 0<5@8:0=A:>3> 2840, :>B>@K9 @0AA5;8;AO ?> >AB@>20<. -B>B :;0AA8G5A:89 ?@8<5@, ?>A;C682H89 B>;G:>< : A>740=8N '.0@28=>< B5>@88 284>>1@07>20=8O, ?@82>48BAO 2> 2A5E A>2@5<5==KE B@C40E ?> MB><C 2>?@>AC. > @0725 F8E;84K 42CE 35>3@0D8G5A:8 87>;8@>20==KE 0D@8:0=A:8E >75@ =5 O2;ONBAO 5I5 1>;55 O@:8< ?@8<5@><, ?>4B25@640NI8< A>2@5<5==CN B5>@8N 284>>1@07>20=8O? 54L 8E A?5F80;870F8O ?>H;0 5I5 40;LH5, G5< C 30;0?03>AA:8E 2LN@:>2. < ?@8H;>AL 70?>;=OBL 2A5 M:>;>38G5A:85 =8H8 >75@, B>340 :0: 2 4@C38E 2>4>5<0E ?@8@>40 8<5;0 F5;K9 0@A5=0; @07=>>1@07=KE A5<59AB2, @>4>2 8 284>2 @K1.  2>B MB8 C4828B5;L=K5 ?> A2>59 ?@8@>45, >:@0A:5, ?>2545=8N 8 040?B82=K< >A>15==>ABO< @K1K ?>?040NB 2 ;N18B5;LA:85 0:20@8C<K. >6=> 8E A>45@60BL 8 :0: >1KG=KE 0:20@8C<=KE @K1 - 682>B=K5 254L >G5=L ?;0AB8G=K 8 ?@8A?>A01;820NBAO : @07;8G=K< CA;>28O<. > B>340 ?@>?0405B 2AO =>287=0, =5>1KG=>ABL MB8E >18B0B5;59 >75@ 0;028 8 "0=30=L8:0, GB>, :AB0B8, 8 ?@>87>H;> 2 <>5< 0:20@8C<5, :>340 ?@8OB5;L ?>40@8; <=5 425 ?0@K @K1, ?@82575==KE 87 >;LH8.  <>6=> A>45@60BL F8E;84 2 ?@82KG=>9 4;O =8E >1AB0=>2:5, B0:, :0: 45;0NB =0H8 70@C156=K5 :>;;538.  B>340 MB> 1C45B, 459AB28B5;L=>, =>20O AB@0=8F0 2 0:20@8C<8AB8:5: ?@5A=>2>4=K5 @8DK, =0A5;5==K5 :@0A>G=K<8 >18B0B5;O<8 <=>3>MB06=KE =51>A:@51>2. 04> A:070BL, GB> MB8 F8E;84K ?>?040NB 87 >75@ 2 0:20@8C<K =5>1KG=K< ?CB5<. !?@>A =0 =8E 2 !( 8 2@>?5 :>;>AA0;L=K9. >25F @K1 L5@ @8G0@4 565=545;L=> 703>B02;820; 8 >B?@02;O; 0280?>AK;:0<8 >:>;> 5000 >18B0B5;59 >75@0 "0=30=L8:0. 5B5@ M28A 8 53> AC?@C30, @01>B02H85 =0 >75@5 0;028, >B?@02;O;8 ?@8<5@=> AB>;L:> 65. &5=K =0 MB8 48:>28=:8 ?>:0 5I5 >G5=L 2KA>:8. >40? 5 B>;L:>. !>45@60BL MB8E 0D@8:0=F52 (8<5BL ?@>AB>@=K9 2>4>5<, 3>B>28BL 4;O =8E A?5F80;L=CN 2>4C) 7=0G8B5;L=> B@C4=55, G5< 4@C38E 0:20@8C<=KE @K1.  @072>48BL 5I5 A;>6=55. 5;8:>;5?=K5 G5@=>10@E0B=K5 A 7>;>BK< @8AC=:>< =0 A?8=5 B@>D5CAK C@0 >B:;04K20NB ?> 510 8:@8=>:.  <=>385 284K 4> A8E ?>@ =5 @072>4OBAO 2 =52>;5.  5I5 >4=0 ?@8G8=0 4>@>3>287=K MB8E @K1 - 8E >G5=L B@C4=> ;>28BL. 0: ;>2OB 1>;LH8=AB2> 0:20@8C<=KE @K1? 01@0AK20NB 2 2>4C A0G>: 8;8 A5B:C, 0 40;LH5 >AB05BAO ;8HL >BA>@B8@>20BL ?>9<0==>5. "@C4=> ?>@>9 4>AB028BL @K1 682K<8 87 3;CE8E C3>;:>2 B@>?8:>2, ;>2 65 ?@>1;5<K =5 A>AB02;O5B. =>5 45;> - 0D@8:0=FK. 54L ?>9<0==CN @K1C ?@>AB> B0: =5 ?>4=8<5HL 4065 A 3;C18=K 15 <5B@>2, 55 @07>@25B 8770 @07=>AB8 402;5=8O.  <=>38E F8E;84 C405BAO 4>1KBL B>;L:> =0 5I5 1>;LH59 3;C18=5. >MB><C ;>2FK 459AB2CNB =0 3;C18=5, ?>3@C60OAL, :0: 2 <>@5, A 0:20;0=30<8, 0 ?>9<0==KE @K1 ?>4=8OAL, :0: 2 <>@5, A 0:20;0=30<8, 0 ?>9<0==KE @K1 ?>4=8<0NB =0 ?>25@E=>ABL 2 A?5F80;L=> A:>=AB@C8@>20==>9 45:><?@5AA8>==>9 :0<5@5.  4065 2 MB>< A;CG05 =5 2A5 87 =8E 040?B8@CNBAO 2 0:20@8C<0E ;>2F0, G0ABL 87 =8E ?>38105B. #4828B5;L=K5 F8E;84K 87 >75@ 0;028, "0=30=L8:0 8 5I5 >4=>3> 0D@8:0=A:>3> >75@0 8:B>@8O C65 ?>A5;8;8AL 2 0:20@8C<0E <=>38E ;N18B5;59, 2 B>< G8A;5 8 2 =0H59 AB@0=5.  M:A?548F88 ?@>4>;60NB @01>B0BL.  =5 B>;L:> =0 MB8E B@5E >75@0E, 254L 5ABL 5I5 >75@0 ;L15@B, 25@C, F5;0O A8AB5<0 ?@><56CB>G=KE >75@, 8 2> 2A5E >18B0NB M=45<8G=K5 284K F8E;84. 5C4828B5;L=>, GB> :064K9 3>4 >1=0@C6820NBAO =>2K5, =58725AB=K5 5I5 =0C:5 284K. >B 8 A59G0A, @01>B0O =04 MB>9 3;02>9, O ?5@5;8AB0; H5ABL ?>;CG5==KE =><5@>2 6C@=0;>2 DATZ 8 =5A:>;L:> =><5@>2 TI (>10 6C@=0;0 8740NBAO 2 5@<0=88) 8 =0H5; A 45AOB>: 8=D>@<0F88 > =>2KE 2840E 8 @07=>284=>ABOE F8E;84, :>B>@K5 5I5 =5 C40;>AL =0CG=> >?@545;8BL.  MB> ?@8 B><, GB> =0 A53>4=O C 0:20@8C<8AB>2 !( 8 2@>?K C65 8<55BAO 1>;55 500 284>2 8 M:>;>38G5A:8E @07=>284=>AB59 0D@8:0=F52! >4>7@520N, GB> 2K, C20605<K9 G8B0B5;L, 645B5 >B <5=O >?8A0=8O =5:>B>@KE 0D@8:0=A:8E F8E;84. > MB>3> =5 1C45B.  2>B ?>G5<C. !>2@5<5==0O 0:20@8C<8AB8:0 =0AB>;L:> >1J5<=0 8 <=>3>3@0==0, GB> >4=><C G5;>25:C 2A53> =5 >E20B8BL.  B>< G8A;5 8 02B>@C :=838. / <>3C @0AA:070BL B>;L:> > B5E >18B0B5;OE 0:20@8C<0, :>B>@KE =01;N40; 8 7=0N. &8E;84 87 5;8:8E D@8:0=A:8E >75@ O 7=0N ?;>E>. @><5 =5C40G=>3> >?KB0, > :>B>@>< O C?><O=C;, 40 5I5 =5A:>;L:8E AB>;L 65 =5MDD5:B82=KE ?>?KB>:, O A =8<8 45;0 =5 8<5;. >MB><C 8728=8B5 <5=O, <>9 G8B0B5;L, O ?>?KB0;AO ?>7=0:><8BL 20A A ?@8=F8?80;L=K< >B;8G85< MB8E @K1 >B 2A5E >AB0;L=KE >18B0B5;59 0:20@8C<0, 0 C6 >1 >B45;L=KE 2840E ?@845BAO 20< ?>8A:0BL <0B5@80; 2 4@C38E :=830E. '53> =8 A>B2>@8B ?@8@>40! &8E;84K ?@8=04;560B : >B@O4C :C=5>1@07=K5 (Perciformes). > >=8 =5 548=AB25==K5 ?@54AB028B5;8 MB>3> >B@O40 2 =0H8E 0:20@8C<0E. 7OBL, : ?@8<5@C, 8E A:@><=>3> B@>?8G5A:>3> @>4AB25==8:0 87 A5<59AB20 0=4>2K5 (Nandidae), 402=> ?>A5;82H53>AO 2 4><0H=8E 2>4>5<0E. !@548 O@:8E, <=>3>:@0A>G=KE >18B0B5;59 A>2@5<5==>3> 0:20@8C<0 MB0 @K1:0 O2=> ?@>83@K205B. >B >=0 ?;K25B B>;L:> GB> 2K?CI5==0O 87 10=:8: ?@>4>;3>20B>5 B5;LF5 3@O7=>A5@>3> F25B0 A 2BO=CBK< 682>B>< GCBL 87>3=CB> 3>@1>< : A?8=5 8 A60B> A 1>:>2; A?8==>9, E2>AB>2>9, 0=0;L=K9 ?;02=8:8 ?@>7@0G=K 8 B>65 A 3@O7=K<8 @072>40<8. K1:0 >A<>B@5;0AL, >168;0AL: B5;> AB0;> B5<=>A5@K< A 5420 ?@>ABC?0NI8<8 ?>?5@5G=K<8 ?>;>A0<8, =5?0@=K5 ?;02=8:8 B>65 ?>B5<=5;8, ?@8>1@5;8 3>;C1>9 >BB5=>:. >B 2AB@5B8;8AL 420 A0<F0, 0 >=8 - 1>;LH85 7018O:8. >AB>O==> CAB@0820NB ABKG:8 8770 =>@K, A0<:8, 0 B> 8 ?@>AB> 70 CG0AB>: 2 0:20@8C<5, :>B>@K9 >10 AG8B0NB A2>8<: B5?5@L B5;> >G5=L B5<=>5, 0 ?>;>AK 3>@OB :8@?8G=K< F25B><, ?;02=8:8 65 ?@52@0B8;8AL 2 3>;C1K5 D;038 8 A8ONB 3;C1>:>9 A>G=>9 A8=52>9.  2>B A0<5F >E@0=O5B 2 =>@:5 :;04:C 8:@K: >= ?>GB8 25AL <C0@>2>G5@=K9, ;8HL :@><:0 A?8==>3> ?;02=8:0 A8=OO. 770 A?>A>1=>AB8 <5=OBL >:@0A:C @K1:C =0720;8 E0<5;5>=><. 5 4@C3>5 =0720=85 - 1048A, =0CG=>5 - Badis badis. !B>;5B85 =0704 MB> 1K;0 ?>?C;O@=59H0O >18B0B5;L=8F0 0:20@8C<>2. > :>3> A53>4=O ?@82;5G5B 55 A:@><=0O 2=5H=>ABL. >O28;8AL @07=>F25B=K5 ?5F8;88 8 3C??8, O@:85 10@1CAK 8 E0@0F8=84K, C4828B5;L=K5 0D@8:0=A:85 F8E;84K 8 8:@><5GCI85 :0@?>7C1K5& 7<5=G82>ABL >:@0A:8? > @0725 =5 45<>=AB@8@CNB 55 A53>4=O B5 65 F8E;84K, @0725 =5 C4828B5;L=> @07;8G85 =>G=>9 8 4=52=>9 @0AF25B:8 =0==>AB><CA>2? > 2@5<5=0 .$.>;>B=8F:>3> 1048A C<8;O; 8 A2>59 <8=80BN@=>ABLN. > A53>4=O 2 =0H8E 0:20@8C<0E ?;020NB 1>;55 O@:85, => B0:85 65 <8=80BN@=K5 F8E;84K - =0==0:0@K, @07=K5 0?8AB>3@0<<K - 8 >=8, :>=5G=>, B>65 70B<8;8 1048A0.  1048A =0G8=05B 8AG570BL 87 0:20@8C<>2. A5 @565 2AB@5G05BAO >= 2 :><=0B=KE 2>4>5<0E. 065 =0 <>A:>2A:>< B8GL5< @K=:5 1K20NB 3>4K, :>340 >= A>2A5< =5 ?>O2;O5BAO. >@0, 284=>, 70=>A8BL 53> 2 @0A=CN :=83C 8AG570NI8E @K1 =0H59 0:20@8C<8AB8:8.  60;L. 54L 1048A F5==55 <=>38E A>2@5<5==KE ;N18<F52. >340B> 2 B@>?8:0E - 2 ?@81@56=KE 2>40E <>@O, 2 CABLOE @5: 8 ?@5A=KE 2>4>5<0E - 1K;8 H8@>:> @0A?@>AB@0=5=K A28@5?K5 E8I=8:8 0=4>2K5 (Nandidae). >B>< 2 1>@L15 70 <5AB> ?>4 A>;=F5< >=8 AB0;8 CABC?0BL 4@C38<, 1>;55 A>25@H5==K< @K10<, 8 A59G0A 8E >AB0;>AL A>2A5< =5<=>3>, 0 3;02=>5, C =8E A53>4=O B0: =07K205<K9 @07>@20==K9 0@50; - ?@54AB028B5;8 MB>3> =5<=>3>G8A;5==>3> =K=5 A5<59AB20 >18B0NB 2 2>40E .6=>9 <5@8:8, D@8:8, =488, =4>=5788, 8@<K, =4>:8B0O. "0:>9 2A5<8@=K9 @071@>A, @07@K2 <5AB >18B0=8O @K1 >4=>3> A5<59AB20 A2845B5;LAB2C5B > B5=45=F88 : 8AG57=>25=8N.  .3>>AB>G=>9 788 682CB 420 2840 =0=4CA>2 (@>4 Nandus). K1K ?@OGCBAO 2 :>@O30E, =0?040NB =0 ?>4E>4OICN ?> @07<5@C 4>1KGC, 8=>340 AE20BK20NB 8 1>;LHCN, G5< >=8 A0<8, =5 I04OB 4065 A>1AB25==CN <>;>4L. 0 8 <0;L:8 @0ABCB =5 2 AB05, ?@OGCBAO 4@C3 >B 4@C30, GB>1K =5 1KBL AJ545==K<8 A2>8<8 65 A>1@0BLO<8. -B8 E8I=8:8 =5 ?@8>1@5;8 ?>?C;O@=>AB8 C 0:20@8C<8AB>2. 770 AB@>3>3> @0745;5=8O B5@@8B>@89 8< >G5=L B@C4=> ?>45;8BL 0:20@8C<, 8 >=8 ?>AB>O==> 45@CBAO. >1KGC >=8 ?>46840NB 2 70A045, : B><C 65 0??5B8B C =8E ?@>1C6405BAO B>;L:> 2 AC<5@:0E. "0:0O @K10 >1KG=> =C6=0 ;N18B5;N A 25AL<0 A?5F80;878@>20==K< 8=B5@5A><.  .6=>9 <5@8:5 8 D@8:5 >18B0NB <=>3>:;NG=8:8 - ?>;8F5=B@CA, 8;8 @K10>1@C1>: (Polycentrus schomburgki), 8 ?>;8F5=B@>?A (Polycentropsis abbreviata). 07;8G8BL 8E <>65B B>;L:> >?KB=K9 0:20@8C<8AB. =8 B>65 E8I=8:8, => ?><5=LH5, 8 ?>B><C 254CB A51O <5=55 03@5AA82=>. K10>1@C1>: ?>O28;0AL 2 =0H8E 0:20@8C<0E 2 A5@548=5 50E 3>4>2. 0=LH5 55 <=>3> 8 CA?5H=> @072>48;8, B5?5@L 65 >=0 AB0;0 1>;LH>9 @54:>ABLN. !2>5 =0720=85 @K10 ?>;CG8;0 ?>B><C, GB> E2>AB>2>9, :>=FK 0=0;L=>3> 8 A?8==>3> ?;02=8:>2 A>2A5< ?@>7@0G=K, 0 2A5 >AB0;L=>5 - 75;5=>1C@>3> F25B0 A 1>;55 B5<=K<8 ?OB=0<8 8 ?>;>A0<8: :065BAO, GB> B5<=0O @K1:0 >1@C1;5=0 2 <5AB5 =52848<>3> E2>AB0.  7028A8<>AB8 >B A>AB>O=8O 8 =0AB@>5=8O @K1K <5=O5BAO 8=B5=A82=>ABL F25B0 >:@0H5==>9 G0AB8 B5;0.  ?5@8>4 =5@5AB0 A0<FK AB0=>2OBAO A>2A5< G5@=K<8, 0 A0<:8, =0>1>@>B, A25B;5NB. -B8E @K1 <>6=> A>45@60BL 3@C??0<8: C =8E =5B B0:>3> =5?@8OB8O 4@C3 4@C30, :0: C =0=4CA>2, =5B 8 G5B:> 2848<KE B5@@8B>@80;L=KE A?>@>2, :0: C 1048A>2. 1KG=> >=8 AB>OB 2 B5=8, ?>4 ;8ABLO<8 @0AB5=89, 8;8 C :0<=59, ?>46840O 4>1KGC. 5@5ABCNI0O ?0@0 >B45;O5BAO >B 3@C??K, =0E>48B C:@KB85, ?5I5@:C, BI0B5;L=> G8AB8B B0< ?>25@E=>ABL. :@0 <>65B 1KBL 2K<5B0=0 8 =0 =86=NN AB>@>=C ;8AB0. !=0G0;0 >10 @>48B5;O 2<5AB5 >E@0=ONB :;04:C, 70B5< A0<5F ?@>3>=O5B A0<:C 8 C65 >48= 701>B8BAO > ?>B><AB25.  10AA59=5 <07>=:8 6825B 8=B5@5A=0O @K10;8AB (Monocirrhus polyacanthus). "5;> 55 A60B> A 1>:>2, 2 A25B;KE 8 B5<=KE :>@8G=52KE @072>40E, =0 =86=59 3C15 >B@>AB>:, =0?><8=0NI89 G5@5H>: >B<5@H53> ;8AB0. # MB>9 >@838=0;L=>9 @K1K <=>3> ;N1>?KB=>3> 2 ?>2545=88. ;0205B >=0 =5B>@>?;82>, 2 >A=>2=>< A ?><>ILN 3@C4=KE ?;02=8:>2. 5@>OB=>, 2 ?@>H;>< @K10;8AB >E>B8;0AL, :0: 8 =0=4CA, 87 70A04K, >BAN40 - :>@8G=52>?OB=8AB0O >:@0A:0, <0A:8@CNI0O E8I=8:0.  ?@>F5AA5 A?5F80;870F88 2K@01>B0;8AL 8 4@C385 A?>A>1K >E>BK. '0I5 2A53> @K1K AB>OB ?>4 ;8ABLO<8 @0AB5=89 - :0640O ?>4 A2>8<, 5A;8 ?0@0 - <>3CB 8 2<5AB5. 0E>4OAL 2 B5=8, >=8 8<5NB 8=B5=A82=>:>@8G=52CN >:@0A:C, =0 >A25I5==>< <5AB5 - A25B;>1C@CN. BAN40 8 2KA:0:820NB, GB>1K AE20B8BL 7075202HCNAO <5;:CN @K15H:C. > <=5 :065BAO 1>;55 8=B5@5A=K< 4@C3>9 A?>A>1 >E>BK. A;8 C 20A 5ABL D8;LB@, >15A?5G820NI89 A8;L=K9 B>: 2>4K 2 0:20@8C<5, 2K <>65B5 ?>=01;N40BL, :0: MB> ?@>8AE>48B. 0?CAB8B5 2 0:20@8C< AB09:C <5;:8E 3C??8 8 C2848B5 F5;>5 ?@54AB02;5=85. K10;8AB =5 =0?0405B =0 =8E, >=0 A;8H:>< =5?>2>@>B;820. ">G=> >?@545;82 =0?@02;5=85 B5G5=8O, >=0 >AB>@>6=> 42865BAO : =0G0;C ?>B>:0. 564C B5< @K1LO <5;>GL, :0: MB> 1K205B 8 2 @5:5, A:0?;8205BAO =0 ?>B>:5 3>;>20<8 ?@>B82 B5G5=8O.  40;LH5 ?@>8AE>48B 2>B GB>. K10;8AB A68<05B 2A5 ?;02=8:8, 2E>48B 2 AB@CN 2>4K 8 ?@8=8<05B =0:;>==>5 ?>;>65=85. >;>20 ?@8 MB>< =0?@02;5=0 ?> B5G5=8N. C B>G=> AB0@K9 ;8AB ?;K25B 2 ?>B>:5, 40 5I5 8 A G5@5H:><. >340 2>40 A=>A8B 53> : AB09:5 3C??8, <0;KH8 A?>:>9=> @0AABC?0NBAO, GB>1K ?@>?CAB8BL MB>B ?@54<5B. 4=0:> >= 2=570?=> @0A:@K205B @>B 8& 5B, >E>B0, :>=5G=>, =5 2A5340 C40G=0, => MB>B @>B ?>@0605B - B@C10 4;8=>9 A0=B8<5B@0 420 (0 A0<0B> @K10 - A0=B8<5B@>2 2>A5<L).  A?>:>9=>< A>AB>O=88 B@C10 A;>65=0, :0: 30@<>H:0, 0 2 @0725@=CB>< >=0 5I5 8 @01>B05B :0: <>I=K9 =0A>A, 70BO3820NI89 @K1LN <5;>GL. > 8 157 ?>B>:0 2>4K >E>B0 MB>3> E8I=8:0 8=B5@5A=0.  AB>OG59 2>45 >= <>65B ?>4:@04K20BLAO : AB09:5 @K1. "5;> >?OBL 70=8<05B =0:;>==>5 ?>;>65=85, 6015@=0O :@KH:0 8 3@C4=>9 ?;02=8: A> AB>@>=K 4>1KG8 70<8@0NB, 0 ?@>B82>?>;>6=K9 3@C4=>9 ?;02=8: B8E>=L:> ?>4B0;:8205B >E>B=8:0 : 2>645;5==>9 AB09:5. 8HCB, GB> B0: 65 <>65B >E>B8BLAO 8 =0=4CA. 5 7=0N, =5 2845;. >E>65 254CB A51O =0 >E>B5 @K1K>1@C1:8 8 M;5>B@8AK (2 B>< G8A;5 8 0<C@A:89 @>B0=). > 8E ?>?KB:8 <5=55 CA?5H=K - 2A5B0:8 : AB09:5 ?@81;8605BAO @K10, 0 =5 157>184=K9 ;8AB8:.  5I5 >4=0 >A>15==>ABL ;8AB0: ?@8 8A?C35 @K10 70<8@05B, A602 2A5 ?;02=8:8. >>1I5B> B0:>5 O2;5=85 <=8<>9 A<5@B8 G0AB> =01;N405BAO C =0A5:><KE: 2 <><5=B >?0A=>AB8 @57:> CA8;8205BAO B>=CA <KHF, 8 >=8 70<8@0NB 2 =0?@O65=88. 07K205BAO MB> A>AB>O=85 :0B0;5?A859. >340 >?0A=>ABL <8=C5B, B>@<>65=85 <54;5==> A=8<05BAO, 8 42865=85 2>AAB0=02;8205BAO. 5 15@CAL AC48BL, 5ABL ;8 :0B0;5?A8O C @K1K;8AB0, => ?>2545=85 >G5=L ?>E>65. K10 F5?5=55B, B5;> 7020;8205BAO =0 1>: 8 =5?>4286=>, ?;>A:> >?CA:05BAO =0 4=>. 0 =5 ?@>AB> >?CA:05BAO, >=> 5I5 ?;02=> :@CB8BAO ?> A?8@0;8 8 B>=5B - A>2A5< :0: =0AB>OI89 <5@B2K9 ;8AB. 5A:>;L:> <8=CB ;8AB =5?>42865=. > 2>B 7042830;0AL 25@E=OO 6015@=0O :@KH:0, 70B5< 3@C4=>9 ?;02=8:, 8, =0:>=5F, @K10 ?@8=8<05B =>@<0;L=>5 ?>;>65=85. 68205B =5 B>@>?OAL, <>65B <3=>25==> 70<5@5BL. 4=064K >B <>53> :0H;O 2A5 B@8 @K1K;8AB0 2 0:20@8C<5 A@07C ?>20;8;8AL =0 4=>. =B5@5A=>5 ACI5AB2> MB0 @K10, => ?>:0 5I5 @54:> 2AB@5G05BAO 2 0:20@8C<0E, E>BO 55 CA?5H=> @072>4OB. !0<:0 >B:;04K205B 8:@C =0 =86=NN AB>@>=C ;8AB0, 70 ?>B><AB2>< CE06820NB >10 @>48B5;O. =5 MB>3> C2845BL, : A>60;5=8N, ?>:0 =5 4>25;>AL. > 25@=5<AO : 1048AC. = =0AB>;L:> >B;8G05BAO >B E0@0:B5@=KE @K1 A5<59AB20 0=4>2K5, GB> =5:>B>@K5 A8AB5<0B8:8 2K45;ONB MB>B <>=>B8?8G5A:89 @>4 (420 ?>42840 >4=>3> 2840) 2 >B45;L=>5 A5<59AB2>.  ?@8A<>B@8B5AL:0 : 1048AC, :>340 >= B>@>?8BAO ?> A2>8< 45;0<: ?5@54=85 425 B@5B8 A?8==>3> ?;02=8:0 ?@860BK : A?8=5, 42830NBAO B>;L:> ?@>7@0G=K5 704=OO B@5BL A?8==>3> 8 704=OO G0ABL 0=0;L=>3> ?;02=8:>2 - A>2A5< :0: C @K1>1@C1:>2 40 8 C 4@C38E =0=4>2KE.  B0: ?>A<>B@5BL - @07;8G89 1>;LH5, G5< AE>4AB20. ;0205B 8 45@68BAO, :0: <0;5=L:0O F8E;840: >= 8 2=5H=5 A:>@55 =0 F8E;84C ?>E>6, 8 M:>;>38G5A:CN =8HC 70=8<05B 845=B8G=CN. N18B =5 15@53>2K5 >1@K2K, :>@O38 8 :0<=8, :0: 1>;LH8=AB2> =0=4>2KE, 0 70@>A;8 @0AB5=89. 5 8A?>;L7C5B 3>B>2K5 C:@KB8O, 0 B@C4>;N182> AB@>8B A2>8 =>@:8. > 3;02=>5 - 1048A A>2A5< =5 E8I=8:, 53> ?8I0 B0:0O 65, :0: C 10@1CA>2, E0@0F8=84 8 4@C38E <5;:8E 0:20@8C<=KE @K1, @0725 GB> 15@5B >= B>;L:> 682K5 :>@<0.  @07<=>605BAO 8=B5@5A=>: A0<5F BI0B5;L=> CE068205B 70 :;04:>9 2 ?5I5@:5. >;>4L 2K:>@<8BL ;53:>.  4><0H=8E 45:>@0B82=KE 0:20@8C<0E 1048AK E>@>H> C6820NBAO A A0<K<8 :@>B:8<8 53> >18B0B5;O<8: A84OB A515 2 =>@:0E 8 2ABC?0NB 2 :>=D;8:BK - 40 8 B> 157 A5@L57=KE ?>A;54AB289 - B>;L:> 4@C3 A 4@C3><. C45B >G5=L >184=>, 5A;8 MB0 A:@><=0O @K1:0 - ?@54AB028B5;L=8F0 A5<59AB20, C65 <8=>202H53> ?5@8>4 A2>53> @0AF25B0,- C945B 87 =0H8E 0:20@8C<>2. I5 >4=0 87 8AG570NI8E A53>4=O 0:20@8C<=KE @K1 - 48A:>284=K9 >:C=L, H5915=10@H (Enneacanthus chaetodon), 682CI89 2 2>4>5<0E !( (HB0BK LN65@A8, M@8;5=4) A> A;01K< B5G5=85< 8;8 157 =53>. -B0 =51>;LH0O (4> 6 A0=B8<5B@>2) >G5=L 87OI=0O @K1:0 =5 1;5I5B :@0A>B>9: ?> >;82:>2><C D>=C @071@>A0=K B5<=K5 ?OB=0 @07=>9 25;8G8=K. > MB> 2 A?>:>9=>< A>AB>O=88.  :>340 >:C=L 2>71C645=, ?OB=0 A;820NBAO, >1@07CO 25@B8:0;L=K5 ?>;>AK - G5BK@5 A?;>H=K5 (>4=0 87 =8E ?@>E>48B G5@57 3;07) 8 G5BK@5?OBL ?@5@K28ABKE. @5;5ABL MB>9 @K1:8 =5 2 >:@0A:5, 0 2 ?;02=8:0E: :>340 >=8 @0A?@02;5=K, :065BAO, GB> ?;K25B ?0@CA=8:. 2865BAO H5915=10@H 2 A?>:>9=>< A>AB>O=88 A ?><>ILN 3@C4=KE ?;02=8:>2, :>=FK 2KA>:>3> A?8==>3> 8 0=0;L=>3> GCBL ?>4@03820NB. :C=L ;N18B G8ABCN 2>4C 8 ?@8 ?>O2;5=88 <CB8 A59G0A 65 A68<05B A2>8 ?0@CA0.  5A;8 53> =0:>@<8BL ?>381H8< <>BK;5<, C >:C=O A;CG8BAO A0<>5 =0AB>OI55 @0AAB@>9AB2> 65;C4:0. (5915=10@H ?@8=04;568B : 3@C??5 =5:>340 ?>?C;O@=KE C @>AA8O= CH0ABKE, 8;8 0<5@8:0=A:8E, >:C=59.  A2>5 2@5<O 2 0:20@8C<0E 2AB@5G0;>AL =5A:>;L:> 8E 284>2 - 1@8;;80=B>2K9, 3>;C1>9, A>;=5G=K9 >:C=L, ?02;8=89 3;07. -B8 @K1:8 C65 ?>:@C?=55, ?>3@C155 48A:>284=>3> >:C=O. !53>4=O 8E ?>GB8 =5 2AB@5B8HL 2 0:20@8C<0E. 0B> 2 5AB5AB25==KE 2>4>5<0E ?>?0405BAO A>;=5G=K9 >:C=L. K=5 >= 6825B 2 45@5, C=05, 2 =87>2LOE =5AB@0 8 =5?@0. -BC @K1:C ?@>720;8 F0@L:>< 70 O@:CN ?5AB@CN >:@0A:C 87 ?5@;0<CB@>2KE ?OB5= 8 783703>2. !>2A5< 8AG57 =56=K9 <0;5=L:89 (4> 4 A0=B8<5B@>2) G5@=K9 >:C=L M;0AA><0 (Elassoma evergladei) 87 2>4>5<>2 !525@=>9 0@>;8=K 8 $;>@84K. -B0 :@>H:0 ;53:> @072>48BAO. K1:8 >B:;04K20NB 8:@C =0 ;8AB @0AB5=8O 8 B@>30B5;L=> CE06820NB 70 =59. !0<5F ?@8 MB>< AB0=>28BAO A>2A5< G5@=K<. AB0;L=K5 >:C=8 B>65 CE06820NB 70 ?>B><AB2><. !0<5F 2K@K205B 2 ?5A:5 O<:C, 2 :>B>@CN A0<:0 2K<5BK205B 8:@C. >;LH5 ?>257;> 0780BA:8< >:C=O<, 2 G0AB=>AB8 =51>;LH8< >:C=L:0< 87 @>40 Chanda, ?>;CG82H8< =0720=85 AB5:;O==KE (!. ranga),- >=8 ?>;L7CNBAO =587<5==>9 A8<?0B859 0:20@8C<8AB>2. "5;> 8E, 459AB28B5;L=>, ?@>7@0G=>, E>@>H> 284=K :>AB8 A:5;5B0 8 4065 ?8I0 2 :8H5G=8:5. 4=064K C65 7=0:><K9 G8B0B5;N 8AA;54>20B5;L B@>?8G5A:8E @K1 ..(0H8= ?@8257 <=5 >48==04F0BL 3>;C1KE AB5:;O==KE >:C=59, A0<K9 :@C?=K9 87 :>B>@KE 4>AB830; 9 A0=B8<5B@>2. !B5:;O==KE >:C=59 @53C;O@=> @072>4OB. 0;L:8 8E G@572KG09=> <0;K, 40 5I5 8 ?0AA82=K. < B@51C5BAO <5;LG09H89 :>@<, ?@8G5< 2 B0:>< :>;8G5AB25, GB>1K >= 1C:20;L=> A048;AO =0 =>A. > A0<K< 8=B5@5A=K< 87 0780BA:8E >:C=59 O AG8B0N B>:A>B5A0, 8;8 1@K73C=0 (Toxotes jaculatrix). He 1C4C 3>;>A;>2=> C15640BL 20A, C20605<K9 G8B0B5;L, 2 C=8:0;L=>AB8 MB>9 @K1K, 40209B5:0 ;CGH5 ?@>945< 2 ;01>@0B>@8N 8 B8E> ?>AB>8< C >4=>3> 87 0:20@8C<>2. >40 2 =5< =0;8B0 B>;L:> =0?>;>28=C, ;8ABLO @0AB5=89 2>72KH0NBAO =04 ?>25@E=>ABLN, 8 ?> =8< ?>;705B :@C?=0O <CE0. 0F! CE0 H;5?=C;0AL 2 2>4C, 8 @K10 55 ?@>3;>B8;0. 8G53> =5 CA?5;8 70<5B8BL? ">340 ?>2B>@8<. "5?5@L A0605< >15A:@K;5==CN <CEC =0 ;8AB 8& 0F! >;8 A5:C=4K CE>4OB =0 2AN >?5@0F8N: >?OBL =8G53> =5 C40;>AL C;>28BL. > 40209B5 >B>945< >B :CAB0@=>3> <5B>40 =01;N45=8O =0BC@0;8AB>2 ?@>H;>3> 25:0 8 ?@8153=5< : A>2@5<5==>9 B5E=8:5. B0:, CAB0=02;8205< :8=>:0<5@C, 2:;NG05< 55, A0605< <CEC =0 ;8AB. 0F! CE0 8AG5705B, 0 =0H 3;07 A=>20 =8G53> =5 CA?5; C;>28BL. 0B> 5ABL :0<5@0. =0 @01>B0;0.  :>340 ?;5=:0 ?>43>B>2;5=0 : 45<>=AB@0F88, <K 70?CA:05< 55 2 70<54;5==>< B5<?5. >B B5?5@L <>6=> @07;8G8BL 2A5 ?>A;54>20B5;L=K5 >?5@0F88 >E>BK B>:A>B5A0. > A=0G0;0 ?>7=0:><8<AO A MB>9 @K1>9. 825B >=0 2 @5:0E, 2 CABLOE @5:, 2 <>@A:8E 70;820E. 7 A>;5=KE 2>4 ?5@5<5I05BAO 2 ?@5A=K5 @5G=K5, 8 =0>1>@>B. ABL 8 4@C385 @K1K, 4;O :>B>@KE ?>4E>48B 8 B0 8 4@C30O 2>40. 18B0NB >=8 >1KG=> 2 CABLOE @5:, 2?040NI8E 2 <>@5, 2 MABC0@8OE, >BAN40 8 =0720=85 MB>9 3@C??K - MABC0@=K5 @K1K. "0: GB> 2 MB>< B>:A>B5A =5 C=8:0;5=. "5;> C B>:A>B5A0 A?;NI5=> A 1>:>2, >:@0A:0 - >;82:>2>65;B0O, ?> B5;C >B A?8=K 84CB G5@=K5 ?OB=0. "0:0O >:@0A:0 O2;O5BAO 70I8B=>9.  ?@8@>4=>< 2>4>5<5 =0 A>;=5G=KE 1;8:0E A@548 AB51;59 B@>AB=8:0, >B1@0AK20NI8E 2 2>4C B5=8, >=0 45;05B @K1:C =570<5B=>9. 0: 2848<, B>65 =8G53> >A>15==>3> - ?>E>6CN >:@0A:C 8<5NB <=>385 @K1K. "5?5@L @0AA<>B@8< ?;02=8:8. !?8==>9 8 0=0;L=K9 A428=CBK : E2>AB>2><C, A?8=0 ?>GB8 ?@O<0O. -B> B>65 8725AB=0O :>=AB@C:F8O, >=0 2AB@5G05BAO C =5:>B>@KE 682>@>4OI8E @K1>: 8 ICG5:E0?;>E8;CA>2, 682CI8E C ?>25@E=>AB8 2>4K. "0:8< >1@07>< >15A?5G8205BAO ?;>B=>5 ?@8;530=85 B5;0 A=87C : ?>25@E=>AB8 2>4K (>BG0AB8 ?>MB><C A?8==>9 ?;02=8: CH5; =0704 8 2=87 - GB>1K =5 B>@G0BL =04 2>4>9). @8;530=85 : ?>25@E=>AB8206=>5 ?@8A?>A>1;5=85, ?>72>;ONI55 @K1:0< 2845BL =0A5:><KE =04 2>4>9 2 2>74CE5. 5;> 2 B><, GB> ;CG A25B0 2 @07=KE A@540E 845B ?>@07=><C 8 =0 3@0=8F5 A@54 ?@5;><;O5BAO. ;070 ?@8?>25@E=>AB=KE @K1 =5A:>;L:> A428=CBK :25@EC, GB> ?>72>;O5B 8< =5 ?@><0E=CBLAO ?@8 >E>B5. > =0H B>:A>B5A 8 745AL =5 >@838=0;, ?;02=8:8B> C =53> A428=CBK =0704, => 3;070 =0E>4OBAO, :0: C 1>;LH8=AB20 @K1, ?> 1>:0< 3>;>2K. "0: GB> 65 2 =5< 8=B5@5A=>3>, =5>1KG=>3>? @5645 2A53> - @>B. =5H=5 B>65 =8G53> >A>15==>3>. @0240, <>@4>G:0 C @K1K 2KBO=CB0O, :0: 1C4B> 1K 4;O :>?0=8O 2 8;5, => @>B =5 C7:89, 0 H8@>:89. 8G53> C4828B5;L=>3>: C A51O =0 @>48=5, 2 <0=3@>2KE 70@>A;OE, B>:A>B5A, :0: 2KOA=8; O?>=A:89 CG5=K9 A5=>, ?8B05BAO <0;L:0<8 @K1, <OA>< ?>381H8E :@C?=KE @K1, =0A5:><K<8, 4065 :@010<8. AA;54>20=8O 65;C4:>2 @K1 ?>:070;8, GB> B>:A>B5AK BI0B5;L=> ?5@5652K20NB ?8IC, 4065 @07@CH0NB E8B8=>2K5 ?>:@>2K =0A5:><KE 8 :@01>2.  2A5 65 @>B B>:A>B5A0 C=8:0;5=: >= ?@52@0I5= 2 A2>5>1@07=K9 =0A>A. K <>65B5 2>7@078BL, GB> B0:>5 2AB@5G05BAO 8 C 4@C38E @K1. !><K A A8;>9 2A0AK20NB 2>4C 2 A2>N H8@>:CN ?0ABL, 0 A 2>4>9 8 AB09:C <0;L:>2. "> 65 <K =01;N40;8 8 ?@8 >E>B5 @K1K;8AB0. 5:>B>@K5 F8E;84K 2K?CA:0NB 87> @B0 AB@CN 2>4K, GB>1K A45;0BL O<:C 2 ?5A:5 - 3=574> 4;O 8:@K 8 <0;L:>2. A5 MB> 25@=>, => B>:A>B5A A ?><>ILN A2>53> @B0& AB@5;O5B. /7K: ?@52@0I5= C =53> 2 <>I=K9 ?>@H5=L. >40 =018@05BAO 2 4>2>;L=> 1>;LHCN ?0ABL, 6015@=K5 :@KH:8 70E;>?K20NBAO, 3C1K A<K:0NBAO, >AB05BAO B>;L:> <0;5=L:>5 :@C3;>5 >B25@AB85 2 F5=B@5 @B0, 8 ?>@H5=LO7K: A A8;>9 2KB0;:8205B 2>4O=>9 A=0@O4. "0:>9 @>B @01>B05B, :0: 384@><>=8B>@,- @07<K205B 3@C=B AB@CQ9 2>4K, 872;5:0O 87 =53> 2A5 AJ54>1=>5. ">:A>B5AC >AB05BAO B>;L:> ?>4>1@0BL ?8IC. C40 5I5 AB@5;O5B B>:A>B5A? >B B5?5@L =0< ?@83>48BAO >BA=OB0O @0=55 :8=>?;5=:0. >?@>1C5< ?>A<>B@5BL, :C40 8 :0: ?>AK;05B A2>9 A=0@O4 =0H AB@5;>:. >B B>:A>B5A <54;5==> 42865BAO 2 1520 A0=B8<5B@0E >B ?>25@E=>AB8. 4@C3 >= 70<5B8; =0 ?@81@56=>< @0AB5=88 =0A5:><>5, >=> =0E>48BAO A?@020 >B =53>. AB5AB25==>, GB> 4>1KGC @K10 C2845;0 A2>8< 1>;LH8< ?@02K< 3;07><. @5=85 C B>:A>B5A0, :0: 8 C 2A5E @K1 A B0:8< AB@>5=85< 3>;>2K, <>=>:C;O@=>5: >48= 3;07 A<>B@8B 2 >4=C AB>@>=C, 4@C3>9 - 2 ?@>B82>?>;>6=CN. 07>25< MBC AB048N =8<0=85, 4>1KG0! 'B> =5>1E>48<> A45;0BL ?@5645 2A53>? AB5AB25==>, ?>4>1@0BLAO : =59. -B> =5 ?@>AB>: ;N1>5 42865=85, E>BO 8 2 2>45, =0A5:><>5 E>@>H> >1=0@C68B A ?><>ILN A2>8E 1>;LH8E D0A5B>G=KE 3;07.  =04> =5 B>;L:> ?@81;878BLAO, => 8 @0725@=CBLAO : 4>1KG5 =>A><, 254L @K10 >1=0@C68;0 =0A5:><>5 A?@020.  2>B =0G8=05BAO <54;5==>5 42865=85 4>2>;L=> :@C?=>9 (4> 20 A0=B8<5B@>2) @K1K 87 3;C18=K : ?>25@E=>AB8 8 A @072>@>B>< =>A>< : F5;8. 01>B0NB ;8HL 3@C4=K5 ?;02=8:8 - 8 B> GCBLGCBL, H525;OBAO A?8==>9, 0=0;L=K9 8 E2>AB>2>9 - B>;L:> A0<K5 :@05H:8 8E. > @0725@=CBLAO =04> =5 B>;L:> 2 3>@87>=B0;L=>9, => 8 2 25@B8:0;L=>9 ?;>A:>AB8. %2>AB ?;02=> CE>48B 2=87, =>A CBK:05BAO 2 ?>25@E=>ABL 2>4K, @>B C65 =0?>;=5= 70@O4><, =0:;>= >A8 BC;>28I0 : ?>25@E=>AB8 - 45. "5?5@L =0ABC?05B 2B>@0O AB048O >E>BK: &5;LAO! -B> B>65 =5 B0: ?@>AB>. @5645 2A53> =04> 70ABKBL 2 871@0==>< ?>;>65=88. 0: MB> B@C4=>, <>6=> ?@>25@8BL =0 ;>4:5: ?>?@>1C9B5 55 >AB0=>28BL :0: 2:>?0==CN. =0G8B, ?;02=8:8 4>;6=K, GCBL ?>4@03820O, >15A?5G8BL 2 2>45 @02=>459AB2CNI85 A8;K 2?5@54=0704, :>B>@K5 8 40NB 2 AC<<5 AB>O=85 =0 <5AB5 2 7K1:>9 A@545. 0;55 2ABC?0NB 2 @01>BC 3;070. 0<5B8BL F5;L <>6=> 8 >4=8< 3;07><, 0 ?>?0ABL 2 =55 - B>;L:> ?@8F5;82H8AL ?@8 18=>:C;O@=>< 7@5=88. ;070 @K1K @072>@0G820NBAO : =>AC, 8 B0:8< >1@07>< >=0 2848B F5;L A@07C >1>8<8 3;070<8. A;8 <KA;5==> ?@>25AB8 B@8 ?@O<K5 ;8=88: >B 3;07 8 >B ?@>4>;L=>9 >A8 :>@?CA0 @K1K : F5;8, B> 2A5 B@8 4>;6=K A>9B8AL 2 >4=>9 B>G:5 - =0 <CE5. @8 MB><, GB>1K ?>?0ABL 2 F5;L, @K15 =04> 5I5 2=5AB8 :>@@5:B82K =0 ?@5;><;5=85 ?@O<>9 =0 3@0=8F5 42CE A@54; :0:>9 :>MDD8F85=B :>@@5;OF88, :0: 3>2>@OB A?5F80;8ABK, >=0 8A?>;L7C5B, <K 5I5 =5 7=05<. 0B5< =04> 2=5AB8 :>@@5:B82K 2 B@05:B>@8N ?>;5B0 A=0@O40, 254L >=, :0: 8725AB=>, ;5B8B =5 ?> ?@O<>9, 7=0G8B, ?@O<0O >B 3;07 : F5;8 5I5 =5 >15A?5G8B ?>?040=85. '5< 2KH5 >B 2>4K F5;L, B5< 1>;LH5 @0AE>645=85 MB8E 42CE ;8=89, B5< 1>;LHCN ?>?@02:C =04> 2=5AB8 ?@8 ?@8F5;820=88. >=5G=>, @K10 2A5 MB> 2K?>;=O5B 15AA>7=0B5;L=>, => B5< 1>;55 8=B5@5A=>, :0: >=0 MB> 45;05B, 81> @0A:@KB85 02B><0B87<0 682>B=>3> ?>72>;O5B 8 G5;>25:C A>740BL 02B><0B A B0:>9 65 ?@>3@0<<>9 =02545=8O =0 F5;L. -B8< 70=8<05BAO =0C:0 18>=8:0.  B5?5@L: ;8! >I=0O B>=:0O AB@CO CAB@5<;O5BAO : F5;8, =0 :>=F5 55 A=0@O4 - C40@=0O :0?;O. @K73 A>2A5< =5<=>3>, 2AO A8;0 2KAB@5;0 2 B>=:>9 C40@=>9 AB@5;5. >MB><C 2B>@>5 =0720=85 B>:A>B5A0 - @K101@K73C= =5 A>2A5< B>G=>. 18;L=K9 D>=B0= 1@K73 B>:A>B5A 2K?CA:05B, => B>;L:> B>340, :>340 5<C =04> =0<>G8BL ?@8A52H55 =0 2>4C =0A5:><>5.  MB>< A;CG05 2KAB@5; ?@>872>48BAO =5 2 4>1KGC, 0 @O4><, A B5< GB>1K ?>@078BL F5;L, B0: A:070BL, =025A=K< >3=5<: >18;L=K5 1@K738 A25@EC 70<>G0B :@K;LO =0A5:><>3> 8 =5 ?>72>;OB 5<C C;5B5BL. ">:A>B5A ?>:0 @54:> ?>?0405B 2 =0H8 0:20@8C<K, @072>48BL 2 =52>;5 53> ?>:0 =5 =0CG8;8AL. "5< =5 <5=55 =01;N40BL >E>BC A> AB@5;L1>9 2>4O=K< A=0@O4>< <>65B :064K9 ;N18B5;L. @0240, AB@5;:>< 1C45B =5 B>:A>B5A, 0 E>@>H> 8725AB=K9 2A5< ;O;8CA. !B@5;O5B >= ?>EC65 8 =5 =0 2040 A0=B8<5B@>2, 0 2A53> =0 51, => ?@8=F8? AB@5;L1K B>B 65. !B@5;L10 2>4O=K< A=0@O4>< - 15AA?>@=0O A?5F80;870F8O 2840.  B> 65 2@5<O 8AA;54>20=85 A>45@68<>3> 65;C4:0 B>:A>B5A0 ?>:07K205B, GB> =0A5:><K5 =5 A>AB02;ONB >A=>2C 53> ?8I8.  ;5=BO9;O;8CA 2>>1I5 =5 AB0=5B AB@5;OBL, 5A;8 2 0:20@8C<5 =0 4=5 H525;8BAO <>BK;L.  G5< 45;>? 54L ?@8@>40 =5 A>7405B =8G53> ;8H=53>, =5>?@0240==>3>. >G5<C 65 A?5F80;870F8O B>:A>B5A0 =0 AB@5;L15 =5 AB0;0 548=AB25==K< ?CB5< 4>1K20=8O ?8I8?  <>65B 1KBL, 5I5 =5 AB0;0? 'B>, 5A;8 <K O2;O5<AO A2845B5;O<8 =570:>=G82H53>AO ?>:0 M:A?5@8<5=B0 M2>;NF88? @54?>;>68<, GB> MB>B A?>A>1 >E>BK 2 ?@>F5AA5 M2>;NF88 ?5@5945B, B0: A:070BL, 2 A5@89=>5 ?@>872>4AB2>. 0 B>:A>B5A>< ?>A;54C5B 8 ;O;8CA, >= C65 A59G0A 428=C;AO ?> MB><C ?CB8. -2>;NF8O A?5F80;870F88 284>2 ?@>4>;605BAO 8 2 =0H5 2@5<O. 0: 2848<, A@548 >:C=5>1@07=KE 5ABL 8 B5 @K1:8, :>B>@K5, : A>60;5=8N, 2KH;8 87 <>4K, 8 B5, GB> =587<5==> ?>;L7CNBAO A8<?0B8O<8 0:20@8C<8AB>2, 8 B5, > :>B>@KE ;N18B5;L ?>42>4=>3> <8@0 <>65B ?>:0 B>;L:> <5GB0BL. #AB@>8< F8E;840@8C< :20@8C< 4;O A>45@60=8O F8E;84 >A>1K9 8 53> ?> ?@02C <>6=> =0720BL F8E;840@8C<><. @0240, <5;:85 284K 2@>45 0?8AB>3@0<<, =0==0:0@, ?5;L28:0E@><8A>2 2?>;=5 <>6=> A>45@60BL 2 4>AB0B>G=> ?@>AB>@=>< >1KG=>< 0:20@8C<5 A 4@C38<8 45:>@0B82=K<8 @K1:0<8. =>5 45;> :@C?=K5 F8E;84K - 0D@8:0=A:85 B8;O?88, E@><8AK, 0<5@8:0=A:85 F8E;07><K, 0AB@>=>BCAK, 35>D03CAK. A>1=O:>< AB>OB A:0;O@88 8 48A:CAK, ?5@2KE 45@60B 2 >1KG=KE 0:20@8C<0E, 2B>@KE - ;CGH5 A>45@60BL >B45;L=>. D@8:0=F52 ?> ?@8G8=0<, C:070==K< 2KH5, <K =5 :0A05<AO. B0:, F8E;840@8C< - MB> 2>4>5< 4;O A>45@60=8O :@C?=KE F8E;84. !?5F8D8:0 MB>9 3@C??K @K1 ?@>O2;O5BAO :0: 2 >B=>H5=8OE A> A@54>9, B0: 8 A 4@C38<8 @K10<8, 4@C3 A 4@C3><. 0G=5< A> A@54K.  ?0@0<5B@0< 2>4K MB8 @K1K 4>AB0B>G=> @02=>4CH=K, 8< ?>4E>48B >1KG=0O 0:20@8C<=0O 2>40 - >B <O3:>9 4> 4>AB0B>G=> 65AB:>9 (=0?@8<5@, 1620). 06=> B>;L:> A>1;N40BL @>2=CN B5<?5@0BC@C, =86=89 ?@545; 55 20 !, >?B8<0;L=0O - >:>;> 25 !. A>1>5 2=8<0=85 A;54C5B C45;8BL 3@C=BC. 5 B>;L:> G0=G8B> >1C@5205<K AB@>8B5;L=>9 AB@0ABLN, : MB><C A:;>==K 8 4@C385 F8E;84K, 0 C 35>D03CA>2 8E E>118 4065 >B@065=> 2 =0720=88 (1C:20;L=> - ?>68@0B5;L 75<;8, 75<;554). =0G8B, 708;5==K9 ?5A>: =5 3>48BAO, =8:0:85 D8;LB@K =5 A?0ACB >B ?>AB>O==> ?>4=8<05<>9 <CB8. C65= 8450;L=> G8ABK9 ?5A>:. @8 C1>@:5 0:20@8C<0 G8ABOB ?5A>: H;0=3><, =0 :>=5F :>B>@>3> =045B0 ?;0AB<0AA>20O 2>@>=:0. >340 ?@8 A<5=5 2>4K ?>B>: 845B G5@57 H;0=3, 2>@>=:C >?CA:0NB 2 3@C=B 4> A0<>3> 4=0 0:20@8C<0, 0 ?>A;5 C40;5=8O <CB8 ?5@5AB02;ONB =0 4@C3>5 <5AB>. @C=B <>65B 1KBL 8 87 30;L:8, => B>;L:> 2 B>< A;CG05, 5A;8 2K =5 ?;0=8@C5B5 @072>48BL @K1.  @0AB5=8O< F8E;84K B>65 =5@02=>4CH=K, ?>MB><C ?@8E>48BAO ?@81530BL : 70I8B5 ?>42>4=KE 70@>A;59. @>AB59H89 A?>A>1: :@C?=K5 8 :@5?:85 :>@>B:>AB515;L=K5 @0AB5=8O (ME8=>4>@CA, 0=C180A, :@8=C<) @07<5I0NB 2 3@C=B5 8;8 3>@H>G:0E, 0 70B5< :>@=8, ?>25@E=>ABL 3>@H>G:0 8 2A5 2>:@C3 70:@K20NB :0<5H:0<8, 4>AB0B>G=> BO65;K<8 4;O @K1. @C3>9 A?>A>1: C ?>25@E=>AB8 ?>425H820NB ?;0AB<0AA>2K5 ?>;>G:8 A 3@C=B><, 2 :>B>@K9 ?>A065=K 4;8==>AB515;L=K5 B@02K (383@>D8;0, :01><10, ;N42838O 8 4@.), AB51;8 MB8E @0AB5=89 @0A?>;030NBAO 2 2>45.  5I5 >48= A?>A>1: B0:85 65 B@02K C:@5?;ONB =0 ?;020NI5< ?5=>?;0AB>2>< ?;>B8:5 A >B25@AB8O<8.  42CE ?>A;54=8E A;CG0OE F8E;840< B@C4=> >1>@20BL 381:85, A2>1>4=> @0A?>;>65==K5 AB51;8, 8< A?>4@CG=55 B5@70BL C:>@5=5==K5 @0AB5=8O.  F8E;840@8C<5 87 :0<=59, :>@O3, 70@>A;59 @0AB5=89 =C6=> A>740BL <=>3> C:@KB89, 65;0B5;L=> ?> :>;8G5AB2C @K1. #:@KB8O 4;O 284>2, >18B0NI8E 2 >4=>9 3>@87>=B0;L=>9 ?;>A:>AB8, 4>;6=K 1KBL 4>AB0B>G=> C40;5=K 4@C3 >B 4@C30 - =0 40 A0=B8<5B@>2 8 1>;55. !;54>20B5;L=>, F8E;840@8C< CAB@08205BAO 2 4>AB0B>G=> 1>;LH>< 2>4>5<5. "5?5@L A0<>5 8=B5@5A=>5 - > ?>2545=88 MB8E @K1. &8E;84K - 4>AB0B>G=> M2>;NF8>==> @0728BK (GCBL =5 =0?8A0; - 8=B5;;5:BC0;L=K) ?> A@02=5=8N A> <=>38<8 4@C38<8 0:20@8C<=K<8 @K10<8. !@02=8< 8E A C65 7=0:><K<8 =0< ;018@8=B>2K<8. 5@20O 8 3;02=0O G5@B0 F8E;84 - @528@=K5 >B=>H5=8O. 'B> MB> B0:>5? 528@ - MB> 7>=0 >18B0=8O @K1K 8;8 ?0@K @K1. = ?@>AB8@05BAO 8 ?> 3>@87>=B0;8, 8 ?> 25@B8:0;8. >;>4L F8E;84 6825B 2 AB0OE, 8=>340 @07=>?>;KE - A0<FK >B45;L=> >B A0<>:. !>7@52H0O @K10 CE>48B 87 AB08 8 >1;N1>2K205B A2>9 @528@. "5?5@L >=0 1C45B =0E>48BLAO ?@58<CI5AB25==> 2 =5<.  MB>< 1>;LH>9 18>;>38G5A:89 A<KA;: F8E;84K - ?@58<CI5AB25==> E8I=8:8, 8 @528@ >15A?5G8205B 8E 4>AB0B>G=K< :>;8G5AB2>< ?@>?8B0=8O. =54@5=85 2 @528@ :>=:C@5=B0 2545B : =5E20B:5 ?8I8, : 3>;>4C. =0;>38G=>5 >B=>H5=85 : A2>59 7>=5 >E>BK 5ABL C 2A5E E8I=8:>2 - >48=>G=>3> B83@0, ?@0940 (AB08) ;L2>2 8 B. 4. 0: ?@54AB028BL A515 @528@ F8E;84K? >7L<8B5 ;8AB 1C<038 8 ?>AB02LB5 2 F5=B@5 B>G:C. #AB0=>28B5 >AB@85 F8@:C;O 2 MBC B>G:C 8 ?@>2548B5 B@8 :@C30: @048CAK 42CE 2=CB@5==8E :@C3>2 4>;6=K A>AB02;OBL 425 ?OBKE 8 B@8 ?OBKE >B @048CA0 2=5H=53> :@C30. >;CG8;0AL <>45;L ?;>I048 @528@0. 1>7=0GLB5 2=5H=89 :@C3 1C:2>9 , A;54CNI89 -  8 2=CB@5==89 - . "5?5@L =0 2B>@>< ;8AB5 1C<038 CAB0=>28< F8@:C;L 2 B>G:C =0 53> A5@548=5 C =86=53> >1@570 8 ?@>2545< 2 B>< 65 A>>B=>H5=88 B@8 ?>;C:@C68O =04 =59. -B> 1C45B AE5<0 25@B8:0;8 @528@0. >:@C3 B>G:8 ?@>8AE>48B 2AO >A=>2=0O 687=L E>7O8=0 @528@0: ?8B0=85, CE06820=85 70 A0<:>9, =5@5AB, >E@0=0 ?>B><AB20. @54AB028<, GB> 2 @528@=CN 7>=C 2B>@305BAO =5?@>H5=K9 3>ABL. 0: B>;L:> >= ?>4>945B : 3@0=8F5, E>7O8= A@07C =0AB>@068205BAO. A;8 3>ABL =5 CE>48B, E>7O8= ?>4?;K205B : 3@0=8F5  8 45<>=AB@8@C5B A2>N <>IL: @0A?@02;5==K5 ?;02=8:8, O@:85 :@0A:8, ;>6=K5 0B0:8 2 AB>@>=C ?@8H5;LF0. > B>B ?@>4>;605B ?@>42830BLAO >B  : . ">340 E>7O8= AB0=>28BAO 1>:><, 2AB@OE8205B B5;><, >BB>?K@8205B 601@K?>:07K205B A2>N 3>B>2=>ABL 40BL >B?>@ 03@5AA>@C. A;8 B>B 42865BAO : 3@0=8F5 , =0G8=05BAO A0<0O =0AB>OI0O 4@0:0, 345 ?>156405B A8;L=59H89. @0:B8G5A:8 2 ?@>AB>@=>< ?@8@>4=>< 2>4>5<5 4> 4@0:8 4>E>48B @54:>, 8 2A5E 459AB289 E>7O8=0 =0 3@0=8F0E  8  2?>;=5 4>AB0B>G=>, GB>1K 3>ABL CH5; 70 ?@545;K @528@0. "0: 2 ?@8@>45, 345 ?@>AB>@ =5 >3@0=8G5=.  2 F8E;840@8C<5? @54AB02;O5B5, A:>;L:> 3@0=8F  8 , ?>@>9 4065 , ?5@5?;5;>AL >B @07=KE @528@>2!  B>340 ABKG:8 A;54CNB >4=0 70 4@C3>9.  <K G8B05< 2 ?>A>18OE 4;O 0:20@8C<8AB>2: F8E;84K >G5=L 4@0G;82K. >=5G=>, @K10 =5 <0H8=0 8 <>65B :>@@5:B8@>20BL A2>5 ?>2545=85. 0?@8<5@, A84OB A0<FK 2 A2>8E @528@0E 2 ?>;=>< =0?@O65=88. :@0A:0 8E 1>520O, =0AKI5==0O, B0: :0: 8770 B5A=>BK 2 0:20@8C<5 >=8 2A5 2@5<O 284OB 4@C3 4@C30. 4@C3 >48= 70<5B8;, GB> 2 2>4>5<5 ?>O28;AO :>@<. = =5 <>65B A@07C 1@>A8BLAO 70 ?8I59, A=0G0;0 =04> >?CAB8BL ?;02=8:8, 2K:;NG8BL O@:CN >:@0A:C 8 B>;L:> B>340 CAB@5<;OBLAO 2 =C6=>< =0?@02;5=88. 8:B> 5<C ?@5?OBAB2>20BL =5 1C45B. A;8 65 >= =5 C15@5B A2>8 A83=0;K CAB@0H5=8O, @K1K :8=CBAO =0 =53>, ?@8=O2 1@>A>: 70 =0G0;> 0B0:8. >B B0:85 A;>6=>AB8. # ;018@8=B>2KE ?@>I5: @528@ - 7>=0 3=5740, ?>:0 >=> ACI5AB2C5B.  GB> ?@>8AE>48B 2 0:20@8C<5, E>7O8=0 ?5==>3> 3=5740 =5 >G5=L 15A?>:>8B.  F8E;840@8C<5 2A5 CG0AB:8 @0A?8A0=K 4;O ?>AB>O==>3> 68B5;LAB20.  5A;8 A;01>9 @K15 =5:C40 1C45B A?@OB0BLAO, 1>;55 A8;L=0O 55& C1L5B. >B 254L 7;>459:0, =5 ?@0240 ;8? 5?@0240. -B> G5;>25: 7;>459 - =0A060; 2 0:20@8C< :CGC @K1 8 ?@52@0B8; 8E 2 =52>;L=KE C189F. <5==> - 2 =52>;L=KE. 54L ?> ?@>3@0<<5 ?>2545=8O ?>A;5 4@0:8 =0 3@0=8F5  A;0159H0O @K10 1;54=55B, A68<05B ?;02=8:8, 4065 1>:, 1@NE>, 3>@;> <>65B ?>4AB028BL ?>1548B5;N - 2A5 MB> 7=0:8 ?>@065=8O, ?>4G8=5=8O. 0;55 A;54C5B >BABC?;5=85 >B 3@0=8FK . %>7O8= 65 @528@0 B5@O5B 8=B5@5A : ?>15645==>9 @K15. =>5 45;> 2 B5A=>< 0:20@8C<5. A5 ?>25@65==K9 A45;0; B0: 65, 0 C9B8 70 7>=C  8;8 4065  =5 <>65B - AB5:;O==0O AB5=:0 <5H05B. 'B> 4>;65= 45;0BL ?>1548B5;L, 70I8I0O A2>9 @528@, A2>9 4><? @028;L=>: 3=0BL 40;LH5.  40;LH5 - =5:C40. >B 8 7018205B E>7O8= ?@8H5;LF0 =0A<5@BL. G5=L 8=B5@5A=> =01;N40BL D>@<8@>20=85 A5<59=KE ?0@ 2 F8E;840@8C<5. # @O40 F8E;84 MB> ?0@0 =0 2AN 687=L. 0 5I5 8 A ;8G=>9, 8=48284C0;L=>9 A8<?0B859: ?@>872>;L=> MB8< 8=B5;;5:BC0;0< ?0@B=5@0 =5 ?>4AC=5HL, 701LNB 53> 4> A<5@B8. 04>, GB>1K >=8 A0<8 2 AB05 =0H;8 4@C3 4@C30, GB>1K E>7O8= @528@0 ?@825; A2>N ?>4@C3C 8 ?@>25; 55 G5@57 2A5 B@8 3@0=8FK. B=>H5=8O @>48B5;59 8 45B59 C MB8E @K1 B>65 A;>6=55, G5< C ;018@8=B>2KE. 5B8 E>@>H> 7=0NB A2>8E @>48B5;59, 0 B5 - A2>8E 45B59.  2 70:;NG5=85 ?>72>;LB5 5I5 ?0@C 70<5G0=89 - > 48A:CA0E. %0@0:B5@=K5 4;O F8E;84 B8?K 2708<>>B=>H5=89 ACI5AB2CNB, :>=5G=>, 8 C =8E. > 4;O A>45@60=8O MB8E 0@8AB>:@0B>2 =C65= 2A5B0:8 =5 F8E;840@8C<, 0 >1KG=K9 ?@>AB>@=K9 G8ABK9 0:20@8C< A 45:>@0B82=K<8 @0AB5=8O<8. !>45@60BL @K1 =04> AB059. !C5BK ?5@54 0:20@8C<>< >=8 =5 2K=>AOB, => : ?;02=K< 42865=8O< E>7O8=0 8 G;5=>2 53> A5<L8 ?@82K:0NB 8 ?5@5AB0NB ?@OB0BLAO 2 @0AB8B5;L=>AB8. 'B>1K C2845BL 48A:CA>2 2> 2A5< 8E 25;8:>;5?88, =04> A>1;N40BL A;54CNI85 ?@028;0: ?>445@6820BL B5<?5@0BC@C =5 =865 26 ! (>?B8<0;L=0O 5I5 2KH5 2830!); >15A?5G820BL @K1 A2568<8 8 @07=>>1@07=K<8 682K<8 :>@<0<8 - G5< ;CGH5 CA;>28O A>45@60=8O MB8E @K1, B5< 2KH5 C =8E 0??5B8B.  :>=5G=>, =5>1E>48<> A>1;N40BL AB5@8;L=>ABL: G8AB0O 2>40, =5A8;L=> 708;5==K9 3@C=B, ?@><KBK5 :>@<0, A?5F80;L=> ?>4>1@0==K5 A0G>:, ?8=F5B 8 4@C385 ?@8=04;56=>AB8. >;>4L 48A:CA>2 A53>4=O ?@>405BAO 2> <=>38E 3>@>40E. > <>6=> ?@8>1@5AB8, 2K?CAB8BL 2 0:20@8C< 8 B0: 8 =5 ?>=OBL, 2 G5< ?@5;5ABL MB8E @K1: ?;020NB A5@>:>@8G=52K5 48A:8, A68<0NB ?;02=8:8 - GB> BCB >A>15==>3>?  8<, GB>1K ?@>45<>=AB@8@>20BL 2A5 A2>5 25;8:>;5?85, =C6=> C2065=85 8 2=8<0=85 A> AB>@>=K 0:20@8C<8AB0. >340 D8>;5B>2>5 :065BAO 15;K<  1860 3>4C 87 40;5:>9 =488 ?@8257;8 2 2@>?C 10=>G:C A =51>;LH8<8 70A?8@B>20==K<8 @K1:0<8. K1:8 >:070;8AL =58725AB=K<8, 8 ?>A;5 >?@545;5==KE 8AA;54>20=88 CG5=K5 ?@8H;8 : 2K2>4C, GB> >=8 >B=>AOBAO : @>4C Danio. 770 ?@>E>4OI59 ?> B5;C 15;>9 ?>;>AK 8< 40;8 284>2>5 =0720=85 albolineatus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anichthys albonubes, 8 2 MB8E A;>20E >B@078;0AL 2AO 8AB>@8O @K1:8. !;>2> tanichthys >7=0G05B @K10 "0=0 (ichthys - @K10), albonubes - A 5;KE 3>@. B0:, <K 2E>48< 2 >1H8@=59H55 F0@AB2> :0@?>2KE @K1. !5<59AB2> :0@?>2KE >G5=L 25;8:>, 8, 5AB5AB25==>, 2 0:20@8C<0E ;N18B5;59 2A53> <8@0 ?@54AB028B5;8 53> 70=8<0NB 4>AB>9=>5 <5AB>. K C65 ?>7=0:><8;8AL A >4=8< 87 284>2 40=8>, => 2 2@>?C ?5@2>9 1K;0 22575=0 4@C30O @K1:0 MB>3> @>40. I5 2 1822 3>4C 7>>;>38 >?8A0;8 40=8> @5@8> - =51>;LHCN 4;8==5=L:CN @K1:C B5<=>:>@8G=52>3> F25B0 A G5BK@L<O 7>;>BK<8 1;5ABOI8<8 ?>;>A0<8 24>;L B5;0 8 E2>AB>2>3> ?;02=8:0. @0240, =0 ?5@2K9 273;O4 :065BAO, GB> 2A5 =0>1>@>B - ?> 7>;>B><C D>=C 84CB B5<=K5 ?>;>AK. > MB> >1<0= 7@5=8O. @0A820O N@:0O @K1:0 ?>?0;0 2 0:20@8C< 2 70E 3>40E ?@>H;>3> 25:0 8 A B5E ?>@ ?>;L7C5BAO ;N1>2LN =0BC@0;8AB>2. 51@0@K10 - =07K20NB 55 8=>340, 751@8G:0 - =56=> 3>2>@OB G5E8. 10 >?8A0==KE 2840 >1@07CNB 3@C??C B0: =07K205<KE :>@>B:8E 40=8>, 8 ?>MB><C =0CG=>5 =0720=85 MB>3> @>40 Brachydanio (brachy - :>@>B:89). !0<> A;>2> 40=8> ?@8H;> : =0< 87 B5E <5AB, 345 >18B0NB @K1:8, >=> >7=0G05B @K1:0@8A8=:0. # 4@C38E =0@>4>2 .3>>AB>G=>9 788 MB0 @K1:0 =07K205BAO @5@8>. BAN40 8 =0CG=>5 =0720=85 2840 - Brachydanio rerio. 0@O4C A =5A:>;L:8<8 2840<8 Brachydanio 2AB@5G0NBAO 8 1>;55 :@C?=K5 40=8>: >=8 8<5NB 1>;LH55 G8A;> ;CG59 2 A?8==>< 8 0=0;L=>< ?;02=8:0E. A;8 751@8G:0 8<55B 4;8=C 2A53> 5 A0=B8<5B@>2, B> G0AB> 2AB@5G0NI89AO 2 0:20@8C<0E 40=8> <0;010@A:89 (Danio aequipinnatus, AB0@>5 =0720=85 - D. malabaricus) 4>AB8305B 12 A0=B8<5B@>2. @54AB028B5;8 >1>8E @>4>2 E>@>H> ?@868;8AL 2 0:20@8C<0E, 345 8E AB0;8 CA?5H=> @072>48BL.  2>B BCBB> 0:20@8C<8ABK AB>;:=C;8AL A =5>6840==>9 ?@>1;5<>9. 0=8> <5B0;8 8:@C 8 BCB 65 604=> 55 ?>540;8! >G5<C? 0 MB>B 2>?@>A 4> A8E ?>@ =5B OA=>3> >B25B0. >6=> B>;L:> 4>304K20BLAO > ?@8G8=0E MB>3> AB@0==>3> O2;5=8O. 0: 40=8> <5GCB 8:@C 2 ?@8@>45? $>@<0 B5;0 MB8E @K1 ?>4A:07K205B =0<, GB> >=8 ?@5:@0A=K5 ?;>2FK. 59AB28B5;L=>, ?;020NB >=8 ?@52>AE>4=>, <>3CB 45;0BL <>;=85=>A=K5 A:0G:8 8 4065 70 ?@545;K 2>4K. 4=064K C <5=O 87 0:20@8C<0 2KA:>G8; 40=8> <0;010@A:89 8 ?@>;5B5; ?> 2>74CEC >:>;> 42CE <5B@>2. 0=8> 45@60BAO AB09:0<8 8 682CB 2 ?@>B>G=KE 2>40E. :@C <5GCB B>65 =0 B5G5=88, ?@8G5< F5;>9 AB09:>9. !0<:0 =5A5BAO 2?5@54 ?@>B82 B5G5=8O, 0 A0<FK 3@C??>9 A;54CNB 70 =59. 5A:>;L:> A0<F>2 =C6=K 4;O B>3>, GB>1K 1K;> 4>AB0B>G=>5 :>;8G5AB2> <>;>: 4;O 1KAB@>3> >?;>4>B2>@5=8O C=>A8<KE B5G5=85< 8:@8=>:. >A:>;L:C =5@5AB ?@>8AE>48B ?@8 1KAB@>< 42865=88 40 5I5 =0 B5G5=88, ?@>B82 :>B>@>3> ?;K2CB @K1:8, 8:@0 A@07C 8AG5705B 87 ?>;O 7@5=8O ?@>872>48B5;59. 0=8> =8:>340 =5 284OB A2>N 8:@C. =>5 45;> 2 B5A=>< =51>;LH>< 0:20@8C<5, 345 2 =5@5AB5 CG0AB2C5B 3=574> 40=8> (3=574>< =07K20NB A>G5B0=85 @K1 @07=KE ?>;>2, =C6=>5 4;O =5@5AB0; 2 40==>< A;CG05 - 420 A0<F0 8 >4=0 A0<:0). K1:8 2 0:20@8C<5 <5GCBAO 2>;G:>< ?> :@C3C, @071@0AK20O ?>2AN4C 8:@C. >340 >=0 ?>?0405B 2 ?>;5 8E 7@5=8O, @5D;5:A ?>;>2>3> 2>71C645=8O A<5=O5BAO C =8E @5D;5:A>< E20B0=8O: 2>7<>6=>, >18;L=> ?040NI0O 8:@0 :065BAO @K10< :>@<><. 0==810;87<, B> 5ABL ?>540=85 A2>53> ?>B><AB20, ?@>8AE>48B BCB G8AB> A;CG09=>. AK?LB5 2 0:20@8C< A 40=8>, B>;L:> =0G02H8<8 1@0G=K5 83@K, <0==CN :@C?C, 8 >=8 B>G=> B0: 65 :8=CBAO 55 E20B0BL. K42830NBAO 8 4@C385 ?@54?>;>65=8O, => 2A5 >=8 A2>4OBAO : B><C, GB> CA;>28O =5@5AB0 =5 A>>B25BAB2CNB ?@8@>4=K<.  1;03>?@8OB=KE 4;O @K1 CA;>28OE =8:0:>3> :0==810;87<0 =5 ?@>8AE>48B. A?><8=0N 2 A2O78 A MB8< 8AB>@8N A B0: =07K205<K< G5@=K< 10@1CA><. -B0 @K1:0 1K;0 :>340B> @54:>ABLN, 8 <=5 A;CG09=> C40;>AL 4>AB0BL ?0@C. / 45@60; 8E 2 A>2A5< =51>;LH>9, 45AOB8;8B@>2>9, 10=:5, ?>AB02;5==>9 =0 ?8AL<5==K9 AB>; 240;8 >B >:=0. 04 10=:>9 1K;0 70:@5?;5=0 ;0<?0, 8 ?>25@E=>ABL 2>4K 1K;0 70BO=CB0 B>;ABK< A;>5< ?;020NI8E @0AB5=89. >MB><C 2=CB@8 1K; ?>AB>O==K9 AC<@0:, 0 4=> 1K;> 3CAB> CA5O=> >AB0B:0<8 >B<5@H8E ;8ABL52.  2>B 2 MB8E CA;>28OE ?@8 B5<?5@0BC@5 28 ! 10@1CAK 2K<5B0;8 8:@C. >A;5 =5@5AB0, ?>B5@O2 1@0G=CN >:@0A:C, @K1:8 >?CAB8;8AL =0 4=> 8 4065 =5 ?>4C<0;8 5ABL 8:@C, :>B>@>9 1K;0 CA5O=0 2AO 10=:0. / ?5@5A048; 10@1CA>2 2 0:20@8C< =0 >:=5.  =5< 1K;> <=>3> @0AB5=89. 0@1CAK A=>20 AB0;8 <5B0BL 8:@C, => BCB 65 55 ?>540;8. 8HL :>340 <0;L:8 87 ?5@2>3> 2K2>4:0 ?>4@>A;8 8 8E <>6=> 1K;> >B;>28BL 87 10=:8, O ?5@5A048; 10@1CA>2 =0 AB0@>5 <5AB>. =8 A=>20 >B=5@5AB8;8AL. @8 MB>< A0<:0 1K;0 C65 4@C3>9, => @57C;LB0B >:070;AO B>B 65 - @K1:8 =5 >1@0I0;8 2=8<0=8O =0 8:@C =8 2> 2@5<O =5@5AB0, =8 ?>A;5 =53>. 1JOA=O5BAO MB> B5<, GB> 4;O G5@=KE 10@1CA>2, >18B0B5;59 AC<@0G=KE C3>;:>2 2>4>5<>2, O@:> >A25I5==K9 0:20@8C< =5 ?>4E>48B. /2;5=8O :0==810;87<0 2AB@5G0NBAO C <=>38E @K1, 8 MB> 4>;6=> 1KBL A83=0;>< 4;O 0:20@8C<8AB0: 7=0G8B, =5 A>1;N45=K =5>1E>48<K5 CA;>28O. '0AB>, 8A?@0282 ?>;>65=85, C405BAO 4>18BLAO ?>;>68B5;L=KE @57C;LB0B>2. @0240, : 40=8> 8 1>;LH8=AB2C 10@1CA>2 MB> =5 >B=>A8BAO - 2 0:20@8C<5 >=8, :0: ?@028;>, 2A5340 AB@5<OBAO C=8GB>68BL A2>N 8:@C. #AB@0820BL 3@><04=K5 ?> ?;>I048 0:20@8C<K 4;O =5@5AB0 =5F5;5A>>1@07=>, 8 0:20@8C<8ABK >1<0=K20NB @K1 8=K< ?CB5<. 81> >48= C3>; 0:20@8C<0 3CAB> 70A06820NB <5;:>;8AB=K<8 @0AB5=8O<8, 2 :>B>@KE CF5;55B G0ABL 8:@K; ;81> MB8 @0AB5=8O (0 70 =58<5=85< 8E - 20BC) ?@868<0NB :0<5H:0<8 ?> 2A5<C 4=C; ;81> >?CA:0NB 2 0:20@8C< A?5F80;L=CN, @02=CN ?;>I048 4=0 @5H5B:C 87 AB5:;O==KE B@C1>G5:, @07<5AB82 55 =0 @0AAB>O=88 5 A0=B8<5B@>2 >B 4=0. :@0 ?@>20;8205BAO A:2>7L @5H5B:C 8 AB0=>28BAO =54>ABC?=>9 @K10<. > <K 703>2>@8;8 > 10@1CA0E. Barbus - >48= 87 <=>3>G8A;5==KE @>4>2 :0@?>2KE; 2 =5< 4> =5402=53> 2@5<5=8 =0AG8BK20;>AL 4> 300 284>2. 0@1CAK H8@>:> @0A?@>AB@0=5=K 2 2@>?5, 788 8 D@8:5 - 2 <5AB0E A C<5@5==K< 8 B@>?8G5A:8< :;8<0B><, 2 B>< G8A;5 8 2 =0H8E @5:0E, 2?040NI8E 2 N6=K5 <>@O. -B8 @K1:8 =5 B0:85 E>@>H85 ?;>2FK, :0: 40=8>, 8 ?@54?>G8B0NB AB>OGCN 2>4C. >MB><C 8 2 0:20@8C<0E >=8 =5 ;N1OB ?@>B>G=>9 A25659 2>4K 8 ?@54?>G8B0NB ;8HL 87@54:0 >1=>2;O5<CN AB0@CN 2>4C.  ;N18B5;LA:8E 0:20@8C<0E 2AB@5G05BAO 1>;55 50 284>2 10@1CA>2 87 B@>?8:>2 788 8 D@8:8. 48= 87 =081>;55 :@0A82KE - . nigrofasciatus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tetrazona) - ;N18B5;8 A>;=5G=>3> A25B0.  0:20@8C<0E 2AB@5G05BAO ?OBL @07=>284=>AB59 MB8E >@838=0;L=> >:@0H5==KE @K1, 0 B0:65 381@84K. AO 8E :@0A>B0 - 2 :>=B@0AB5 7>;>B>3> 8;8 28H=52>3> D>=0 A H8@>:8<8 G5@=K<8 ?>?5@5G=K<8 ?>;>A0<8 8 :@0A=K< :0=B>< ?;02=8:>2. N1>2LN 0:20@8C<8AB>2 ?>;L7CNBAO O@:>:@0A=K9 >3=5==K9 10@1CA (. conchonius), 7>;>B>9 A G5@=K<8 :@0?8=:0<8 10@1CA (C15@B0 (. schuberti), 28H=52K9 10@1CA (. titteya) 8 <=>385 4@C385. >?C;O@=K 8 87OI=K5 :0@?>2K5 @K1:8 @0A1>@K. E 8725AB=> >:>;> 30 284>2, => =081>;LHCN ?>?C;O@=>ABL ?@8>1@5;0 @0A1>@0 35B5@><>@D0 (Rasbora heteromorpha), GB> >7=0G05B A 8=K< :>@?CA><.  A0<>< 45;5, B5;> 55 H8@5, G5< C 4@C38E @0A1>@, 8 ?@8 273;O45 A1>:C =0?><8=05B @><1. 5@54=OO G0ABL :>@?CA0 ?5@5;8205BAO 75;5=K<, >@0=652K< 8 :@0A=K< F25B0<8, 0 =0 704=59 @0A?>;>65= O@:89 G5@=K9 B@5C3>;L=8: A 25@H8=>9 : E2>ABC; ?;02=8:8 @K1:8 A25@:0NB :@0A=K<. 0=LH5 MBC @0A1>@C @072>48;8 A B@C4><, => ?>B>< ?>4>1@0;8 4;O CA?5H=>3> =5@5AB0 ?>4E>4OI85 CA;>28O. >482H85AO 2 0:20@8C<=KE CA;>28OE @K1:8 ;53:> @072>4OBAO 2 <O3:>9 A;01>:8A;>9, ?> 2>7<>6=>AB8 ;8H5==>9 10:B5@80;L=>9 A@54K 2>45. !B09:8 @0A1>@ B5?5@L C65 AB0;8 >1KG=K< C:@0H5=85< 0:20@8C<0. ! 3>40<8 2 ;N18B5;LA:8E 0:20@8C<0E ?>O2;ONBAO 2A5 =>2K5 8 =>2K5 :0@?>2K5 @K1K. G5=L MDD5:B5= A>25@H5==> G5@=K9 A >@0=652>:@0A=K< E2>AB>< ;015> 42CEF25B=K9 (Labeo bicolor). I5 8=B5@5A=55, ?><>5<C, ;015> 75;5=K9 (L. frenatus) - B5;> 53> 87C<@C4=>75;5=>5, 0 ?;02=8:8, >A>15==> E2>AB>2>9, O@:>?C=F>2K5. AB@5G05BAO 8 0;L18=>A 75;5=>3> ;015> A @>7>20B>15;K< B5;>< 8 ?C=F>2K<8 ?;02=8:0<8. # B08;0=4A:>3> @>4AB25==8:0 ;015> - <>@C;8CA0 (Morulius chrysophekadion) >:@0A:0 10@E0B=>G5@=0O. > 8=B5@5A5= >= 4@C38<: MB0 @K1:0 ;N18B 75;5=K5 2>4>@>A;8 8 >E>B=> A>A:@51K205B 8E A ;8ABL52 @0AB5=88 8 AB5=>: 0:20@8C<0. I5 1>;LH89 ;N18B5;L 2>4>@>A;59 - 3>ABL A >AB@>20 !C<0B@0 8 0;8<0=B0= Epalzeorhynchus kallopterus. # MB>9 AB@>9=>9 8 4;8==>9 @K1:8 65;B>:>@8G=520O A?8=:0, =0 1>:0E - ?> H8@>:>9 ?@>4>;L=>9 B5<=>9 ?>;>A5 A C7:>9 7>;>B8AB>9 :09<>9. :20@8C<8AB0< 8725AB5= 8 4@C3>9 284 MB>3> @>40 - . siamensis.  0:20@8C<5, 345 682CB :0;;>?B5@CAK, 2A5340 8450;L=0O G8AB>B0 - @K1:8 =5 40NB @07@0AB8AL 2>4>@>A;O<. 07 C6 <K 703>2>@8;8 > 2>4>@>A;5540E (?>=0CG=><C - 0;L3>D030E), =C6=> @0AA:070BL > 42CE 8=B5@5A=59H8E @K1:0E - 48A:>3=0B5 8 38@8=>E59;5. 8A:>3=0B (Discognathichthys rossicus) >18B05B 2 1KAB@KE @5G:0E "C@:<5=8AB0=0.  605 3>4K 8725AB=K9 8EB8>;>3 87 HE01040 .;852 ?@54;>68; 8A?>;L7>20BL 55 2 ;N18B5;LA:8E 0:20@8C<0E. !2>5>1@0785 MB>9 =51>;LH>9 (4> 15 A0=B8<5B@>2) AB@>9=>9 @K1:8, >:@0H5==>9 2 A5@>75;5=K9 A 1@>=7>2K< >BB5=:>< F25B, 70:;NG05BAO 2 B><, GB> 55 3C1K ?@52@0B8;8AL 2 48A:8 A @>3>2K<8 =0@>AB0<87C1G8:0<8.  5AB5AB25==KE CA;>28OE 48A:8 <>3CB @01>B0BL :0: ?@8A>A:8, 1;03>40@O G5<C @K1:C =5 A=>A8B 2>4>9. >, :0: >:070;>AL, 48A:>3=0BK, 682CI85 =0 1KAB@>< B5G5=88, 4>2>;L=> E>@>H> 040?B8@CNBAO : CA;>28O< ;N18B5;LA:>3> 0:20@8C<0.  ?>;L70 >B =8E =5A><=5==0O: >=8 ?>AB>O==> 70=OBK G8AB:>9 AB5=>: 2>4>5<0, ;8ABL52 @0AB5=89, :0<5H:>2 =0 3@C=B5, A>A:@51K20O A =8E 2>4>@>A;52K5 >1@0AB0=8O. >A:28G ..C@689 >A2>8; @072545=85 48A:>3=0B>2. 5@5ABOBAO >=8 >:>;> ?>25@E=>AB8, 3=574> A>AB>8B 87 A0<:8 8 42CE A0<F>2. 5@5AB ?@>B5:05B =0AB>;L:> 1C@=>, GB> @K1:8 <>3CB 2KA:>G8BL 87 =5?@8:@KB>3> 0:20@8C<0. 071@>A0==0O ?>2AN4C 8:@0 B>=5B, 70B5< 55 >1>;>G:0 @071CE05B, 8 >=0 ?>4=8<05BAO : ?>25@E=>AB8. '5@57 ACB:8 2K:;52K20NBAO ;8G8=:8. 0 B@5B89 45=L >=8 =0G8=0NB 0:B82=> ?8B0BLAO, ?@8G5< 2K:0@<;820BL 8E <>6=> =5 B>;L:> 682K<8, => 8 ACE8<8 :>=F5=B@8@>20==K<8 :>@<0<8 4;O 0:20@8C<=KE @K1.  ?>2545=88 48A:>3=0B>2 5ABL 425 >A>15==>AB8, =0 :>B>@KE =5;L7O =5 >AB0=>28BLAO. 5@20O: A>A:@51K20=85 2>4>@>A;59 >=8 254CB ?>AB>O==>, =>& > 5A;8 2 0:20@8C<5 5ABL 87;8H=5 ;N1>?KB=K5, 0 B> 8 03@5AA82=K5 @K1K, >=8 =0G8=0NB <5H0BL. 5;> 2 B><, GB> 42865=8O 48A:>3=0B0 2K7K20NB 8=B5@5A C :@C?=KE @K1. 5 8A:;NG5=>, GB> >= =0?><8=05B 1LNICNAO 2 A5BOE 8;8 @0=5=CN @K1C. # =5:>B>@KE @K1 ?>4>1=K5 42865=8O 8 A>?@>2>640NI0O 8E @01>B0 ?;02=8:>2 2K7K20NB >B=N4L =5 <8;>A5@4=>5 GC2AB2>, 8 >=8 AB@5<OBAO F0?=CBL 48A:>3=0B0 70 E2>AB. C @07, 420, B@8 F0?=CB, 8 2 :>=F5 :>=F>2 48A:>3=0B B5@O5B 8=B5@5A : A2>5<C @8A:>20==><C 70=OB8N 8 ?5@5E>48B 8A:;NG8B5;L=> =0 >1KG=K5 :>@<0, :>B>@K<8 ?8B0NBAO 4@C385 @K1K 2 0:20@8C<5. !?>A>1=>ABL MB>9 @K1:8 ?>B@51;OBL 682K5 :>@<0 A2845B5;LAB2C5B > B><, GB> 48A:>3=0BK 5I5 =5 AB0;8 ?>;=>ABLN 0;L3>D030<8. 1 MB>< 65, ?><>5<C, A2845B5;LAB2C5B 8 2B>@0O >A>15==>ABL 48A:>3=0B0, :>B>@0O, =04> A:070BL, 25AL<0 <5=O >7040G8205B - MB0 @K10 @01>B05B A 2>4>@>A;O<8 2 AB05. !8BC0F8O A>25@H5==> ?0@04>:A0;L=0O, 81> 2A5 0;L3>D038 - 8 M?0;LF5>@8=ECA, 8 <>@C;8CA, 8 ;015> - 459AB2CNB B>;L:> 2 >48=>G:C 8 <564C A>1>9 =5 ;04OB. '5< >1JOA=O5BAO B0:>5 =54@C65;N185, 2K ?>9<5B5 87 @0AA:070 > A;54CNI59 @K1:5. >:0 65 <>3C A:070BL, GB> AB09=0O @01>B0 48A:>3=0B>2 <>65B 1KBL >1JOA=5=0 B>;L:> B5<, GB> >=8 5I5 =5 AD>@<8@>20;8AL :0: ?>4;8==K5 0;L3>D038 8 ?>:0 =0E>4OBAO =0 ?CB8 : B0:>9 A?5F80;870F88. 4=064K 2A5 B>B 65 =5CB><8<K9 ..(0H8= ?@8257 87 70@C156=>9 :><0=48@>2:8 G5BK@5E 38@8=>E59;>2 - @K1>: 87 1;87:>3> : :0@?>2K< A5<59AB20 8@8=>E59;>2K5 (Gyrinocheilidae). 0AA:07>2 E20B8;> =0 F5;K9 25G5@. >MB><C @K1 O ?CAB8; 2 >48= 87 A2>8E 0:20@8C<>2, A B5< GB>1K CB@>< 8E @0AA048BL ?> >4=>9. 7 :=83 O 7=0;, GB> 38@8=>E59;K - ;N18B5;8 2>4>@>A;59 8 >G5=L =5 ;04OB 4@C3 A 4@C3><.  CB@>< O 2AB0;, ?>4>H5; : 0:20@8C<C, :C40 2G5@0 ?CAB8; 3>AB59 87 "08;0=40&  0:20@8C<5 ?;020;0 B>;L:> >4=0, A0<0O :@C?=0O @K1:0.  B@8 <5@B2K5 ;560;8 =0 4=5. =8 5I5 =5 ?>B5@O;8 >:@0A:8 8, >G5284=>, 1K;8 C18BK A>2A5< =5402=>, =0 @0AA25B5. 'B> 65 MB> 70 @K1:0 B0:0O - 157>184=>5 2>4>@>A;5O4=>5 ACI5AB2> 8;8 65AB>:89 E8I=8:? !@548 A>2@5<5==KE O@:8E, :@0A>G=KE >18B0B5;59 0:20@8C<>2 38@8=>E59; (Gyrinocheilus aymonieri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ncistrus dolichopterus). 3> 4KE0=85 8 B>: 2>4K <>6=> =01;N40BL, :>340 >= ?@8A0AK205BAO 3C10<8 : AB5:;C 0:20@8C<0. > 0=F8AB@CA, :0: 8 48A:>3=0B, =5 F5;8:>< A?5F80;878@>20= =0 ?8B0=88 >1@0AB0=8O<8, >= >E>B=> 5AB <>BK;O, <>65B 4065 703;>B=CBL :CA>G5: <OA0.  C 48A:>3=0B0 3C1KB5@:8 =5 >1@07CNB ?>;=>3> 48A:0. =>5 45;> 38@8=>E59; - >= AB@>3> A?5F80;878@>20= =0 ?8B0=88 2>4>@>A;O<8. @0240, >= B>65 <>65B AE20B8BL :CA>G5: <OA0, => ?>A:@515B 53> A=0@C68 8 >B1@>A8B, 3;>B0BL =5 AB0=5B: C7:0O A?5F80;870F8O =0 <O3:85 2>4>@>A;8 ?@825;0 : =5>1@0B8<K< 87<5=5=8O< 2 AB@>5=88 MB>9 @K1K. >B ?@52@0B8;AO 2 B@C1>G:C 2 F5=B@5 48A:>284=>9 ?@8A>A:8. ;>B>G=K5 7C1K, :>B>@K<8 ?>402;ONI55 1>;LH8=AB2> @K1 @07402;8205B, @073@K705B 4>1KGC, 8AG57;8, 3;>B>G=K5 :>AB8 =54>@0728BK, ?>MB><C B25@4K5 :CA>G:8 @K10 703;0BK20BL =5 <>65B. 8A:>284=0O B5@:0 2A5 2@5<O 2 @01>B5 - @K10 A:>1;8B ?>25@E=>ABL :0<=59, @0AB5=89, AB5:;0 0:20@8C<0. =>340 >=0 >B4KE05B - ?@8A0AK205BAO 48A:><@B>< : @0AB5=8O<, : AB5:;C. >B ?>G5<C 0:20@8C<8ABK 7>2CB 55 ?@8A>A:>9. A;8 >AB>@>6=> ?@83;O45BLAO : 48A:C?@8A>A:5 28AOI59 =0 AB5=:5 0:20@8C<0 ?C3;82>9 @K1:8, 284=>, GB> 25AL 48A:, :0: 8 4>;6=> 1KBL C ?@8A>A:8, ?;>B=> ?@860B : AB5:;C. 564C B5< 6015@=K5 :@KH:8 C @K1:8 1KAB@> 4286CBAO, 7=0G8B, >=0 4KH8B, 3>=8B B>: 2>4K G5@57 601@K. B:C40 65 ?>ABC?05B 2>40? /2=> =5 G5@57 @>B - 254L C3;>2KE ?07>2, :0: C 0=F8AB@CA0 8 48A:>3=0B0, C 38@8=>E59;0 =5B. 59AB28B5;L=>, ?>ABC?;5=85 2>4K G5@57 @>B, :0: C 2A5E 4@C38E @K1, 38@8=>E59;C B>;L:> <5H0;> 1K. -B> 0=F8AB@CA <>65B A515 ?>72>;8BL ?>4>1=CN @>A:>HL - >= A:@515BA:@515B 2>4>@>A;8 8 24@C3 =0BK:05BAO =0 G5@2OG:0. !J5; 53> - 8 AKB, <>6=> ?@5@20BL A>A:@51K20=85. 8@8=>E59;, GB>1K ?@>:>@<8BLAO, 4>;65= A:@5AB8 25AL 45=L - 2>4>@>A;8 =5 1>;L=>B> >18;L=0O ?8I0, 0 703;>B0BL, @076520BL G5@2O:0 5<C =5G5<.  ?@>F5AA5 A?5F80;870F88 =0?@02;5=85 ?>B>:0 2>4K C MB>9 @K1:8 87<5=8;>AL. 01@K C 38@8=>E59;0 @0745;5=K ?5@53>@>4:>9 =0 25@E=NN 8 =86=NN G0AB8, =0 3>;>25 ?>O28;8AL 420 >B25@AB8O - 2E>4 2 :0=0;K, 70A0AK20NI85 2>4C. BO=CB0O 2 MB8 :0=0;K 2>40 ?>ABC?05B 2 3;>B:C, 70B5< 2E>4=>5 >B25@AB85 ?5@5:@K205BAO :>6=>9 ?;5=:>9, 0 ?;5=:0, 70:@K20NI0O =86=NN G0ABL 601@, =0>1>@>B, A68<05BAO. >40 ?@>B0;:8205BAO 2=87, ><K205B 601@K 8 2KE>48B =0@C6C. >A:>;L:C :0=0;K 7=0G8B5;L=> C65, G5< @>B, ?@8B>: 2>4K ?>;CG05BAO =51>;LH>9 8, GB>1K >15A?5G8BL =C6=>5 :>;8G5AB2> :8A;>@>40, 38@8=>E59; 2K=C645= 3=0BL 2>4C >G5=L 1KAB@> - 53> 6015@=K5 :@KH:8 45;0NB 4> 240 4KE0B5;L=KE 42865=89 2 <8=CBC. AA;54>20B5;8 MB>9 @K1:8 A=0G0;0 4C<0;8, GB> >=0 =0 @>48=5 6825B 2 E>;>4=KE, 1>30BKE :8A;>@>4>< @CGLOE A 1KAB@K< B5G5=85<, 0 2 B5?;>9 2>45 0:20@8C<>2 704KE05BAO. :070;>AL, GB> 2KA>:89 B5<? 4KE0=8O 2K720= 4@C38< - :8A;>@>40 MB>9 @K1:5 =04> =5<=>3>, MB> 2A53> ;8HL 8745@6:8 C7:>9 A?5F80;870F88. C<0N, GB> C65 8770 MB8E >A>15==>AB59 38@8=>E59; 70A;C68205B B>3>, GB>1K AG8B0BLAO >4=>9 87 8=B5@5A=59H8E @K1. ABL C =53> 8 5I5 >4=0 AB@0==>ABL - 2 ?>2545=88. B=>H5=8O <564C 682CI8<8 2 2>4>5<5 @K10<8 >4=>3> 2840 <>3CB A:;04K20BLAO ?>@07=><C. -B> 7028A8B >B CA;>289 ACI5AB2>20=8O, :>B>@K5 ?>@>9 1K20NB 25AL<0 =0?@O65==K<8 - =5 E20B05B =0 2A5E @K1 >1J5<0 2>4K 8 @0AB2>@5==>3> 2 =59 :8A;>@>40, <0;> :>@<>2 8 B. ?. >4>@>A;5O4=K5 8 157>184=K5 B>;AB>;>18:8 2 B0:8E A;CG0OE ACI5AB2CNB 70 AG5B =0:>?;5==KE @0=55 70?0A>2; 2K6820NB A8;L=59H85. 081>;55 0:B82=K5 15;K5 0<C@K, :>B>@K5 ?8B0NBAO 2>4=K<8 B@020<8, 2K1@0AK20NBAO =0 15@53 70 ?@81@56=>9 B@02>9; 2K6820NB >?OBLB0:8 B>;L:> A8;L=59H85. # E8I=8:>2, :>340 =5 E20B05B @K165@B2, 2>7=8:05B :0==810;87< - ?>540=85 A515 ?>4>1=KE. !C40:8, =0?@8<5@, C=8GB>682 2A5E AJ54>1=KE @K1 2 70<:=CB>< 2>4>5<5, =0G8=0NB ?>540BL 1>;55 A;01KE 8 <5;:8E A>1@0BL52 8 4065 A>1AB25==CN <>;>4L. 5AB>:89 A?>A>1 2K6820=8O, =5 ?@0240 ;8? > 4;O 1;03>?>;CG8O 2840 2 F5;>< MB8 >B=>H5=8O 25AL<0 ?>;57=K: ?>A;5 A>:@0I5=8O >1I59 G8A;5==>AB8 @K1 =5E20B:0 :>@<>2 1C45B C65 =5 B0: >AB@> >ICI0BLAO. @><5 B>3>, A8;L=K5 @K1K, A>E@0=82 A2>N 687=L, A>E@0=ONB 8 687=5A?>A>1=>ABL 2840 2 40==>< 2>4>5<5 - >=8 404CB 74>@>2>5 ?>B><AB2>. 4=8< A;>2><, :064K9 284 @K1 ?>A2>5<C ?@8A?>A>18;AO : BO65;>9 15A:>@<8F5, A>E@0=OO A0<KE A8;L=KE A2>8E ?@54AB028B5;59. >B 8 =0H <0;5=L:89 38@8=>E59; 35=5B8G5A:8 70?@>3@0<<8@>20= ?@8 =54>AB0B:5 2>4>@>A;59 ?@>3>=OBL A2>8E 1>;55 A;01KE A>1@0BL52, 0 5A;8 >=8 =5 C?;K20NB, 4065 C1820BL 8E. 0: 65 A>25@H05B MB> AB@0H=>5 45;> 157>184=0O 1577C10O @0AB8B5;L=>O4=0O @K1:0? :07K205BAO, <>I=K< B0@0=><, C40@>< A=87C 65AB:8< @K;>< 2 3>@;> :>=:C@5=BC. @8A?>A>1;5==>ABL >@30=87<0 : B5< 8;8 8=K< 459AB28O< - >G5=L B>=:>5 45;>. 070;>AL 1K, =045;8;0 ?@8@>40 38@8=>E59;0 <>I=K< B0@0==K< C40@>< - 8 ?>C18205B >= B5?5@L :CGC @07=KE @K1. 8G53> ?>4>1=>3>. >I=K9 C40@ >= <>65B =0=5AB8 B>;L:> 38@8=>E59;C. A;8 65 ?> >H81:5 =0=>A8B B0:>9 C40@ @K15 4@C3>3> 2840, 0 2 0:20@8C<0E MB> A;CG05BAO, 65@B20 B>;L:> >B;5B8B 2 AB>@>=C: C 1>;LH8=AB20 @K1 2 2>45 E>@>H0O ?;02CG5ABL 1;03>40@O >A>1K< 384@>AB0B8G5A:8< DC=:F8O< ?;020B5;L=>3> ?C7K@O. # 38@8=>E59;>2 ?C7K@L 5ABL, 40 ?;020NB >=8 ?;>E>, BO65;> 8 ?@58<CI5AB25==> ?@O<>;8=59=>,- 2@>45 BO65;>3> A0<>;5B0, B>340 :0: 1>;LH8=AB2> @K1 ?>4>1=K 48@8601;N. 0 B0:>9 A0<>;5B 8 459AB2C5B A> 2A59 A8;K B0@0==K9 C40@. #G5=K5 70<5B8;8, GB> MB>B 65 C40@ <>65B 1KBL A<5@B5;L=K< 8 4;O B0:8E ?;>E8E ?;>2F>2, :0: A><K0=F8AB@CAK,- :>=:C@5=BK 38@8=>E59;>2 ?> A>A:@51K20=8N 2>4>@>A;59. ?@>G5<, 5A;8 0=F8AB@CAK =5 ?>4:0@<;820NBAO 682>B=K<8 :>@<0<8, >=8 B>65 =0G8=0NB C=8GB>60BL 4@C3 4@C30, ?>:0 2 0:20@8C<5 =5 >AB0=5BAO >48= A8;L=59H89. A5340 ;8 38@8=>E59;K AB@5<OBAO C1820BL A515 ?>4>1=KE? !>2A5< =5B! >B 2 <03078=5 AB>8B 0:20@8C< 157 3@C=B0, :0<=59 8 @0AB5=89 - 82 =5< <5GCBAO =5A:>;L:> 45AOB:>2 702575==KE 87 "08;0=40 <>;>4KE @K1 (;N18B5;8 0:20@8C<0 4> 1982 3>40 =5 C<5;8 8E @072>48BL). 1@0AB0=8O =0 AB5=:0E 0:20@8C<0 402=> C=8GB>65=K, =>2K5 5I5 =5 =0@>A;8, 5ABL 38@8=>E59;0< =5G53>, 682>BK 2BO=CBK, :065BAO, >B=>H5=8O <564C =8<8 =0?@O65=K 4> ?@545;0, 0 2>B =5B, =5 C1820NB 4@C3 4@C30. 'C2AB2CNB, 2848<>, GB> >=8 2 =52>;5, 2 =5?@82KG=KE CA;>28OE. ;8 2 ?;>E> >A25I5==><, 70@>AH5< 2>4>@>A;O<8 0:20@8C<5 A> <=>65AB2>< C:@KB89 682CB =5A:>;L:> 38@8=>E59;>2, 8=>340, ?@0240, 3>=ONBAO 4@C3 70 4@C3><, => =5 C1820NB 65! > ?>A048B5 B@8G5BK@5 @K1:8 2 G8ABK9, A25B;K9, A 75;5=K<8 @0AB5=8O<8 2>4>5<, =0?><8=0NI89 8< 2>4>5<K 8E @>48=K,- 8 G5@57 45=L420 >AB0=5BAO B>;L:> >4=0 - A8;L=59H0O!  G5< 45;>? #G5=K< ?@8H;>AL ?>;><0BL 3>;>2C.  2>B GB> 2KOA=8;>AL. 0 @>48=5 38@8=>E59;K 682CB 2 E>@>H> >A25I5==KE @CGLOE 8 @5:0E. 0 :064CN 27@>A;CN @K1:C (4;8=>9 >B 10 4> 22 A0=B8<5B@>2) ?@8E>48BAO ?@8<5@=> 2 :204@0B=KE <5B@0 ?;>I048 2>4>5<0. -B> 55 A>1AB25==K9 >3>@>4, 8;8, :0: <K C65 7=05< 87 687=8 F8E;84, 55 @528@, <5AB> ACI5AB2>20=8O. @8 E>@>H5< >A25I5=88 A:>@>ABL =0@0AB0=8O 2>4>@>A;59 2 B0:>< >3>@>45 @02=0 A:>@>AB8 55 A>A:@51K20=8O >4=8< 38@8=>E59;><. !1>@ C@>60O 4@C3>9 @K1:>9 =0@CH05B B0:CN A8=E@>==>ABL, 2545B : =0?@O65==K< ?8I52K< >B=>H5=8O<. >MB><C 2 ?@>3@0<<5 ?>2545=8O E>7O8=0 >3>@>40 70;>65=> ?@028;>: 2A5E 3>AB59 3=0BL ?@>GL. 5;05B >= MB>, :0: 8 F8E;84K, @07=K<8 A?>A>10<8, 2 B>< G8A;5 =5A8;L=K<8 ?@54C?@548B5;L=K<8 C40@0<8. A;8 3>ABL A;0155 E>7O8=0, 40 5I5 7=05B, GB> 701@0;AO 2 GC6>9 >3>@>4, >= 1KAB@> C48@05B. K205B, ?@0240, GB> A;01K< >:07K205BAO E>7O8=, B>340 >= ?>:8405B A2>9 CG0AB>:.  2 0:20@8C<5 C?;KBL =5:C40, 8 ?>A;5 ?@54C?@5645=8O :>=:C@5=BK 2K=C645=K ?;020BL @O4><. ">340 =0ABC?05B 2B>@0O D070 1>@L1K: 420B@8 C40@0 ?>A8;L=55 - 8 1>;55 A;010O @K1:0 381=5B& ><=8B5 @528@=K5 >B=>H5=8O C F8E;84? "0< 254L B0 65 A8BC0F8O - 8770 =5?@028;L=KE CA;>289 A>45@60=8O G5;>25: ?@52@0I05B @K1 2 =52>;L=KE C189F. 5 1C45< 2A5 65 70:0=G820BL 3;02C =0 B0:>9 ?5G0;L=>9 =>B5. 8@8=>E59;K - 70102=K5 8 ?>;57=K5 >18B0B5;8 0:20@8C<0 8, 5A;8 8E A>45@60BL ?>>48=>G:5, 4>AB02OB 0:20@8C<8ABC B>;L:> C4>2>;LAB285. 025@H0O @0AA:07 > :0@?>2KE 8 @>4AB25==KE 8< 38@8=>E59;>2KE, =5 <>3C =5 A:070BL > 4>AB865=8OE 0:20@8C<8AB>2, 70=8<0NI8EAO A5;5:F8>==>9 @01>B>9. ;03>40@O 8E CA8;8O< ?>O28;8AL 2C0;52K5 40=8>, :0@48=0;K, 10@1CA :>=E>=8CA.  >B MB>3> 10@1CA0 8 10@1CA0 AC<0B@0=A:>3> 2K2545=K 7>;>B0O 8 15;0O D>@<K A :@0A=K<8 ?;02=8:0<8. >;CG5=K 8 4@C385 10@1CAK<CB0=BK. 04> 4C<0BL, GB> 8 2 40;L=59H5< A5<LO B@>?8G5A:8E :0@?>2KE 1C45B @04>20BL ;N18B5;59. !;57K ?@5:@0A=>9 "0> /= 20= 815:AB@0B AG8B0; A51O A0<K< =5C40G;82K< 8 A0<K< =5AG0AB=K< G5;>25:>< 2 <8@5: :0:85 1K B>@3>2K5 45;0 =8 =0G8=0; >= =0 @>48=5, 2 845@;0=40E, 2A5 :>=G0;>AL ?>;=K< ?@>20;><. >4=>9 3>@>4 =B25@?5= @>A :0: =0 4@>660E, B> BCB, B> B0< ?>O2;O;8AL >A>1=O:8 8 B>@3>2K5 4><0 - MB> 1>30B5;8 53> 4@C7LO 8 A>B>20@8I8 ?> B>@3>2;5.  >=?  3020=8 =B25@?5=0 5654=52=> @073@C60;>AL 1>;55 200 :>@01;59, BKAOG8 C7;>2 A 52@>?59A:8<8 B:0=O<8 C?;K20;8 70 >:50=, 0 >BBC40, 87 70<>@A:8E :>;>=89, ?>B>:>< B5:;8 A>B=8 BKAOG <5H:>2 A :>D5, G05<, ?@O=>ABO<8. /= ?>?@>1>20; 1K;> @071>30B5BL =0 ?5@5?@>4065 :>@8FK. > 8 745AL 53> ?>AB83;0 =5C40G0, >= =5 2K45@60; :>=:C@5=F88 A> AB0@K< 4@C3>< 45BAB20 %5;L<CB>< 20= <<5.  B>340 /= @5H8;AO: >= A5; =0 >48= 87 :>@01;59 8 C5E0; 70 >:50=, =0 40;5:85 0780BA:85 >AB@>20 @O=>AB59 ($8;8??8=A:85 >AB@>20).  GB> 65? & 815:AB@0B C=K;> BO=5B ?82> 8 <@0G=> ?>3;O4K205B =0 B5<=K5 704K<;5==K5 AB5=K B025@=K. 04>20BLAO =5G5<C. >B C65 45AOBL ;5B >= 745AL, 0 1>30BAB20 2A5 =5B 8 =5B. %>BL 1K A;CG09 :0:>9 ?>425@=C;AO& >B, =0?@8<5@, 5<C ?@54;030NB 4;O ?@>4068 H:C@C =52840==>3> 4@0:>=0, ?>9<0==>3> 2 8B05, B>GL2B>GL B0:>3>, :0:8E @8ACNB :8B09A:85 EC4>6=8:8 =0 H5;:>2KE :>2@8:0E. > 1>;LH5 2A53> >= E>B5; 1K @074>1KBL B5E =52840==KE @K1, :>B>@KE =5402=> 2845; =0 2075, :C?;5==>9 :C?F>< /:>1>< %>;L35. 070 1K;0 25;8:>;5?=0, =0 =59 @5;L5D=> 87>1@065= ?>42>4=K9 <8@: :>;KHCBAO 8A:CA=> 2K@570==K5 B@02K, A=CNB @07=K5 @K1K, 0 2 F5=B@5 - B@8 :@0A=K5 ?CG53;07K5 @K18=K A 255@>>1@07=K< B@5E;>?0AB=K< ?;02=8:><. %>;L35, =025@=>5, =5<0;> ?>;CG8B 70 MBC 207C 2 =B25@?5=5, 0 <>65B 1KBL, 55 :C?OB 4065 2 >=4>=5. >B 5A;8 1K >=, /= 20= 815:AB@0B, @074>1K; B0:8E 255@>E2>ABKE @K1, >= ?>;CG8; 1K 70 =8E 5I5 1>;LH5, G5< %>;L35 70 207C. > /= C65 =5 <>;>4, ?>4 ?KH=K< 7028BK< ?0@8:>< A:@K205BAO 87@O4=0O ;KA8=0.  >= E>@>H> 7=05B: ?>8A:8 :8B09A:8E 4@0:>=>2 8 =52840==KE @K1 - ?CAB>5 45;>. "@84F0BL ;5B =0704, :>340 2 2@>?C ?@8257;8 ?5@2K5 207K A 87>1@065=8O<8 MB8E 48:>28=, :>5:B> 5I5 ?KB0;AO >BKA:0BL 8E 2 40;5:8E AB@0=0E. > >4=515A=0O <?5@8O =5 2?CA:0;0 : A515 52@>?59A:8E 3>AB59, 0 :8B09A:85 :C?FK =0 $8;8??8=0E 8 2 =4>=5788 B>;L:> C;K10;8AL, :0G0O 3>;>20<8 A 4;8==K<8 :>A0<8: 5B, =5B, 3>A?>48=0, MB> 2A5 D0=B0788 EC4>6=8:>2!  52@>?59FK ?5@5AB0;8 25@8BL 2 MB8 70<>@A:85 GC45A0. 815:AB@0B CAB0;> 2AB05B 8 ?>:8405B B025@=C. !53>4=O 5<C ?@54AB>8B =5?@8OB=>5 45;>: =04> C;><0BL :8B09A:>3> :C?F0 '60= 0>?8=0 A=878BL F5=C =0 ?0@B8N :>@8FK. !B0@8: A5@L57=> 1>;5=, 8 B>;L:> ?>B><C, GB> 45;> =5 B5@?8B >B;030B5;LAB2, :8B05F ?@83;0A8; 815:AB@0B0 ?>15A54>20BL : A515 4><>9. C, E>BL 2 MB>< C40G0,- 3@CAB=> @07<KH;O; /=, H030O ?> ?K;L=>9 C;8F5.- 065BAO, O 1C4C ?5@2K< 52@>?59F5<, ?>A5B82H8< 4>< :8B09A:>3> :C?F0. 5@53>2>@K ?@>E>48;8 O2=> =5C40G=>: AB0@8: =5 CABC?0;.  E>BO /= 1K; 70=OB, >= CA?5; >A<>B@5BLAO 2>:@C3. >< :070;AO C4828B5;L=K< - 10<1C:>2K5 AB5=K, F8=>2:8 =0 ?>;C, 207K 87 B>=G09H53> D0@D>@0, G5@=>3> 8 :@0A=>3> ;0:0& !B0@K9 6C;8: >1>4@0; /=0 :0: ;8?:C, 0 70B5< ?>720; E>@>H5=L:CN 4>G:C: -!O>, =0?>8 4>@>3>3> 3>ABO G05<.  A04C =0 10<1C:>2>< AB>;8:5 ?>4 3CAB>9 B@>?8G5A:>9 75;5=LN AB>O;8 F25B0ABK5 ?80;K A E>;>4=K< :>@8G=52K< =0?8B:><. !O> ?@8A5;0 - 65;B>5 :8<>=> A;>68;>AL A:;04:0<8. /= ?>:;>=8;AO 8 3@C7=> >?CAB8;AO =0 60;>1=> 70B@5I02H89 10<1C:>2K9 ABC;. 3@018;, @071>9=8:,- <@0G=> 4C<0; >=, ?@8E;51K20O B5@?:CN >B2@0B8B5;L=CN 686C.  24@C3& 80;0 A G05< 2KA:>;L7=C;0 87 @C: 3>ABO 8 @07;5B5;0AL =0 :8@?8G=>9 4>@>6:5 A040 =0 <5;LG09H85 >A:>;:8. !B5?5==>5 A?>:>9AB285 :C?F0, :C40 >=> 45;>AL? 5 >1@0I0O 2=8<0=8O =0 87C<;5==CN !O>, >= :8=C;AO : A04>2><C 10AA59=C 8 AB0; ?@8AB0;L=> 23;O4K20BLAO 2 B5<=CN 2>4C. "0<, 2 ?@>E;04=>9 3;C18=5, =5B>@>?;82>, GCBL H525;O ?;02=8:0<8, ?;020;8 B>;ABK5 :@0A=K5 @K1K A ?KH=K<8 B@5E;>?0AB=K<8 ?;02=8:0<8. 55@>E2>ABK? "0: >=8 2A5B0:8 5ABL =0 A0<>< 45;5?  2>B /= A=>20 A848B ?5@54 1>;L=K< '60=><. B:C40 >=8? 5 ?@>40AB ;8 AB0@8: MB8E @K1>:? /= ?>AB@>8B ?@C4 =0 A2>59 28;;5. = 2AN 687=L 8A:0; 255@>E2>AB>2, >= C?;0B8B 70 =8E ;N1K5 45=L38. '60= 4>;3> B5@518B @545=L:CN 1>@>4:C: 5I5 =8 >48= :8B05F =5 >B4020; MB8E @K1 52@>?59FC. > 815:AB@0B ?@54;0305B B0:85 45=L38! 04> ?>4C<0BL& -!O>, @0AA:068 4>@>3><C 3>ABN > @K10E.  452CH:0 @0AA:07K205B ;535=4C. -B> 1K;> 402=K<402=>, 5I5 2A5 ;N48 68;8 2 >4=515A=>9 8 =8:C40 =5 ?;020;8 70 <>@5.  >4=>9 45@52=5 '6M=L<8=L 68;8 N=>H0 N 8 ?@5:@0A=0O, :0: CB@5==OO 70@O, 452CH:0 "0>. =8 :@5?:> ;N18;8 4@C3 4@C30, 8, :070;>AL, =8GB> =0 A25B5 =5 <>3;> @07;CG8BL 8E. > >4=064K =0 >4=515A=CN =0?0;8 2@038.  :;8:=C; :;8G !K= A>;=F08<?5@0B>@: B> 2 A8;0E 45@60BL <5G, :B> <>65B <5B0BL :>?L5 - =0 ?><>IL, A>18@09B5AL : 5;8:>9 AB5=5. >@L:> @K40;0 "0>, ?@>2>60O N =0 2>9=C.  B0<, 345 ?040;8 =0 75<;N 55 A;578=:8, 2K@0AB0;8 ?>4>1=> 70@5 F25BK - @>7K. >;3> 18;8AL AK=K >4=515A=>9, ?>:0 =5 2K3=0;8 2@03>2 70 AB5=C. ">340 AB0;8 2>72@0I0BLAO E@01@K5 2>8=K 4><>9. > N 2A5 =5 ?@8E>48;.  2A:>@5 C7=0;0 "0>, GB> >= >AB0;AO =0 A525@5, 2 D0=75 4@C3>9 452CH:8. @8H;0 >=0 =0 15@53 >75@0, 2>7;5 :>B>@>3> AB>O;0 45@52=O '6M=L<8=L, 8 3>@L:> @07@K40;0AL. !;57K :0?0;8 2 2>4C 8 BCB 65 ?@52@0I0;8AL 2 ?@5:@0A=KE F78N9 - 7>;>BKE @K1>:& -C :0:, AB0@8:, =04C<0; ?@>40BL @K1? -!O>, BK 254L =5 2A5 @0AA:070;0& - 5I5 @0AA:07K20NB ;N48,- A=>20 706C@G0; 3>;>A !O>,- GB> F78N9 C?0;8 : =0< A =510. 0 ?CH8AB>< >1;0:5 A45;0; =515A=K9 F0@L 42>@5F 4;O 4>G5@59 A2>8E. 0:8E B>;L:> GC45A =5 1K;> 2 MB>< 7>;>B>< 42>@F5. > 452CH5: =5 @04>20;> =51>, >=8 2A5 ?>3;O4K20;8 =0 75<;N: 254L ?> 75<;5 E>48;8 B0:85 ?@5:@0A=K5 N=>H8. #7=0; >1 MB>< =515A=K9 F0@L, @0AA5@48;AO 8 @5H8; =0:070BL 4>G5@59. #40@8; >= @07 2 10@010= - 8 42>@5F ?@52@0B8;AO 2 >75@>, C40@8; 2B>@>9 @07 - 8 4>G5@8 AB0;8 ?@5:@0A=K<8 F78N9. "5?5@L F0@L 1K; A?>:>5= - 4>G5@8 68;8 =0 =515A=>< >1;0:5 8 =5 <>3;8 2845BL 75<;N. > >4=064K @K1:8 B0: @07K3@0;8AL, GB> >4=0 87 =8E 2KA:>G8;0 87 2>4>5<0. 9,- 2A:@8:=C;0 >=0,- O 286C 75<;N, 8 :0: 65 >=0 ?@5:@0A=0!  ?@K3=C;0 2=87.  2A;54 70 =59 2 75<=>5 >75@> ?>?@K30;8 8 >AB0;L=K5& -C :0:, AB0@8:? -I5, !O>& ->2>@OB 8 4@C3>5: 1C4B> F78N9 - 45B8 A8=53> :50=0. 0:B> @07K3@0;0AL AB@0H=0O 1C@O, 2>;=K 70;820;8 4065 2KA>:CN 3>@C '6MF7O=. 0 3@51=OE MB8E 2>;= 27;5B0;8 =0 25@H8=C 3>@K GC45A=K5 @K1:8, 2 >75@5 8 =0H;8 8E @K10:8 ?>A;5 1C@8. -C 65, AB0@8:!& /= 20= 815:AB@0B 4>18;AO A2>53> - 2A:>@5 2 ?@C4C 53> A040 =0 482> 2A5< 52@>?59A:8< :C?F0< ?;020;8 ;535=40@=K5 255@>E2>ABK. >AB8 A<>B@5;8 =0 =8E, 3;048;8 >:;048ABK5 1>@>4K, ?>B8@0;8 1@8BK5 ?>41>@>4:8, ?>G5AK20;8 7028BK5 ?0@8:8: >=8 ?@8:84K20;8, AB>8B ;8 257B8 MB8 48:>28=K 2 8AA01>=, =B25@?5=, >=4>=? =>3> ;8 404CB 70 =8E? #40ABAO ;8 4>257B8? !:>@> A;578=:8 ?@5:@0A=>9 "0> ?>?0;8 2 40;5:CN 2@>?C. 815:AB@0B ?@>40; @K1>: 70 10A=>A;>2=CN F5=C >4=><C 87 ?@54?@88<G82KE ?>@BC30;LF52, => B>B =5 A<>3 4>257B8 8E 4> 8AA01>=0. K1:8 4>1@0;8AL ;8HL 4> .6=>9 D@8:8. !?CABO =5A:>;L:> ;5B ?>B><AB2> MB8E 0D@8:0=A:8E F78N9 ?5@5:>G520;> =0 >AB@>2 !2OB>9 ;5=K, ?>B>< =0 7>@A:85 >AB@>20 8, =0:>=5F, 2 >@BC30;8N. A;54 70 255@>E2>AB0<8 2 2@>?C >B?@028;8AL ?@>AB> 7>;>BK5 @K1:8. =8 B>65 ?@>45;0;8 1>;LH>9 ?CBL A >AB0=>2:0<8, 8 B5?5@L =0 >AB@>20E 02@8:8O 8 7>@A:8E MB8E @K1>: ;>2OB 2 ?@C40E 8 C?>B@51;ONB 2 ?8IC. ">;L:> 2 A5@548=5 XVII AB>;5B8O ?>?0;8 F78N9 2 =3;8N 8 ;8HL 2 1728 3>4C 2?5@2K5 1K;8 @072545=K 2 >@0=65@59=KE 10AA59=0E 35@F>30 8G<>=4A:>3>. 5@F>30?  MB>< =5B =8G53> C4828B5;L=>3>. >:0 7>;>BKE @K1>: =5 =0CG8;8AL @072>48BL, >=8 AB>8;8 10A=>A;>2=> 4>@>3>& >2>@OB, GB> :0:>9B> D@0=FC7A:89 3@0D 2 C?;0BC 70 ?0@C @K1 2 AB5:;O==>9 2075 40; F5;CN 45@52=N A H5ABLNAB0<8 :@5ABLO=0<8. K1>: ?>40@8;8 <>3CI5AB25==>9 D02>@8B:5 D@0=FC7A:>3> :>@>;O 35@F>38=5 45 ><?04C@. #40;>AL @074>1KBL MBC @54:>ABL 8 @CAA:><C F0@N ;5:A5N 8E09;>28GC. &0@L ;5:A59 1K; ?@>720= ?@842>@=K<8 ?>4E0;8<0<8 B8H09H8<. "8H09H89 F0@L, 459AB28B5;L=>, =5 25; =8:0:8E 2>9=, 8 F0@AB2>20=85 53> 1K;> A?>:>9=K< 8 1>3>C3>4=K<. @0240, F0@L >1>60; ;8G=> ?@8ACBAB2>20BL ?@8 ?KB:0E :@5ABLO= 8 :070:>2, ?@0240, 2 3>4K 53> F0@AB28O AB@0=C A>B@OA0;8 A>;O=K5, <54=K5 1C=BK, 2>AAB0=8O 3>@>60=, :@5ABLO=A:0O 2>9=0 !B5=L:8 078=0& > 2A5 @02=> ;5:A59 1K; B8H09H89 - 254L >= B0: ;N18; F25BK (70A048; 8<8 25AL 42>@ @5<;O) 8 ?B8F (A>740; ?5@2K9 2 >AA88 7>>?0@:). >3 ;8 >= >1>9B8 2=8<0=85< 7>;>BKE @K1>:? > @K1:8 =54>;3> ?@>68;8 2 >A:25 - 8E 45@60;8 2 2070E 8 ?>;030;8, GB> >=8 ?8B0NBAO 2>4>9. K1:8 ?>381;8, 0 ;535=40 >AB0;0AL 68BL 2 =0@>45. 48= 87 20@80=B>2 MB>9 ;535=4K > 7>;>B>9 2>;H51=>9 @K1:5 =O=O @8=0 >48>=>2=0 ?>2540;0 <0;5=L:><C !0H5 CH:8=C, 8 ?>MB <=>3> ;5B A?CABO A>740; 70<5G0B5;L=CN A:07:C. 5 871560; 8A:CH5=8O 8 ?@CAA:89 :>@>;L $@84@8E 5;8:89. 4=064K 7=0<5=8BK9 5AB5AB2>8A?KB0B5;L ;>: ?>?@>A8; 53> ?>1C48BL @K1>?@><KH;5==8:>2 0;B89A:>3> <>@O ?><>GL 2 8AA;54>20=8OE @K1. > ?@>AL10 1K;0 2KA>:><5@=> >B25@3=CB0:  G53> >= ?@8AB05B A MB8<8 @K10<8? >65B 1KBL, >= =5 =0H5; C<=55 70=OB8O, G5< ?5@5AG5B @K1L8E :>AB59? / ?@54?>G8B0N MB> 45;0BL ;8HL 70 >1545==K< AB>;><. > A?CABO =5A:>;L:> ;5B :>@>;L 87<5=8; A2>5 >B=>H5=85 : @K10<. = AB0; AB@0AB=K< :>;;5:F8>=5@>< 7>;>BKE @K1>: - 2 >BA40<A:>< 42>@F5 !0=!CA8 4;O =8E 1K;> CAB@>5=> =5A:>;L:> 3@><04=KE 10AA59=>2. ">;L:> 2 :>=F5 XVIII 25:0 :C?F0< AB=4A:>9 :><?0=88 =0:>=5FB> C40;>AL =0;048BL @53C;O@=CN 4>AB02:C 7>;>BKE @K1>: 2 2@>?C, 8 F5=K =0 =8E AB0;8 ?>=5<=>3C A=860BLAO. > BCB =0BC@0;8ABK 2@>?K 8 <5@8:8 1K;8 ?>B@OA5=K =>2K< 8725AB85<. /?>=8O 4>;3>5 2@5<O 1K;0 70:@KB>9 4;O 52@>?59F52 AB@0=>9, ?>:0 55 =5 >B:@K;8 0<5@8:0=A:85 2>5==K5 <>@O:8. 4=064K 0<5@8:0=A:89 04<8@0; <<5= 2 A04C O?>=A:>3> 8<?5@0B>@0 C2845; C4828B5;L=KE @K1. -B> B>65 1K;8 7>;>BK5 @K1:8, => :0:85! "5;> 8E ?> D>@<5 =0?><8=0;> O9F>, 0 ?;02=8:8- =56=K5 8 B>=:85, :0: :8A5O,- 70:@CG820;8AL, A;>2=> ?@>7@0G=K5 ?5@LO =52840==>9 ?B8FK. -B8 @K1:8 1K;8 >3@><=>9 @54:>ABLN 8 2 /?>=88. > =0 >AB>:5 5ABL 70:>=: 65;0=85 2KA>:>3> 3>ABO =04> 2K?>;=8BL.  AG0AB;82K9 <<5= C257 2 !( 425 ?0@K C4828B5;L=KE @K1. 0:>2> 65 1K;> 53> 87C<;5=85, :>340 2 ?>B><AB25 MB8E 42CE ?0@ 87 140 <0;L:>2 B0:8<8 65, :0: @>48B5;8, >:070;8AL ;8HL 20, >AB0;L=K5 1K;8 >1KG=K<8 7>;>BK<8 @K1:0<8. > 8 87 MB>3> :>;8G5AB20 2?>A;54AB288 CF5;5;8 ;8HL 425 ?0@K, 8 =K=5 ?5@8ABK5 @K1:8 ?>?@56=5<C AG8B0NBAO @54:>ABLN.  =0G0;5 70E 3>4>2 XIX 25:0 L5@ 0@1>=L5 ?>;CG8; ?0@B8N ?CG53;07KE :>@>B:>E2>ABKE @K1 - 8E =0720;8 B5;5A:>?0<8.  1883 3>4C 87 >:>30<K ?@8257;8 28 2C0;5E2>AB>2 - 2A5, GB> CF5;5;> 2 4>@>35 >B >3@><=>9 ?0@B88 87 200 @K1, 70:C?;5==>9 4;O 2@>?K.  MB8 65 3>4K :0?8B0= ..5A=8F:89 ?@8257 87 =4>:8B0O 2 >A:2C G5@=KE 2C0;5E2>AB>2 A B5;5A:>?8G5A:8<8 3;070<8.  2 1911 3>4C =02>4=5=85 @07>@8;> >4=>3> O?>=A:>3> @K1>2>40, 8 >= 2 >BG0O=88 ?@>40; 2 2@>?C 5I5 >4=C 4> B5E ?>@ 70A5:@5G5==CN @54:>ABL - B>;ABKE A5@51@8ABKE @K1>: 157 A?8==KE ?;02=8:>2, A 1C3@8ABK<8 :@0A=K<8 =0@>AB0<8 =0 3>;>25 - 8E =0720;8 ;L28=>3>;>2:0<8. > =5C65;8 2A5 MB8 =5?>E>685 @K1K - 2A5 B5 65 7>;>BK5 F78N9? 0, MB> >=8.  A0<>5 ?5G0;L=>5, GB> 2 ?>B><AB25 MB8E GC45A=KE =5>1KG=KE @K1 2 1>;LH8=AB25 A;CG052 >:07K20;8AL A0<K5 ?@>ABK5 7>;>BK5 @K1:8. 8HL =5<=>38< ;N18B5;O< 0:20@8C<0 C40;>AL ?@>4>;60BL 2K@0I820BL, 0 ?>@>9 4065 C;CGH0BL 702575==K5 A >AB>:0 @07=>284=>AB8.  BCB =5;L7O =5 C?><O=CBL > 70<5G0B5;L=KE B5;5A:>?8AB0E >A:2K, :>B>@K5 2 :>=F5 XIX 25:0 A>740;8 25;8:>;5?=CN @07=>284=>ABL 10@E0B=>G5@=>3> B5;5A:>?0 A ?KH=K<8 ?;02=8:0<8 8 >3@><=K< E2>AB><, A>AB02;O2H8< 2/3 4;8=K @K1:8. -B0 @07=>284=>ABL ?>;CG8;0 2 2@>?5 =0720=85 <>A:>2A:89 B5;5A:>? 8 4> A8E ?>@ AG8B05BAO >4=>9 87 A0<KE :@0A82KE A@548 ?>B><:>2 F78N9. > :0: 65 C40;>AL ?>;CG8BL MBC @07=>284=>ABL? 0: 2>>1I5 2 8B05 8 /?>=88 AC<5;8 4>18BLAO <=>3>>1@078O D>@< 8 >:@0A>: 7>;>BKE @K1>:? 54L =5 A;57K 65 MB> ?@5:@0A=>9 "0>! AB>@8O ?>O2;5=8O 7>;>BKE @K1>: - BKAOG5;5B=59 402=>AB8. 1I89 8E ?@54>: - >1KG=K9 A5@51@O=K9 :0@0AL.  968 3>4C C 1>30B>3> G8=>2=8:0 >4=>9 87 ?@>28=F89 8B0O 1K; ?@C4, 2 :>B>@>< A>45@60;8AL 4@03>F5==K5 @K1K - :@0A=>>@0=652K5 8 7>;>B8ABK5 :0@0A8. G5284=>, B0:0O >:@0A:0 1K;0 5AB5AB25==K< A;CG09=K< >B:;>=5=85<. K20NB 65 @07=>F25B=K5 ?B8FK 8;8 @07=K5 ?> O@:>AB8 >:@0A:8 @K1K >4=>3> 8 B>3> 65 2840.  >4=>9 4@52=59 :=835, >B=>AOI59AO : 1000 3>4C, B>65 C?><8=05BAO > :@0A=KE F78N9 87 ?@83>@>4=KE @5G5: %0=G6>C. 025@=>5, @K1>2>4K 70<5B8;8 =5>1KG=KE @K1 8 AB0;8 >B45;OBL 8E >B >1K:=>25==KE :0@0A59. >B><AB2> :@0A=KE F78N9 1K;> 2 >A=>2=>< A5@51@8AB>A5@K<, => ?>O2;O;8AL A@548 =8E 8 :@0A=K5.  A=>20 8E >B45;O;8 8 ?>;CG0;8 ?>B><AB2>.  XII 25:5 MB0 @01>B0 H;0 2 8<?5@0B>@A:>< A04C, 2 ?@C40E ?@8 42>@0E 8<?5@0B>@A:>9 G5;O48, 2 3>@>4A:8E 2>4>5<0E %0=G6>C& "0:0O H8@>:0O A5;5:F8O 2A:>@5 40;0 @57C;LB0BK: 7>;>B8AB>:@0A=0O >:@0A:0 70:@5?8;0AL :0: =0A;54AB25==K9 ?@87=0: 8 =0G0;0 ?5@54020BLAO 87 ?>:>;5=8O 2 ?>:>;5=85. !B0;8 ?>O2;OBLAO 8 =>2K5 @07=>284=>AB8: 15;0O, :@0A=>15;0O 8 4@. A5 MB> 1K;8 >B:;>=5=8O >B >A=>2=>9 D>@<K, => :8B09A:85 <0AB5@0 C65 =0CG8;8AL 8A?>;L7>20BL B0:8E @K1>:"C@>4>2". E A:@5I820;8, A=>20 >B18@0;8, >?OBL A:@5I820;8, ?>:0 A;CG09=K9 ?@87=0: =5 ?@52@0I0;AO 2 70:@5?;5==K9 =0A;54AB25==K9. ;O G5;>25G5A:>3> 3;070 @K1:8"C@>4K" >G5=L ?@8OB=K. #65 2 XVI 25:5 :8B09A:0O 7=0BL ?>20;L=> C2;5:0;0AL :>;;5:F8>=8@>20=85< 48:>28==KE F78N9. >2>@OB, GB> 2 8<?5@0B>@A:>< 42>@F5 =0 3;02=>9 ;5AB=8F5 AB>O;8 207K 87 G8AB>3> 7>;>B0, 2 :>B>@KE @5728;8AL MB8 @K1:8. > A B>G:8 7@5=8O 5AB5AB25==>9 F5;5A>>1@07=>AB8 7>;>BK5 F78N9 A>25@H5==> =5 ?@8A?>A>1;5=K 68BL 2 ?@8@>4=KE 2>4>5<0E: >:@0A:0 8E >G5=L 70<5B=0, B5;> =5C:;N65, 0 ?;02=8:8 AB0;8 =5 >@30=0<8 42865=8O, 0 BO65;K<8 C:@0H5=8O<8, :>B>@K5 B>;L:> <5H0NB ?;020BL. /A=>, GB> B0:85 @K1K <>3CB 68BL B>;L:> 2 8A:CAAB25==KE 2>4>5<0E, 2 5AB5AB25==KE CA;>28OE - MB> =5?@8A?>A>1;5==K5 C@>4K. "0: :8B09A:85 @K1>2>4K A>740;8 =>2K5, =52840==K5 2 ?@8@>45 @07=>284=>AB8 @K1. K 7=05<, :0: ?@8A?>A01;820NBAO : CA;>28O< 687=8 @07=K5 682>B=K5 8 @0AB5=8O. A?><=8< E>BO 1K ?5@525@BK20NI53>AO =0 A?8=C :;>?03;04KH0.  1>@L15 70 ACI5AB2>20=85 2K6820NB ;8HL =081>;55 ?@8A?>A>1;5==K5 >@30=87<K, >AB0;L=K5 2 ?@>F5AA5 5AB5AB25==>3> >B1>@0 ?>3810NB. &5;5A>>1@07=K5 ?@87=0:8 CF5;52H8E 682>B=KE 8 @0AB5=89 ?5@540NBAO ?>B><AB2C 8 A :064K< ?>:>;5=85< CA8;820NBAO.  2>B A 7>;>BK<8 @K1:0<8 2A5 ?@>87>H;> ?>4@C3><C. 45AL G5;>25: ?@>872>;L=>, 8A:CAAB25==> CA8;820; 8 70:@5?;O; 2 ?>B><AB25 :0: @07 =5F5;5A>>1@07=K5 4;O @K1, => 8=B5@5A=K5 ?@87=0:8. "0:>9 ?@>F5AA =07K205BAO 8A:CAAB25==K< >B1>@><. "0: 2 ?@56=85 2@5<5=0 A>74020;8AL 4><0H=85 682>B=K5 8 :C;LBC@=K5 @0AB5=8O, MB>B 65 <5B>4 ?@8<5=ONB 8 =K=5 CG5=K5A5;5:F8>=5@K. "0;0=BC @K1>2>4>2A5;5:F8>=5@>2 <K 8 >1O70=K ?>O2;5=85< C4828B5;L=KE F78N9. >;>BKE @K1>: 45@60B 4;O C:@0H5=8O 8;8 4;O ;N1>?KBAB20,- ?8A0; '0@;7 0@28=,- 8 <>6=> 70@0=55 A:070BL, GB> 745AL >B1>@ 4>;65= 1K; H8@>:> ?@8<5=OBLAO ?@8 >1@07>20=88 =>2KE ?>@>4. "0: 8 1K;> 2 459AB28B5;L=>AB8. =B5@5A5= 8 A>2@5<5==K9 >?KB @01>BK :8B09A:8E @K1>2>4>2 A 7>;>BK<8 @K1:0<8. 07<=>60NBAO F78N9 25A=>9 8 ;5B><. 0 6015@=KE :@KH:0E C A0<F0 ?>O2;ONBAO 15;K5 ?C?K@KH:8 - 548=AB25==>5 >B;8G85 53> >B A0<:8. 0: B>;L:> =0G8=05BAO ?@5A;54>20=85 A0<F>< >1;N1>20==>9 @K1:8, =04> A?5H8BL - 87 G0=0, 2 :>B>@>< 2 8B05 A>45@60B F78N9, B>BG0A 2KA06820NB 2A5E >AB0;L=KE >18B0B5;59. 1KG=> G5@57 ?>;G0A0 C65 2K<5B0=0 8:@0, 87 :>B>@>9 =0 ?OBK9H5AB>9 45=L 2K:;52K20NBAO ;8G8=:8. 0;L:>2 2K:0@<;820NB <5;:>9 40D=859. 4OB >=8 8 2>4>@>A;8, :>B>@K<8 >1@0AB0NB 87=CB@8 AB5=:8 G0=>2. :@0H8205BAO <>;>4L ?>@07=><C: >4=8 1KAB@>, 4@C385 - ;8HL G5@57 3>4. > @K1>2>4K 7=0NB, :0:>9 1C45B B0 8;8 8=0O @K1:0, 8 >B18@0NB B>;L:> B5E, :>B>@K5 8E 8=B5@5ACNB. B1>@ 45;0NB B0:: :@C3>2K<8 42865=8O<8 <5H0NB 2>4C 2 G0=5 8, ?>:0 <8<> ?@>=>AOBAO <>;>4K5 @K1:8, <O3:8< A0G:>< 2K;02;820NB A0<KE ;CGH8E.  B5G5=85 >4=>3>42CE <5AOF52 MB> ?>2B>@ONB =5A:>;L:> @07. > <=>385 87 48:>28==KE F78N9 - MB> 548=8G=K5 8 A;CG09=K5 >B:;>=5=8O >B =>@<K, 8E ?@87=0:8 =5 70:@5?;5=K 8 <>3CB =5 ?>2B>@8BLAO 2 ?>B><AB25. 5 @07 C65 ?@82>78;8 2 >A:2C 8 1K2H89 5=8=3@04 C4828B5;L=K5 @07=>284=>AB8 :8B09A:8E 7>;>BKE @K1>:, => 2 ?>B><AB25 =5 1K;> =8G53> 8=B5@5A=>3>. !5;5:F8>==K5 @01>BK A 7>;>BK<8 @K1:0<8, :>=5G=>, 4>;6=K 1KBL ?@>4>;65=K.  =5 B>;L:> 2 8B05 8 /?>=88. >A:>2A:89 7>>?0@:, 0:20@8C<=K5 >B45;K 4@C38E 7>>;>38G5A:8E A04>2 AB@0=K, :;C1K 0:20@8C<8AB>2 <>3;8 1K 2>7@>48BL 1K;CN A;02C A2>8E ?@54H5AB25==8:>2, A>7402H8E <>A:>2A:8E B5;5A:>?>2 8 2C0;5E2>AB>2. CB5< 8A:CAAB25==>3> >B1>@0 C40;>AL ?>;CG8BL 7>;>BK5 20@80F88 =5 B>;L:> :0@0AO.  =0H59 AB@0=5 @072>48BAO 2 1>;LH8E :>;8G5AB20E >@D0 - 7>;>B0O @07=>284=>ABL O7O. !>18@0B5;L >B5G5AB25==KE @54:>AB59 <>A:28G ../.8H0@52 >4=064K ?>40@8; <=5 87C<8B5;L=KE ?> :@0A>B5 :@0A=>15;>7>;>B8ABKE ;8=59.  2 /?>=88 AB0;8 ?>?C;O@=K<8 <=>3>F25B=K5 :0@?K, ?>;CG82H85 =0720=85 :>8. < ?@8A2>5= 3@><:89 B8BC; 8<?5@0B>@A:8E :0@?>2. AB>@8O :>8 =0?><8=05B 8AB>@8N 7>;>BKE @K1>:. /?>=A:85 @K1>2>4K 70<5B8;8 C =5:>B>@KE :0@?>2 =5>1KG=CN ?OB=8ABCN >:@0A:C. B MB8E @K1 1K;> ?>;CG5=> 5I5 1>;55 ?OB=8AB>5 8 O@:>5 ?>B><AB2>. "0: ?>AB5?5==>, CA8;820O =C6=K5 ?@87=0:8 8 >B18@0O A0<KE O@:8E <=>3>F25B=KE >A>159, C40;>AL ?>;CG8BL :@0A>G=KE 45:>@0B82=KE :0@?>2.  1952 3>4C :>8 1K;8 2KAB02;5=K 4;O >1>7@5=8O 2 A04>2KE ?@C40E 8<?5@0B>@A:>3> 42>@F0. BAN40 8E 70257;8 =0 0209A:85 >AB@>20 8 2 !(. >O28;8AL :>8 8 C =0A, 8E 45<>=AB@8@>20;8 =0 KAB02:5 4>AB865=89 =0@>4=>3> E>7O9AB20 2 >A:25.  /?>=88 :>8 @072>4OB 2 A?5F80;L=KE =51>;LH8E :204@0B=KE 10AA59=0E, 0 2K@0I820NB 2 >1KG=KE ?@C4>2KE E>7O9AB20E, 2 =03C;L=KE ?@C40E. > 2@5<O B>@3>2 @K1K =0E>4OBAO 2 1>;LH8E G0=0E. E ?@8=OB> @073;O4K20BL =5 A1>:C, 0 A25@EC - 254L A?8=:0 A0<0O O@:0O. 5:>@0B82=K5 :0@?K 4>AB830NB 4;8=K 60 A0=B8<5B@>2 8 8A?>;L7CNBAO 4;O 70@K1;5=8O ?0@:>2KE 8 3>@>4A:8E 2>4>5<>2. @58<CI5AB2> :>8 ?5@54 7>;>BK<8 @K1:0<8 2 B><, GB> >=8 ;53:> ?5@578<>2K20NB ?>4> ;L4><. ?@>G5<, @>AB>2A:85 0:20@8C<8ABK ?@8CG8;8 : B0:>9 78<>2:5 8 7>;>BKE @K1>:. #4828B5;L=>5 7@5;8I5 2845; O 2 A04C @>AB>2G0=8=0 .0<0A:8=0: =0 72C: :>;>:>;LG8:0 (A83=0; :>@<;5=8O) 87?>4> ;L40 10AA59=0 : ?@>@C18 A?;K20;8AL 25;8:>;5?=K5 B5;5A:>?K 8 2C0;5E2>ABK. AB05BAO ?>60;5BL, GB> 2>4>5<K =0H8E ?0@:>2 ;8H5=K ?>:0 MB>3> :@0A>G=>3> 682>3> C:@0H5=8O. @0240, 2 ?>A;54=55 2@5<O : 2>7@>645=8N 1K;>9 @>AA89A:>9 A;02K 2 :C;LBC@5 7>;>BKE @K1>: ?>4:;NG8;8AL 8=F80B82=K5 ;N48 87 :>>?5@0B82>2 8 <0;KE ?@54?@8OB89. C45< =045OBLAO, GB> >=8 A?@02OBAO A MB>9 7040G59.  2 8B05 <564C B5< A5;5:F8>=5@K 3>B>2K >B:@KBL =>2CN AB@0=8FC :C;LBC@=>3> @K1>2>4AB20. 0 MB>B @07 2 :0G5AB25 ?@>872>4=KE 27OBK C65 =5 :0@?>2K5 @K1K - :0@0AL 8 :0@?, 0 ?@54AB028B5;8 1;87:>3> 8< A5<59AB20 'C:CG0=>2K5 (Catostomidae). K1K 4>2>;L=> ?>E>68 =0 :0@?>2KE.  =0AB>OI55 2@5<O >=8 2AB@5G0NBAO 2 !525@=>9 <5@8:5 (2 =0H8E @K1>E>7O9AB25==KE 2>4>5<0E 0::;8<0B878@>20=K 0<5@8:0=A:85 1CDD0;>), C =0A - =0 >;K<5 8 'C:>B:5, 2 8B05 - 2 10AA59=5 /=F7K. 8B09A:0O @K10 <8:A>F8?@8=0 (Myxocyprinus asiaticus) 8A?>;L7C5BAO 2 45:>@0B82=>< @K1>2>4AB25. >@?CA 8 3>;>20 <8:A>F8?@8=K ?>E>68 =0 A070=L8. ;02=8:8 65 A>2A5< 4@C385: A?8==>9 8<55B 2KA>:89 70:@C3;5==K9 2K@>AB 8 70B5< BO=5BAO 4> E2>AB>2>3> AB51;O, 1@NH=K5 8 3@C4=K5 - >G5=L H8@>:85. :@0A:0 - :0: C C25;8G5==>3> AC<0B@0=A:>3> 10@1CA0: ?> 65;B>?5AG0=><C D>=C ?@>E>4OB B@8 25@B8:0;L=K5 H8@>:85 G5@=K5 ?>;>AK, ?;02=8:8 3CAB> CA5O=K <5;:8<8 B5<=K<8 ?OB=0<8. 025@=>5, MB> >G5@54=>5 GC4> 2>AB>G=KE 2>;H51=8:>2 45:>@0B82=>3> @K1>2>4AB20 - =5 ?>A;54=89 8E AN@?@87. A:>@:0 8=459A:>3> 1>30 01> 70AB>=0; 8 A B@C4>< >B:@K; 3;070. >;>20 1K;0 A;>2=> =0;8B0 GC3C=><, 0 @C:8 A>25@H5==> =5 ?>28=>20;8AL. 01> A:>A8; 3;070 2 AB>@>=C: 345 >=? 04 3>;>2>9 1K;0 :@KH0 87 H8@>:8E ;8ABL52, AB5=K E868=K - B>65 87 MB8E ;8ABL52. 0: O AN40 ?>?0;? - <CG8B5;L=> 2A?><8=0; >=.  ?0<OB8 2A?;K;8 :0@B8=K =>G=>3> 0@860. 5>=>2K5 @5:;0<K, 15A:>=5G=K9 ?>B>: 02B><0H8=, A25BOI85AO ?>4J574K 10@>2 8 @5AB>@0=>2. >=LO:, :0;L204>A, H0<?0=A:>5. >B>< 20@L5B5, 10@K 8 ?@>AB> ?>3@51:8 157 =0720=89. 1A5=B, 25@<CB 8, =0:>=5F, A0<K5 4@O==K5 ?>@B259=K. 5=L38 :>=G8;8AL. , MB8 ?@>:;OBK5 A25B;K5 :@C3;OH8, MB8 G5@B>2K 75;5=K5 1C<06:8! =8 4020;8AL 5<C A>2A5< =5 ;53:>. 5B, >= =5 E>B5; @01>B0BL 345=81C4L :;5@:>< 8;8 3=CBL A?8=C =0 702>45. =, 23CAB 01>, 2>;L=K9 G5;>25:.  >= AB0; 70<KH;OBL =>2CN M:A?548F8N. C40? , 2A5 @02=>! = 7=0;: GB> 1K >= =8 ?@8257 87 M:7>B8G5A:8E B@>?8:>2, 2A5 <>6=> >1@0B8BL 2 45=L38, =0 2A5< A45;0BL 187=5A. 01> 1K; B8?8G=K< ?>@>645=85< A2>53> 2@5<5=8 8 :;0AA0: 020=BN@8AB?CB5H5AB25==8:, :><<5@A0=B, B>@3CNI89 ;N1K<8 M:7>B8G5A:8<8 682>B=K<8 8 @0AB5=8O<8. = 2K5E0; 2=>2L =0 7=0:><K9 :>=B8=5=B, 2 @09>= @5:8 <07>=:8. >;55 ?>;CB>@0 BKAOG :8;><5B@>2 ?@>H5; ?0@>E>4 ?> MB>9 25;8:>9 @5:5, ?@5645 G5< 70 ?>2>@>B>< ?>:070;8AL A25B;K5 ?>AB@>9:8 0=0CA0. 45AL <>6=> 1K;> 703>B>28BL H:C@K :@>:>48;>2 - 254L >=8 B0: F5=8;8AL 2 2@>?5! 0B5< >= 428=C;AO =0 ?0@>E>45, 3>@074> <5=LH5<, G5< ?@56=89, ?> @5:5 /:0 8 ?@>?;K; 5I5 ?>GB8 AB>;L:> 65. 45AL 53> 8=B5@5A>20;8 >@E8458 8 101>G:8. @E8458 - F25BK, ?>E>685 =0 101>G5:,- B>;L:> 2E>48;8 B>340 2 <>4C, 8 1>30BK5 ;N48 2@>?K, CAB@0820O C A51O 4><0 >@0=65@58, ?;0B8;8 70 ?@82575==K5 @54:85 284K 15H5=K5 45=L38.  101>G:8MB8 682K5 F25BK 87 ;5A>2 <07>=:8 - 2A5340 1K;8 65;0==K<8 =5 B>;L:> 4;O ;N18B5;59:>;;5:F8>=5@>2, => 8 4;O :@C?=KE <C7552. 45AL, 2 3;C18=5 =58AA;54>20==>9 AB@0=K, >= CA;KH0; ;535=4C > A:@KBKE 2 ;5A0E 0;<07=KE @>AAK?OE. ;<07K! >6=> ;8 65;0BL G53>;81> 1>;LH53>?!  >= 70405BAO =>2>9 F5;LN. -:A?548F8O 42865BAO 2 3>@K, 8=0G5 : <5AB0< 0;<07=KE @>AAK?59 4@52=8E 8=:>2 =5 ?>4>1@0BLAO. 0AA82=K5 ;0<K, 2KA>:> ?>4=O2 3>@4K5 3>;>2K, @07<5@5==> H030NB, @0A:0G820O BN:8 A 8<CI5AB2>< M:A?548F88 8 CAK?;OO A2>8E A54>:>2. > 2>B B@>?8=:8 AB0=>2OBAO B0:8<8 C7:8<8, GB> 5E0BL 25@E>< C65 =52>7<>6=>. 0G8=05BAO A0<K9 B@C4=K9 CG0AB>: ?CB8. !:>;L:> 4>@>3 B5@O5BAO 2 452AB25==KE ;5A0E <07>=:8, A:>;L:> B09= E@0=8B 2 A2>5< A5@4F5 MB0 3830=BA:0O =5872540==0O AB@0=0! &  2>B 2<5AB> 0;<07>2 8 >@E8459 - B5<=0O E868=0 8 AB@0H=0O 3>;>2=0O 1>;L. 01> 701>;5; ;8E>@04:>9 5I5 2 ?CB8 8 4>;3> :@5?8;AO. = 7=0;, GB> 87 250 284>2 O4>28BKE 7<59 <8@0 1>;LHCN G0ABL >A?>4L >3 I54@> @0AAK?0; 2 MB8E ;5A0E. =0;, GB> C:CAK =5:>B>@KE <5AB=KE <C@02L52 <>3CB 1KBL A<5@B5;L=K<8. =0; 8 > 2A5E 2840E B@>?8G5A:>9 ;8E>@04:8, ?>468402H59 53> 745AL.  2A5B0:8 >= AB@5<8;AO AN40& "5?5@L >= ;560;, A@065==K9 1>;57=LN. = ?>?KB0;AO ?>4=OBLAO: -"K >G=C;AO, AK= <>9?- CA;KH0; >= A:@8?CG89 3>;>A. -45 O?- A?@>A8; >=. -568, ;568,- CA?>:>8;0 53> AB0@0O 8=480=:0,- BK 5I5 >G5=L A;01. =0 =0:>@<8;0 53>, 0 ?>B><, C1@02 ?>AC4C, ?>AB028;0 @O4>< H8@>:CN 3;8=O=CN G0H:C. -!<>B@8, :0: B0=FC5B MB0 @K1:0,- A:070;0 >=0.- K 7>25< 55 8A:>@:>9 >30. 0H8 AB0@8:8 @0AA:07K20NB, GB> 402=K<402=>, :>340 2 <8@5 ACI5AB2>20; 7;>9 >3, 4>1@K9 >3 8=459F52 @5H8; ?>1>@>BL 53> 8 C=8GB>68BL. 52OBL 4=59 8 =>G59 4@0;8AL 4CE8 =0 =515.  >B MB>3> =51> B@OA;>AL 8 :>;510;>AL. =5< A =53> AK?0;8AL >A:>;:8 A>;=F0 8 ?@52@0I0;8AL 2 7>;>B>, 0 =>GLN ?040;8 >A:>;:8 72574>G5: 8 ?@52@0I0;8AL 2 MB8E @K1>:. ->;>B>?- 3;070 01> 7063;8AL.- "K A:070;0 - 7>;>B>, AB0@CE0? > 345 65 MB8 >A:>;:8, G5@B ?>15@8, 345? -"K 65 7=05HL, AK= <>9, 402=> C65 =5B C =0H8E ;N459 7>;>B0. 5;K5 ;N48 701@0;8 53> 5I5 C =0H8E 454>2.  2>B @K1:872574>G:8 >AB0;8AL. - G5@BC @K1>:,- 2O;> A:070; 01>. = ?@>A=C;AO G5@57 =5A:>;L:> G0A>2. >AK5 ;CG8 A>;=F0 2@K20;8AL G5@57 2E>4=>5 >B25@AB85 2 E868=C. 'B> <=5 @0AA:07K20;0 AB0@CE0?- =0<>@I8; ;>1 D@0=FC7.- , ?@> 7>;>B> 8 @K1>:. C, ?>3;O48< E>BL =0 @K1C, 5A;8 =5;L7O =0 7>;>B>. = ?@8?>4=O;AO =0 ;>:B5, 703;O=C; 2 G0H:C 8 70<5@.  G0H:5, >A25I5==0O A>;=F5<, <5B0;0AL =51K20;0O @K1:0. !;>2=> :B>B> ?@>25; ?> 55 B5;C 425 ?0@0;;5;L=K5 ;8=88: >4=0 :@0A=0O, 4@C30O& @C30O, 25@E=OO, ;8=8O B> 3>@5;0 <>@A:>9 A8=52>9, B> A25@:0;0 75;5=K< <0;0E8B><, B> 3>;C15;0, :0: =51>. @8 :064>< ?>2>@>B5 3;070 @K1:8 2A?KE820;8 75;5=K<8 ;CG0<8, 0 ?>;>AK 83@0;8 8 ?5@5;820;8AL. 01> 706<C@8;AO. >;>A:8 @K1:8 G5<B> =0?><8=0;8 ?0@86A:CN A25BOICNAO @5:;0<C. -"0: 254L MB> 8 5ABL >A:>;:8 7>;>B0, ?@> :>B>@K5 3>2>@8;0 AB0@CE0,- ?@>H5?B0; >=,- MB> 4065 1>;LH5, G5< 7>;>B>. ">;L:> 1K C40;>AL 8E 4>257B8. '5@57 =5A:>;L:> 4=59 01> C65 1K; =0 =>30E. 3> >B25;8 : 3;C1>:><C ;5A=><C @CGLN A G5@=>9 =5?@>3;O4=>9 2>4>9. => 1K;> CAB;0=> B>;ABK< A;>5< A3=82H8E ;8ABL52, ;8HL >B45;L=K5 ;CG8 A>;=F0 ?@>1820;8AL A:2>7L 3CABCN :@KHC 25B259.  MB8E ;CG0E B> 8 45;> A25@:0;8 :@0A=K5, 3>;C1K5, 75;5=K5 72574>G:8. !B09:8 :@0A028F@K1>: ?@>=>A8;8AL =0 3;C18=5. 01> B>@>?8;AO. = >@30=87>20; ;>2;N @K1>: 2 1CBK;:8. > 2 G5< 257B8? >AC4K C 01> =5 1K;>.  B>340 >= @5H8; 8A?>;L7>20BL :>;;5:F8>==K5 45@52O==K5 OI8:8. )5;8 8 H2K 2 =8E >1<070;8 A<>;>9. & 0G0;>AL ?CB5H5AB285 GC45A=KE @K1>: 2 40;5:CN 2@>?C. !=0G0;0 OI8:8 =5A;8 =0 @C:0E. >B>< 8E @0A:0G820;8 =0 A2>8E A?8=0E ;0<K, ?>B>< 257;8 =0 ?@8AB0=L 8 3@C78;8 =0 ?0@>E>4, 0 B>B B0I8;AO, =5 B>@>?OAL, 2=87 : 0=0CAC.  0=0CA5 01> A<5=8; OI8:8 =0 :0==K, 8 A=>20 @K1:8 428=C;8AL 2 ?CBL. 0: MB> =8 C4828B5;L=>, ?CB5H5AB25==8FK 2K=5A;8 2A5 BO3>BK 4>@>38 8 ?@81K;8 =0:>=5F 2 0@86. 01> 1K; 2=5 A51O >B AG0ABLO. = >B>A;0; G0ABL @K1 2 5@<0=8N - 254L B0< <=>3> ;N18B5;59 0:20@8C<0, 0 =5A:>;L:> HBC: =0?@028; 8725AB=><C 7=0B>:C B@>?8G5A:8E @K1 ==5AC. 8;LO< ==5A 874020; 2 $8;045;LD88 6C@=0; :20@8C<, 8 01> =045O;AO, GB> ?>AK;:0 A>740AB 5<C @5:;0<C. ==5A 1K; ?>@065=: >= 2?5@2K5 2845; B0:8E @K1. = B>BG0A 65 >B?@028; 8E >4=><C 87 :@C?=59H8E 0<5@8:0=A:8E 8EB8>;>3>2 ?@>D5AA>@C .!.095@AC. #G5=K9 >?@545;8;, GB> @K1:0 >B=>A8BAO : @>4C Cphessobrycon. 84>2>5 =0720=85 1K;> 40=> 2 G5ABL 8;LO<0 ==5A0 - . innesi. -B> ?@>87>H;> 2 1936 3>4C.  01>? 01> B>@65AB2>20;: 25AL 0@86 3>2>@8; >1 MB>9 @K1:5, 4065 1C;L20@=K5 3075B:8 C45;8;8 59 <5AB> =0 A2>8E AB@0=8F0E. K1:C AB0;8 =07K20BL =5>=>2>9. =0 8 2?@O<L =0?><8=0;0 A25B @5:;0<. ">;L:> :@0A:8 55 703>@0;8AL >B ?040NI8E =0 =55 ;CG59. 01> ?>;CG8; :>;>AA0;L=K5 45=L38 70 ?@>406C =5>=>2KE @K1 8 1K; 2?>;=5 4>2>;5= 187=5A><. > BCB 4> =53> AB0;8 4>E>48BL A;CE8, GB> 2AO 2K<5B0==0O 8:@0 381=5B. -35,- A<5:=C; 4>304;82K9 D@0=FC7,- 745AL 5I5 <>6=> =068BLAO.  >=, B5?5@L C65 E>@>H> A=0@O65==K9, C5E0; 70 =>2>9 ?0@B859 @K1. 564C B5< 2 :@C?=59H8E 0:20@8C<=KE D8@<0E =07@520; A:0=40;. ">@3>2FK 70?;0B8;8 01> >3@><=K5 45=L38, =045OAL @0725AB8 =5>=>2CN @K1:C 8 AB>@8F59 25@=CBL 70B@0G5==>5. > 2AO 2K<5B0==0O 8:@0 =587<5==> ?>3810;0.  01> B5< 2@5<5=5< ?@8257 =>2CN ?0@B8N MB8E @K1. 5AB> ;>2;8 8 4065 AB@0=C, :C40 >= C5760;, >= 45@60; 2 A5:@5B5. @0240, 1K;> 8725AB=>, GB> =5>=>20O @K1:0 2>48BAO 2 <07>=:5, => 254L 10AA59= <07>=:8 B0: 25;8:! "@8 3>40 01> ?5@8>48G5A:8 8AG570; 87 0@860 8 ?>O2;O;AO A =5>=>2K<8 @K1:0<8. "@8 3>40 B>@3>2FK ?KB0;8AL C7=0BL <5AB> ;>2;8 8 ?>4>@20BL <>=>?>;8N D@0=FC70. 0:>=5F, ?@54AB028B5;L 30<1C@3A:>9 D8@<K ?> B>@3>2;5 0:20@8C<=K<8 @K10<8 5=@8E 8B8H 2KA;548;, :C40 5748; 01>. > 5I5 F5;K9 3>4 >= 8A:0; B5 <0;5=L:85 @5GCH:8, 345 2>48BAO =5>=>20O @K1:0. > 2@5<O 2>9=K 0<5@8:0=A:85 D8@<K AC<5;8 =0;048BL @53C;O@=K9 702>7 MB8E @K1.  ?>A;5 2>9=K @K1:8 2=>2L ?>O28;8AL 2 2@>?5.  1946 3>4C 8E 2?5@2K5 ?@8257 2 >A:2C 8725AB=K9 A>25BA:89 CG5=K91>B0=8: ..0@0=>2. 5>=>20O @K1:0 >G5=L 2K=>A;820. =0 ?@5:@0A=> A51O GC2AB2C5B 2 ;N1>9 :><?0=88 @02=KE ?> @07<5@C @K1 ?@8 B5<?5@0BC@5 >B 15 4> 25 !, =0 ;N1>< :>@<5 8 2 ;N1>9 2>45. =>5 45;> - 55 @072545=85. 45AL C65 ?>B@51>20;>AL 7=0=85 384@>E8<88. >=G8;8AL =082=K5 @0AAC645=8O 0:20@8C<8AB>2 > AB0@>9 8 =>2>9 2>45. 5@54 =8<8 2?;>B=CN 2AB0; F5;K9 @O4 2>?@>A>2. 'B> B0:>5 AB0@0O 2>40? 0:85 A>;8 8 2 :0:>< :>;8G5AB25 4>;6=K 1KBL 2 ?@5A=>9 2>45? 'B> B0:>5 ?>:070B5;L 0:B82=>9 @50:F88 2>4K - @ 8 :0: 53> 87<5=OBL? 'B> B0:>5 65AB:>ABL dH? 5;> 2 B><, GB> =5>=>20O @K1:0 CA?5H=> @072>48;0AL B>;L:> 2 2>45 A >?@545;5==K<8 E8<8G5A:8<8 ?0@0<5B@0<8. 08=B5@5A>20;8AL MB8< 2>?@>A>< 8 CG5=K5. !59G0A <=>385 A5:@5BK C65 @0A:@KBK. 5>=>2K5 @K1:8 =0G8=0NB =5@5AB8BLAO ?>A;5 4>102;5=8O 1/3 A25659 <O3:>9 A;01>:8A;>9 2>4K. -B> A>>B25BAB2C5B B><C, GB> ?@>8AE>48B 2 ?@8@>45: 2 <5;:85 70AB>9=K5 @CGL8 0<07>=A:8E ;5A>2 ?@8B5:05B 4>64520O 8 ?02>4:>20O 2>40. "0:8< >1@07><, ?>4;820O A256CN 2>4C, <K 405< 2=5H=89 B>;G>: : =5@5ABC. A;8 @K1:8 E>@>H> ?8B0;8AL, => =5 7068@5;8, 5A;8 >=8 74>@>2K 8 1K;8 ?@5420@8B5;L=> @0AA065=K (A0<:8 8 A0<FK >B45;L=>), B> ?@8 B5<?5@0BC@5 2224 ! @0=> CB@><, :>340 :>AK5 ;CG8 A>;=F0 >A25BOB 10=:C, =0G=5BAO =5@5AB. 0, 40, 10=:C, 0 =5 0:20@8C<, 10=:C 157 3@C=B0, A =51>;LH8< ?CG:>< @0AB5=89 ?>A@548=5.  0:20@8C<5 B@C4=> 4>18BLAO AB5@8;L=>AB8: B0< 2A5340 <=>3> 10:B5@89, GB> 3C18B5;L=> 4;O 8:@K =5>=>2. ?KB=K5 ;N18B5;8 4;O 30@0=B88 4>102;ONB 2 2>4C 4578=D8F8@CNI55 A@54AB2> (=0?@8<5@, A;01K9 @0AB2>@ B@8?0D;028=0). ABL C 8:@K =5>=>2KE @K1>: 8 5I5 >4=> =5C4>1=>5 A2>9AB2>.  2>45 65AB:>ABLN 2KH5 45 >1>;>G:0 8:@8=:8 AB0=>28BAO =5?@>=8F05<>9 4;O A?5@<0B>7>840 8 >?;>4>B2>@5=8O =5 ?@>8AE>48B. @8 MB>< A0<8 A?5@<0B>7>84K, 0:B82=> 42830NI85AO 2 <O3:>9 2>45 1>;55 G0A0, 2 65AB:>9 A@07C B5@ONB 0:B82=>ABL 8 =5 4>E>4OB 4> 8:@8=>:. K:>@<8BL <>;>4L B>65 =5?@>AB>. 0 ?5@2>9 AB0488 @0728B8O ;8G8=:8 28AOB =0 B25@4KE ?@54<5B0E. >340 65 <0;L:8 ?5@5E>4OB =0 0:B82=>5 ?8B0=85, >=8 <0;>?>4286=K, =5 3>=ONBAO 70 :>@<>< - >G5=L <5;:8<8 8=DC7>@8O<8, 0 <54;5==> ?;020NB 24>;L AB5=>:, G0AB> 4065 25@B8:0;L=> - 225@E 8;8 2=87 3>;>2>9. 8HL >:0702H8AL 2 3CAB>9 AB09:5 8=DC7>@89, >=8 =0G8=0NB ?>3;>I0BL :>@<. > ?@8 >18;L=>< :>@<;5=88 @K1 381=5B <=>3> 8=DC7>@89, 0 MB> 2545B : 2>7@0AB0=8N G8A;5==>AB8 10:B5@89, : 1>@L15 A :>B>@K<8 <0;L:8 =5 3>B>2K. ;O ?@028;L=>3> 2K:0@<;820=8O 10=:C A <0;L:0<8 ?5@2K5 425B@8 =545;8 =04> 45@60BL 2 B5<=>B5, >A25I0O B>;L:> >48= C3>; C7:8< ;CG>< A25B0 (8<8B0F8O A>;=5G=>3> ;CG0, ?@>@202H53>AO : 2>45 ;5A=>3> @CGLO A:2>7L :@>=C 45@52L52). 0;L:8 =5>=>2KE @K1>: >1;040NB O@:> 2K@065==K< D>B>B0:A8A>< - 42865=85< ?>4 2;8O=85< A25B0. =8 B5@ONBAO 2 O@:> >A25I5==>< 0:20@8C<5, 8 8=AB8=:B =5 ?>4A:07K205B 8< :0:>3>;81> 2KE>40 87 =57=0:><>3> ?>;>65=8O. 0B> 2 B5<=>< 2>4>5<5 A >4=8< C7:8< ;CG>< A25B0 2 C3;C <0;L:8 CAB@5<;ONBAO : MB><C A25B;><C ?OB=C. >7<>6=>, =0 ?5@2KE ?>@0E 687=8 =5>=>2K5 @K1:8 =5 >1;040NB 4>AB0B>G=> @0728BK< 7@5=85< 8 E>@>H> >B;8G0NB ;8HL A25B >B B5=8, 0 8=DC7>@89 284OB A;01>. 0 @>48=5 B0:0O A;01>ABL 7@5=8O 8< A>2A5< =5 <5H05B, 0 ?>G5<C - MB> <K C7=05<, :>340 ?>7=0:><8<AO A ?>4>1=K< O2;5=85< C A;5?KE ?5I5@=KE @K1. B0:, =5>=>2CN @K1:C AB0;8 @072>48BL 2 0:20@8C<0E.  =0H59 AB@0=5 ?5@2>5 <0AA>2>5 @072545=85 >ACI5AB28; 8725AB=K9 ;5=8=3@04A:89 0:20@8C<8AB ..0<8=. ;03>40@O ?>;CG5=8N 0:20@8C<=KE 35=5@0F89 (?>:>;5=89) @K1:0 A :064K< 3>4>< @072>48BAO 2A5 ?@>I5 8 ?@>I5. "0: =>2K5 @K1K ?>AB5?5==> ?@8A?>A01;820NBAO : 687=8 2 0:20@8C<0E 8 87 ?@>1;5<=KE (@072>48<KE A B@C4><) ?5@5E>4OB 2 @07@O4 ?@>ABKE, H8@>:>4>ABC?=KE 8 A@02=8B5;L=> ;53:> @072>48<KE. # =5>=>2>9 @K1:8 <=>3> @>4AB25==8:>2 2 0:20@8C<0E. 02=> C65 ?>?C;O@=0 C =0A :@>E>B=0O @K1:0 A 28H=52>:@0A=K< 0=0;L=K< 8 E2>AB>2K< ?;02=8:0<8. 5 =0720=85 - Hyphessobrycon flammeus (?;0<5==K9). > 8=>340 55 7>2CB B5B@0 D>= @8>. -B> AB0@>5 =5<5F:>5 =0720=85, => :0: @07 =5<FKB> 53> 402=> =5 C?>B@51;ONB, C =0A 65 >=> 5I5 6825B.  ?>A;54=85 3>4K ?>O28;>AL <=>3> :@0A82KE E8D5AA>1@8:>=>2, 8 >=8 ?> ?@02C 70=8<0NB >4=> 87 ?>G5B=KE <5AB 2 0:20@8C<0E ;N18B5;59. !@548 =8E ?>?@56=5<C =081>;LH89 CA?5E ?@8E>48BAO =0 4>;N =5>=>2KE @K1; B5?5@L C65 B0: =07K20NB =5 B>;L:> @K1 >?@545;5==>3> 2840, => 8 2A5E 8E @>48G59 A O@:8<8 A25@:0NI8<8 ?>;>A0<8. , ?>60;C9, 3>;C1>3> =5>=0 =0G8=0NB 70B<520BL 1>;55 :@0A82K5 :@0A=K5, G5@=K5, 75;5=K5 =5>=K, 22>78<K5 87 10AA59=0 @5:8 <07>=:8. =>38E 87 =8E @072>48BL 5I5 B@C4=55, 0 =5:>B>@K5 ?>:0 2>>1I5 =5 @072545=K. 0 8 =0CG=>5 =0720=85 =5>=>2>9 @K1:8 2K3;O48B A53>4=O 8=0G5.  @57C;LB0B5 MBC O@:CN @K1:C 2K45;8;8 2 A0<>AB>OB5;L=K9 @>4 Paracheirodon, A>E@0=82 284>2>5 =0720=85 2 G5ABL .==5A0.  0:20@8C<5 .0=:528G0 O 2?5@2K5 C2845; 5I5 >4=C 0<07>=A:CN :@0A028FC - B0:CN 65 <0;5=L:CN, ?>;C?@>7@0G=CN, A O@:8<8 :@0A=K<8 ?@>4>;L=K<8 ;8=8O<8 =0 1>:0E. 070;>AL, GB> 2=CB@8 @K1:8 3>@8B @0A:0;5==0O ?@>2>;>G:0. -B> 3@0F8>7=>5 A>740=85 A=0G0;0 B>65 1K;> >B=5A5=> : @>4C Hyphessobrycon 8 ?>;CG8;> 2?>;=5 >?@0240==>5 284>2>5 =0720=85 gracilis. @8 ?>A;54CNI8E @52878OE A8AB5<0B8:8 ?5@525;8 55 2 4@C3>9 1;87:89 @>4, 8 B5?5@L >=0 =07K205BAO Hemigrammus erythrozonus. A;54 70 3>;C1K< =5>=>< 2 0:20@8C<0E ?>O28;AO 8 1>;55 :@C?=K9 :@0A=K9 =5>= (Paracheirodon axelrodi), C :>B>@>3> 2AO =86=OO G0ABL 1>:>2, >B 3>;>2K 4> E2>AB0, >:@0H5=0 2 O@:>:@0A=K9 F25B. Hemigrammus hyanuary (?> =0720=8N @5:8, 345 53> >1=0@C68;8), >B;820NI89 75;5=>20BK< A25B><, ?>;CG8; C 0:20@8C<8AB>2 =0720=85 75;5=K9 =5>=, 8;8 =5>=:>AB5;;>. K1:C, C :>B>@>9 ?> A@54=59 ;8=88 845B :@5<>2>15;0O ?>;>A0, 0 1>:0 A=87C G5@=K5, AB0;8 8<5=>20BL G5@=K< =5>=>< (Hyphessobrycon herbertaxelrodi). 0CG=>5 =0720=85 @K1:8 2:;NG05B 8<O 8725AB=>3> 8EB8>;>30, :>B>@K9 2> 2@5<O M:A?548F89 >1=0@C68; =5<0;> =>2KE @K1 B@>?8G5A:8E 2>4.  0:20@8C<5 . CA:>20 O ;N1>20;AO ?5@C0=A:8<8 =5>=0<8 (Hyphessobrycon peruvianus) A :@0A=>:>@8G=52>9 A?8=:>9, H8@>:>9 G5@=>9 ?>;>A>9 ?> 1>:0< 8 ?C=F>2K<8 ?;02=8:0<8. ?@>G5<, 745AL O C65 701@5; 2 =5872540==K5 =5>=>2K5 451@8. ! @072545=85< ?5@C0=A:>3> =5>=0, =0A:>;L:> <=5 8725AB=>, =8 =0H8, =8 70@C156=K5 0:20@8C<8ABK ?>:0 =5 A?@028;8AL. "> 65 A;CG8;>AL 8 A 4@C38<8 @54:8<8 @K10<8 MB>3> @>40 - . loretoensis 8 . meta. %0@0F8=84K - 3@>74L 4@03>F5==KE :0<=59 %8D5AA>1@8:>=K ?@8=04;560B : >1H8@=>9 3@C??5 ?@5A=>2>4=KE @K1 <5@8:8 8 D@8:8 - %0@0:>284=K< (Characoidei), 8;8, :0: 8E =07K20NB ;N18B5;8, E0@0F8=840<. ;8=0 MB8E @K1 >B 2 4> 50 A0=B8<5B@>2 8 1>;55. 4=8 87 =8E <8@=K5 8 2A5O4=K5, 4@C385 - E8I=K5, B@5BL8 - 0AB8B5;L=>O4=K5.  ?@5A=KE 2>4>5<0E .6=>9 <5@8:8 E0@0F8=84K 70=8<0NB B0:>5 65 <5AB>, :0: :0@?>2K5 2 788.  D@8:5 >15 3@C??K 2AB@5G0NBAO 2<5AB5. B;8G8B5;L=0O G5@B0 E0@0F8=84 - <0;5=L:89 68@>2>9 ?;02=8G>: =0 A?8=5, =540;5:> >B E2>AB>2>3> AB51;O. = E>@>H> 2845= ?>GB8 C 2A5E @K1 MB>9 3@C??K. >=5G=>, 2 0:20@8C<0E A>45@60B =081>;55 <5;:8E 8 :@0A82KE @K1, 8 8< ?> ?@02C ?@8=04;568B ;N1>2L ?>GB8 2A5E 0:20@8C<8AB>2. ?5@2K5 E0@0F8=84K AB0;8 ?>O2;OBLAO 2 0:20@8C<0E 2 =0G0;5 =0H53> AB>;5B8O. 4=>9 87 ?5@2KE 1K;0 A25B;0O @K1:0 A ?C=F>2K<8 ?;02=8:0<8 - Hemigrammus caudovittatus. 84>2>5 =0720=85 >7=0G05B @K1:0, ?5@5E20G5==0O ?>2O7:>9.  A0<>< 45;5, 55 E2>AB>2>9 AB515;L C:@0H5= B5<=K< @><1>< 8 :065BAO, 1C4B> >= ?5@5E20G5= G5@=>9 ;5=B>9. -BC @K1:C G0AB> ?CB0NB A 4@C38< E5<83@0<<CA>< - . ocellifer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ristella riddlei (A>2@5<5==>5 =0720=85 - Pristella maxillaris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arnegiella strigata), =0720==0O B0: 2 G5ABL =0BC@0;8AB:8 0@=538. @C4L @K1:8 2K3=CB0 4C3>9, 1@NH:> A8;L=> 2K405BAO 2=87 8 A=87C :>=G05BAO >AB@K< :@05<, 84CI8< >B 3@C48 : E2>ABC. @O<> =0AB>OI89 :8;L OEBK! @C4=K5 ?;02=8:8 H8@>:85, :0: :@K;LO, 0=0;L=K9 ?;02=8: C25;8G5=, C E2>AB>2>3> - =86=OO ;>?0ABL 1>;55 @0728B0, G5< 25@E=OO. K1:8 45@60BAO 2 B>;I5 2>4K =0 >B:@KB>< <5AB5. =8 254CB AB09=K9 >1@07 687=8 8 E>@>H> ?@8A?>A>1;5=K : 1KAB@><C ?;020=8N.  B5?5@L ?>A<>B@8< =0 :0@=5385;; ?>4 2>4>9. >B : =8< AB@5<8B5;L=> ?@81;8605BAO E8I=0O @K10. 0: 254CB A51O 2 B0:>< A;CG05 AB09=K5 @K1K? =8 AB@5<8B5;L=> 1@>A0NBAO 2@0AAK?=CN. %8I=8:, B>;L:> GB> 28452H89 ?5@54 A>1>9 548=CN AB0N, =0 <><5=B B5@O5BAO, >AB0=02;8205BAO, GB>1K 2K1@0BL, :>3> 4>3>=OBL, 8 MB>9 >AB0=>2:8 4>AB0B>G=>, GB>1K @K1:8 8AG57;8. > 1K205B 8 ?>4@C3><C. ?KB=K9 E8I=8: =5 45;05B >AB0=>2>:. !B@5<8B5;L=> =5A5BAO >= 70 B5<8 @K10<8, :>B>@K5 C<G0;8AL 225@E, A;>2=> ?>=8<0O, GB> C ?>25@E=>AB8 @K1:0 ?>?045B 2 ;>2CH:C: ?>25@E=>ABL - :@KH0 @K1L53> <8@0, 745AL BC?8:, 345 E8I=8: 8 =0AB8305B A2>N 4>1KGC.  B5?5@L ?>=01;N405< 70 :0@=5385;;0<8. %8I=8: ?@81;8605BAO : AB09:5. A;8 1K @K1:8 4>3040;8AL A@07C 1@>A8BLAO =0 3;C18=C, B>340 >=8 1K;8 1K A?0A5=K. > GB> >=8 45;0NB?! A5 @K1:8, :0: >4=0, 1@>A8;8AL =5 2=87, 0 225@E. @5A;54>20B5;L ?><G0;AO 70 =8<8. >B C65 1;87:0 ?>25@E=>ABL, E8I=8: @075205B ?0ABL, A59G0A >= AE20B8B& & !8;L=K9 27<0E 3@C4=K<8 ?;02=8:0<8:@K;LO<8, 8 :0@=5385;;0 2K1@0AK205B A2>5 B5;> 87 2>4K. =0 =5 27;5B05B =0 2>74CE, =5 ?@K305B 25@B8:0;L=>, =5 ?;0=8@C5B =04 2>4>9. 0: OEB0 8;8 :0B5@, <G8B >=0 =0 A2>5< :8;5:>=L:5 ?> ?>25@E=>AB8 2>4K. ;02=8:8:@K;LO =5 40NB B5;C ?@>20;8BLAO 2 2>4C, 3@C4L, :0: =>A :>@01;O, @565B 2>;=K, 0 E2>AB>2>9 8 0=0;L=K9 ?;02=8:8, 1KAB@> @01>B0O, 3>=OB @K1C:>@01;8:, :0: 28=BK =0AB>OI53> AC4=0. @><G0;0AL ?OBL <5B@>2, CAB0;0 8 ?@>20;8;0AL 2 2>4C.  E8I=8: 2A5 5I5 ?KB05BAO >BKA:0BL 4>1KGC =0 ?@56=5< <5AB5. 5 ?@0240 ;8, E>@>H> ?@8A?>A>18;0AL @K1:0! >=5G=>, 2>40 4;O =55 - @>4=0O AB8E8O, => 8=>340 254L 8 2 @>4=>< 4><5 1K20NB >?0A=K5 A8BC0F88. @8A<>B@8<AO A=>20 : 687=8 2 @5G:5. :>;> 15@530 <=>3> H8@>:8E ;8ABL52 =028A05B =04 2>4>9. >4 >4=8< 87 =8E AC5B;82> 25@BOBAO 425 @K1:8 A 2KBO=CBK<8 25@5B5=>>1@07=K<8 B5;0<8. -B> A0<5F 8 A0<:0. @C?=0O G5HCO @K1>: O@:> ?>1;5A:8205B, C A0<F0 C4;8=5==K5 >@0=652>:@0A=K5 ?;02=8:8. K1:8 O2=> =5 ?@8=04;560B : E>@>H8< ?;>2F0<, 40 8< MB> 8 =5 =C6=>. AN 687=L >=8 ?@>2>4OB 1;87 15@530 2 70@>A;OE 2>4=KE @0AB5=89. 0720=85 MB8E @K1>: - Copella arnoldi (2 G5ABL 7>>;>30 >?5). 'B> 8< ?>=@028;>AL C MB>3> ;8AB0, ?>G5<C >=8 25@BOBAO ?>4 =8<? K1:8 A>18@0NBAO <5B0BL 8:@C. # :>?5;; MB> ?@>F5AA A;>6=K9 - 8< ?@8E>48BAO ?@>45;K20BL A0<K5 @07=>>1@07=K5 0:@>10B8G5A:85 B@N:8. 0: C15@5GL 8:@C 2 2>45? 54L AB>;L:> E8I=KE, 40 8 =5E8I=KE @K1 ;N1OB ;0:><8BLAO 5N. E@0=OBL, 70I8I0BL? > :@>E>B=0O :>?5;;0 2@O4 ;8 :>3> 8A?C305B. 45 65 2KE>4? :07K205BAO, :>?5;;K <5GCB 8:@C 2=5 2>4K. K1@02 28AOI89 =04 2>4>9 ;8AB, >15 @K1:8 AB0=>2OBAO @O4>< 4@C3 A 4@C3>< 8 - E>?!- 27;5B0NB 87 2>4K : ;8ABC 8 ?@8;8?0NB : 53> ?>25@E=>AB8 A=87C.  2>74CE5 >=8 CA?520NB A45;0BL A0;LB><>@B0;5 - ?5@525@=CBLAO. 54L 2 2>45B> >=8 AB>O;8 =>@<0;L=>, B> 5ABL A?8=>9 :25@EC.  : ;8ABC 8< =04> ?@8;L=CBL 1@NH:><, 8=0G5 2AO 2K<5B0==0O 8:@0 C?045B 2 2>4C. >B 8 28AOB >=8 2=87 A?8=>9 @O4KH:><, GCBL 87>3=C2H8AL 2 AB>@>=C. K?CAB8;0 A0<:0 8:@8=:8, ?>;8; A0<5F 8E <>;>:0<8, B5?5@L <>6=> 2=87. K1:8 >BF5?8;8AL, C?0;8 2 2>4C, 0 8:@0 ?@>G=> 28A8B =0 ;8AB5. > 254L B0< 55 A>2A5< <0;>! 5@=>, :>?5;;K <=>3> 8 =5 <5GCB. :@C >=8 >B:;04K20NB 70 =5A:>;L:> ?@85<>2. ! :064K< ?@K6:>< 8E 0:@>10B8G5A:85 B@N:8 AB0=>2OBAO 2A5 A;>6=55. 54L 2> 2B>@>9 @07 =C6=> ?@K3=CBL, ?5@525@=CBLAO 8 ?@8;8?=CBL B0:, GB>1K =>20O ?>@F8O 8:@K ;53;0 B>G=> @O4>< A ?@54K4CI59.  B@5B89, G5B25@BK9 8 A;54CNI85 ?@K6:8 4>;6=K 1KBL B0: @0AAG8B0=K, GB>1K =>2K5 ?>@F88 8:@K =5 ?>?0;8 =0 AB0@K5 8 2AO 8:@0 ;53;0 @02=><5@=K< A;>5< ?> ;8ABC. -B> >G5=L B@C4=> - ?@K30BL 8 <5B0BL, ?@K30BL 8 <5B0BL.  =0:>=5F, @K1:8 A20;820NBAO 2 2>4C, :0: =5682K5, 8 CE>4OB =0 3;C18=C. > 2>B A0<5F A=>20 ?>O2;O5BAO ?>4 ;8AB><, 8 8<5==> ?>4 B5<, 345 >B;>65=0 8:@0, E>BO >48=0:>2KE ;8ABL52 BCB =5<0;>. 0G5< >= >?OBL ?>O28;AO C :;04:8?  45;> 2 B><, GB> 5<C ?@54AB>8B 1>;LH0O @01>B0. :@0B> 254L =0 ACH5. =0 A?0A5=0 >B E8I=KE @K1, => 59 C3@>605B 4@C30O >?0A=>ABL - 2KA>E=CBL 8 ?>381=CBL >B A>;=F0.  A0<5F @0A?>;0305BAO B>G=> ?>4 :;04:>9 8 A<0G8205B 55 2>4>9. = :@C68BAO, 1L5B ?> 2>45 ?;02=8:0<8, ?>4=8<0O BCG8 1@K73. '5@57 ACB:8 <0;L:8 2K:;52K20NBAO 87 8:@K 8 ?040NB 2 2>4C. >B B5?5@L A0<FC <>6=> C9B8 >B4KE0BL.  C @>4AB25==8FK :>?5;;K - Copeina guttata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annobrycon eques). 5F8;>1@8:>=>2 8=>340 2:;NG0NB 2 @>4 Nannostomus. =8, 459AB28B5;L=>, >G5=L ?>E>68. ">;L:> =0==>AB><CAK ?;020NB =>@<0;L=>, :0: 2A5 @K1:8. @0240, =5 2A5340. >B =0==>AB><CA (N. beckfordi) 70<5B8; =0 4=5 :0:>5B> 42865=85. 5 4>1KG0 ;8?  5A;8 4>1KG0, B> ?>4>945B ;8 MB>9 @K1:5? 54L C =55 B0:>9 :@>E>B=K9 @>B8: (nannostomus - C7:>@>BK9).  @K1:0 =0G8=05B @073;O4K20BL, GB> B0< :>?>H8BAO =0 4=5. >65B ;8 >=0 MB> AJ5ABL? # =0==>AB><CA0 C4828B5;L=0O A?>A>1=>ABL >AB0=02;820BLAO 2 2>45. 065BAO, 1C4B> >= =0B:=C;AO =0 :0:>5B> =52848<>5 ?@5?OBAB285. >B >= ?;K25B, ?;K25B 8 24@C3 - AB>?! 8 70<54;5=8O, =8 ?;02=>9 >AB0=>2:8, ?@>AB> 2AB0; :0: 2:>?0==K9. >B>< =0G8=05B <54;5==> ?>2>@0G820BLAO: 3>;>20 ?>H;0 2=87, E2>AB 225@E, 8 70ABK;0 @K1:0 - ?@O<> AB>9:0 =0 3>;>25. 'B> A =59?  =8G53>, ?@>AB> @073;O4K205B G5@2O:0, ?@8<5@O5B, 2>945B ;8 2 55 C7:89 @>B. 025@=>5, 2>945B. @>A>: - 8 A=>20 =0704 2 B> 65 ?>;>65=85. ">;L:> B5?5@L A 872820NI8<AO G5@2O:>< 2> @BC. ABL C =0==>AB><CA0 8 4@C30O ;N1>?KB=0O >A>15==>ABL: @>B 53> 2A5340 >B:@KB, 0 3@C4=K5 ?;02=8:8 ?>AB>O==> 281@8@CNB.  :0:>< ?>;>65=88 >1KG=> @>B C 1>;LH8=AB20 @K1? = ?>AB>O==> 2 42865=88. K10 70E20BK205B @B>< 2>4C, ?@>?CA:05B G5@57 601@K, ?@>8AE>48B >1<5= 307>2, 8 2>40 2KE>48B 87?>4 6015@=KE :@KH5:. # =0==>AB><CA0 MB> 42865=85 2>4K B>65 ?@>8AE>48B, => @>B ?>AB>O==> >B:@KB, 8 3C1K 2KBO=CBK 2 B@C1>G:C. >G5<C? >B><C GB> MB0 @K1:0 C18205B A@07C 42CE 709F52.  2>45 2A5340 ?>;=> 8=DC7>@89. @C?=0O @K10 8E =5 70<5G05B, <5;:0O 8 @040 1K 8E AJ5ABL, 40 AE20B8HL B0:CN :@>H:C 2 @>B, 0 >=0 - H<K3 - 8 G5@57 601@K >?OBL =0 A2>1>45. 065 42CE<5AOG=K5 <0;L:8 <=>38E @K1 =5 >1@0I0NB 2=8<0=8O =0 8=DC7>@89 - 8< =C65= :>@< ?>:@C?=55. =>5 45;> C =0==>AB><CA0. >B ?>B>: 2>4K A 8=DC7>@859 ?@>H5; G5@57 @>B 8 CAB@5<8;AO : 601@0<.  BCB =0 ?CB8 I5B8=:8. =DC7>@8O 8 70AB@5205B. "0: GB> <0;5=L:89 @>B =5 B0:>5 C6 =5C4>1AB2>, >= ?>72>;O5B ;>28BL B0:85 :>@<0, :>B>@K5 4@C385 @K1K ?@>?CA:0NB <8<>.  =0H5< 70;825 =>AOBAO AB08 @K1. A5 >=8 @07=>>1@07=K, 2A5 @07;8G=>9 >:@0A:8. >B 87OI=0O A5@51@8AB>4K<G0B>G5@=0O @K1:0 A B0:8< H8@>:8< 0=0;L=K< ?;02=8:><, GB> :065BAO, 1C4B> >=0 2 N1>G:5. -B> B5@=5F8O (Gymnocorymbus ternetzi). "5@=5F8 ?5@2K9 >B:@K; MBC @K1:C, >BAN40 8 55 284>2>5 =0720=85. >4>2>5 65 =0720=85 >7=0G05B - >BACBAB285 G5HC8 =0 70BK;:5, GB> O2;O5BAO >B;8G8B5;L=K< ?@87=0:>< @>40. "5@=5F88 8<5NB >G5=L E0@0:B5@=CN D>@<C 8 >:@0A:C, 8E =5 A?CB05HL A 4@C38<8 @K10<8. A;8 ?5F8;>1@8:>=K ?;020NB =0:;>==> 225@E 3>;>2>9, >@838=0;L=0O @K1:0 E8;>4CA (Chilodus punctatus) 45@68BAO ?>AB>O==> B0: 65 =0:;>==>, => 3>;>2>9 2=87. A>1K<8 7C1G0BK<8 3C10<8 @K1:0 A>A:@51K205B 2>4>@>A;52K5 >1@0AB0=8O A ;8ABL52 @0AB5=89 8 AB5=>: 0:20@8C<>2. =0 A5@51@8AB>A5@0O A B5<=K< ?OB=>< =0 :064>9 :@C?=>9 G5HC9:5. 4>;L B5;0 ?@>E>48B B5<=0O ?>;>A0. 7 0D@8:0=A:8E E0@0F8=84 ?>?C;O@=K =5>;5180AK (Neolebias ansorgei) - :@>E>B=K5 A ?C=F>2K<8 ?;02=8:0<8 3>;C1>20B>75;5=K5 @K1:8. AB0;L=K5 0D@8:0=FK B>65 O@:> >:@0H5=K, => :@C?=55 - 4> 1215 A0=B8<5B@>2. @0A=K5, @>7>2K5, 7>;>B8ABK5, 65;BK5, A>2A5< ?>GB8 ?@>7@0G=K5. '5@=K5 8 A8=85 ?OB=0, HB@8E8. >;C1>5, :@0A=>5, >@0=652>5, A5@51@8AB>5 A25G5=85 8 1;5A:. !;>2=> =5 @K1:8, 0 4@03>F5==K5 :0<=8 A25@:0NB A2>8<8 @04C6=K<8 3@0=O<8 2 2>45. 0G5< 8< B0:0O O@:0O >:@0A:0? K ?@82K:;8 AG8B0BL, GB> >:@0A:0 682>B=KE 4>;6=0 1KBL ;81> <0A:8@CNI59, ?>:@>28B5;LAB25==>9, ;81> >B?C3820NI59, =0?><8=0NI59 >:@0A:C O4>28BKE 682>B=KE. >@>G5, >:@0A:0 682>B=KE 4>;6=0 ?><>30BL 8< A?0A0BLAO >B 2@03>2.  A0<>< 45;5, 4K<G0B>G5@=CN B5@=5F8N 8 B5<=>3> ?5F8;>1@8:>=0 =5 A@07C 70<5B8HL 2 AC<5@5G=>< A25B5, ?@>=8:0NI5< 2 2>4C. 0@=5385;;K A25B;K5, => ?> 8E B5;C @0A?;K20NBAO B5<=K5 :>=BC@K, >=8 A<07K20NB >G5@B0=8O @K1:8, =0@CH0NB ?@54AB02;5=85 >1 55 8AB8==>< ?>;>65=88 2 40==K9 <><5=B. > ?>G5<C B0: O@:8 <=>385 87 E0@0F8=84? 0 MB>B 2>?@>A A>2@5<5==0O =0C:0 =5 405B ?>:0 B>G=>3> >B25B0. /@:0O, ?@82;5:0NI0O 2=8<0=85 >:@0A:0 <=>38E B@>?8G5A:8E @K1 4> A8E ?>@ =5 >1JOA=5=0. > ?@54?>;>65=8O A45;0BL <>6=>. @54AB02LB5 A515, GB> =0 AB09:C @K1 =0?0; E8I=8: 8 >=8 @0AAK?0;8AL, :B> :C40. > 254L 8< BCB 65 =04> A>1@0BLAO 2<5AB5, GB>1K 1KBL 3>B>2K<8 ?@>B82>AB>OBL =>2><C =0?045=8N.  :0: C2848HL ?@8 A;01>< >A25I5=88, B2>O ;8 MB> AB09:0? >B 8 A<>B@8B @K1:0, 345 7=0:><K9 >3>=5: A25@:=5B. >65B 1KBL, ?>B><C B0:0O >:@0A:0 C E0@0F8=84? ;8 GB>1K C40@8BL 2 3;070 E8I=8:C 2 <><5=B >?0A=>AB8 A>B=O<8 2A?KH5: D>=0@8:>2, 70@O18BL G5@=K<8 ?OB=KH:0<8 =0 103@>2>< D>=5, A18BL 53> A B>;:C, 70AB028BL ?>B5@OBL >@85=B8@>2:C? A;8 2=8<0B5;L=> ?>A<>B@5BL =0 <=>38E <5;:8E 8 O@:> >:@0H5==KE E0@0F8=>2KE @K1, <>6=> 70<5B8BL =0 F25B=>< D>=5 @07=>>1@07=K5 B5<=K5 ?OB=0. -B> B>65 F25B>2>9 7=0:, ?>72>;ONI89 @K1:0< 1KAB@> 3@C??8@>20BLAO 2 A2>N AB0N. # B5@=5F88 - B@8 25@B8:0;L=K5 ?>;>AK =0 A25B;>< D>=5 ?5@54=59 G0AB8 B5;0 8 B5<=0O 704=OO ?>;>28=0. # 75;5=>3> =5>=0 - B5<=>5 ?OB=> =0 E2>AB>2>< AB51;5 (B0:85 ?OB=0 5ABL 8 C 4@C38E @K1, => 4;O :064>3> 2840 E0@0:B5@=0 A2>O D>@<0 ?OB=0). @0A82K5 @K1:8 @>4>AB><CA (Hemigrammus rhodostomus) 8 ?5B8B5;;0 (Petitella georgiae) >G5=L ?>E>68: ?C=F>20O 3>;>20, A5@51@8AB>5 B5;>, B5<=K5 ?>;>AK =0 E2>AB>2>< ?;02=8:5.  E>BO ?5@20O >18B05B 2 =86=59 <07>=:5, 0 2B>@0O - 2 >A=>2=>< @CA;5 8 ?@8B>:0E 25@E=59 G0AB8 @5:8, >=8 2A5B0:8 8<5NB >?@545;5==K5 F25B>2K5 0:F5=BK. # ?5@2>9 >B 3>;>2K G5@57 3;07 845B ?> 1>:0< 70BCE0NI0O :@0A=0O ?>;>A0 4> C@>2=O A?8==>3> ?;02=8:0, C 2B>@>9 55 =5B, :@0A=K9 F25B 40;LH5 6015@=KE :@KH5: =5 ?@>AB8@05BAO; C ?5@2>9 =0 E2>AB>2>< AB51;5 420 B5<=KE ?OB=KH:0 - A25@EC 8 A=87C, C 2B>@>9 - B>;L:> A25@EC. =>385 E8D5AA>1@8:>=K 8<5NB ?OB=0 8 HB@8E8 =0 ?5@2>9 B@5B8 1>:>2 B5;0, 8 C :064>3> 2840 A2>9 =01>@ MB8E F25B>2KE 0:F5=B>2. -B> ?>72>;O5B @K1:0< (8 =0< - 0:20@8C<8AB0<) ;53:> @07;8G0BL ?>;: C A0<F>2 8 A0<>: >=8 ?>E>68, => =5 A>2A5< >48=0:>2K. 0: 2848<, =5>1KG=> O@:0O, 1@>A:0O @0AF25B:0 E0@0F8=84 - MB> 2A5B0:8 18>;>38G5A:8 >1>A=>20==0O 8 F5;5A>>1@07=0O >:@0A:0. "0:85 65 ?OB=0, 1;5AB:8, 20@80F88 >:@0A:8 2AB@5G0NBAO C F8E;84 87 0D@8:0=A:8E >75@. 84OI85 157 3;07 "5;53@0<<0 >B .@8O @;>20 1K;0 =5<=>3>A;>2=0: ">;L:> GB> 25@=C;AO >A:2C. @8257 B515 ?>40@>: ?@06A:>3> 8EB8>;>30 B0 ;82K. 5@5AK;0N =0H8< A>B@C4=8:><, ?>574& 203>=& & / AB>O; =0 ?5@@>=5 2>:70;0 8 C65 2845; >3@><=CN 1CBK;L, =0?>;=5==CN A0<K<8 @54:8<8 8 C4828B5;L=K<8 @K1:0<8& --B> 20< ?>AK;0;8 @K1? 0948B5 2 :C?5. / >3;O4K20N ?>;:8 - 345 65 1CBK;L?!  BCB <=5 ?@5?>4=>AOB& ?@>ABCN ?>;;8B@>2CN 10=>G:C. / 4065 2A?>B5; >B @0AAB@>9AB20: 2 AC<@0:5 @0==53> CB@5==53> A25B0 O @073;O45; 2A53> B@8 @K1:8, A>2A5< >1K:=>25==K5, 15;5AK5, =0?><8=0NI85 =0H8E :0@0A8:>2. -!?0A81>,- ?@5C25;8G5==> 1>4@> ?>1;03>40@8; O 8 2KH5; =0 ?5@@>=. 'B> 70 GCHL? 745205BAO =04> <=>9 .@89? ;8& I5 8 5I5 @07 O 2=8<0B5;L=> @073;O4K20N @K1. 5B, MB> =5 :0@0A8, OA=> 2845= 68@>2>9 ?;02=8:, E0@0:B5@=K9 4;O E0@0F8=84. 'C2AB2CN, GB> MB8 =527@0G=K5 @K1:8 G5<B> 15A?>:>OB <5=O, GB>B> 2 =8E =5 B0:, 0 GB> - =5 <>3C ?>=OBL.  24@C3 C;>28;: @K1K& 157 3;07! !>2A5< 157 3;07! !;5?K5& "0:A8 545B C4828B5;L=> <54;5==>.  =04> A:>@55 - 78<0, E>;>4. 5@6C @K1 70 ?07CE>9, B0< B5?;55. / C65 701K; >1 >3@><=>9 1CBK;8 A =52840==K<8 @K10<8. KA;8 70=OBK B>;L:> MB8<8.  GB> O 7=0N > A;5?KE ?5I5@=KE @K10E? @8E>48BAO A A>60;5=85< A>7=0BLAO - =8G53>. ><0 ;8AB0N B>;ABK5 B><0 0:20@8C<=KE A?@02>G=8:>2 - @CAA:85, G5HA:85, =5<5F:85, 0<5@8:0=A:85. ">3>, GB> =04>, =5B. 8HL B@8G5BK@5 AB@>:8. > 2A5B0:8 OA=>: A>2A5< =5>1O70B5;L=> CAB@0820BL 70B5<=5==K9 0:20@8C<, A;5?K5 @K1:8 E>@>H> 682CB 8 2 >1KG=KE, 4065 2 :><?0=88 A ;N1K<8 <8@=K<8 @K1:0<8. =0G8B, 5ABL =045640, GB> >=8 ?@8682CBAO. ">;L:> 1K =5 ?>381;8! >40 2 10=:5 >E;048;0AL 4> 12 !, 0 254L @K1K - C@>65=FK 5:A8:8, MB> 4;O =8E A<5@B5;L=K9 E>;>4. =8 8 2 A0<>< 45;5 ?>GB8 ;560B =0 1>:C. 54;5==> ?>4>3@520N 10=:C, 2KA06820N @K1 2 0:20@8C<. @>E>48B 45=L - 8 @K1:8 ?>:@K20NBAO 3@81:><. >B =5AG0ABL5! 072>6C 2 2>45 B@8?0D;028=. K74>@02;820NB. @>E>48B =5A:>;L:> <5AOF52. K1:8 682CB, => C A0<:8 A8;L=> @074C205BAO 1@NH:>: C =55 :8AB0, A:2>7L ?@>7@0G=K5 1>:0 284=>, :0: 2 65;B>9 684:>AB8 1>;B0NBAO ?@8 42865=88 <5@B2K5 8:@8=:8. -B> A<5@B5;L=>. 0: 60;L! >=5G=>, B@8 @K1:8 8=B5@5A=K 8 A0<8 ?> A515, => 4;O =0AB>OI8E =01;N45=89 B@51C5BAO 1>;LH55 G8A;> @K1.  :@><5 B>3>, E>B5;>AL 70:@5?8BL MB>B @54:89 284, @07<=>68BL 8 @0A?@>AB@0=8BL A@548 =0H8E 0:20@8C<8AB>2.  <>65B 1KBL, ?>?@>1>20BL?& 5B, =5B, MB> 1>;LH>9 @8A:, @K1:0 A;8H:>< =56=0, 40 8 8AE>4 ?>GB8 2A5340 1K205B A<5@B5;L=K<. 064K9 45=L AB>N O 2 @074C<L5 >:>;> 0:20@8C<0 8, =0:>=5F, @5H0NAL. 5@C 1;N45G:> 8 =0?>;=ON 4> ?>;>28=K 2>4>9 87 0:20@8C<0; @O4>< :;04C =5A:>;L:> :CA>G:>2 20BK. 7<0E A0G:>< - 27@>A;KE A;5?KE @K1 ;>28BL =5B@C4=> - 8 A0<:0 >:07K205BAO 2 1;N4F5. >:@CN, =52K60BCN 20BC :;04C =0 601@K, GB>1K >AB020;8AL 2;06=K<8 8E =56=K5 ;5?5AB:8, 8 >?5@0F8O =0G0;0AL. 4=>9 @C:>9 45@6C @K1:C 2 <>:@>9 20B5, 4@C3>9 - <54;5==> ?>3;06820N 20B>9 ?> 1@NH:C >B 3>;>2K : E2>ABC. 8G53> =5 2KE>48B.  5A;8 =04028BL? ?0A=> - 24@C3 ?>:0;5GC!  2A5 65 =0402;820N. @K7=C;0 65;B0O 6860 A 8:@>9, 0 O 402;N 5I5 8 5I5. 0:>=5F, <=5 :065BAO, GB> 1@NH:> >?CAB5;>. K?CI5==0O 2 0:20@8C< @K1:0 20;8BAO =0 1>: 8 845B :> 4=C. >=5G=>, O B0: 8 4C<0;& > =5B! =0 ?>H525;8;0AL, 2K?@O<8;0AL 8 ?>?;K;0! 20 4=O 1@NH:> C @K1:8 1K;> 2BO=CB> 2=CB@L. >B>< >=0 ?>?@028;0AL, ?@8=O;0 >1KG=K9 284 8 AB0;0 =>@<0;L=> ?8B0BLAO. "5< 65 ;5B>< >B MB>9 A0<:8, ?5@5=5AH59 B0:CN BO65;CN >?5@0F8N, O ?>;CG8; B@8 ?>@F88 8:@K. >340 ?>O28;8AL <0;L:8, =0G0;0AL A0<0O 8=B5@5A=0O @01>B0 ?> 87CG5=8N MB8E @K1. > ?@5645 G5< @0AA:07K20BL > A2>8E 8AA;54>20=8OE, O ?@54;030N ?>7=0:><8BLAO A >A>1K< =0?@02;5=85< 18>;>388 - 18>A?5;5>;>3859. 5@2K5 8AA;54>20=8O ?5I5@ 8 8E A2>5>1@07=>3> =0A5;5=8O >B=>AOBAO : XVII 25:C.  MB> 2@5<O 2N@F1C@3A:89 <>=0E 8@E5@ 2 :=835 8@ ?>475<5;LO A>>1I8; ?5@2K5 A2545=8O > ?5I5@=KE 682>B=KE. @8<5@=> 2 B5 65 3>4K CG5=K9 0;L20A>@ >B:@K; 2 ?5I5@0E A525@=>3> ?>15@56LO !@54875<=>3> <>@O =5:>5 75<=>2>4=>5 - A>25@H5==> 15AF25B=>5 8 A;5?>5 ACI5AB2>, >18B02H55 2 ?>475<=KE >75@0E 8 ?>;CG82H55 =0720=85 ?@>B59. @>B55< 8=B5@5A>20;8AL <=>385 18>;>38 XVIII 8 XIX AB>;5B89. > 459AB28B5;L=> A5@L57=>5 87CG5=85 18>;>388 >18B0B5;59 ?5I5@ =0G0;>AL ;8HL 2 ?5@2>< 45AOB8;5B88 XX 25:0.  @O45 AB@0= 2>7=8:;8 A?5F80;L=K5 =0CG=K5 >1I5AB20. >A:>;L:C =0C:0 > ?5I5@0E 2 F5;>< =07K205BAO A?5;5>;>3859, 18>;>38G5A:>5 >B25B2;5=85 55 ?>;CG8;> =0720=85 18>A?5;5>;>388. 0:>2K 65 E0@0:B5@=K5 CA;>28O 687=8 2 ?5I5@0E? >?5@2KE, >BACBAB285 A25B0, 2>2B>@KE, ?>AB>O==> =87:0O B5<?5@0BC@0. AB0B8, A;5?K5 @K1:8 ?>B><C 8 2K45@60;8 ?5@52>7:C ?@8 12 !, GB> 2 ?5I5@0E 2A5340 ?@>E;04=>, B>340 :0: =0 ?>25@E=>AB8 60@0.  B> 65 2@5<O B0< >G5=L 2KA>:0O 2;06=>ABL 2>74CE0 - 4> 90%. >;LH8=AB2> ?5I5@ - :0@AB>2K5, 8770 ?>AB>O==>3> ?@>F5AA0 @0AB2>@5=8O 8725AB=O:0 2>40 ?>475<=KE >75@ 65AB:0O - 1620 8 2KH5. -B> >1AB>OB5;LAB2> ?5@2>5 2@5<O <5=O A<CI0;>, :070;>AL, A;5?K5 @K1:8 =5 AB0=CB @07<=>60BLAO 2 <O3:>9 2>45. > @K1K @0AA5O;8 2A5 A><=5=8O: 2>B C65 <=>3> ;5B >=8 =5@5ABOBAO 2 2>45 65AB:>ABLN 5. ?@>G5<, 2 ;8B5@0BC@5 5ABL A2545=8O, GB> 1>;LH0O G0ABL 8:@8=>: @0728205BAO ?@8 1>;55 2KA>:>9 65AB:>AB8 (1416). @54?>;030NB, GB> A?5@<0B>7>84K A;5?KE @K1 4>;LH5 >AB0NBAO 682K<8 8 0:B82=K<8 2 2>45 65AB:>ABLN 14. 0:CN ?8IC ?>B@51;ONB A;5?K5 @K1:8 2 ?5I5@0E? ?KB ?>:070;, GB> 2 0:20@8C<=KE CA;>28OE >=8 2A5O4=K 8 >B=N4L =5 AB@040NB ?>B5@59 0??5B8B0. > AB@0==0O 25IL - =5@54:8 A;CG08, :>340 >=8 54OB, @0ABCB, 0 ?>B><AB20 =5 40NB.  G5< 45;>? 'B>1K >B25B8BL =0 MB>B 2>?@>A, ?@8H;>AL ?@5645 2A53> 87CG8BL >1@07 687=8 ?5I5@=KE @K1 =0 2>;5. '5< >=8 <>3CB ?8B0BLAO 2 5AB5AB25==KE CA;>28OE? >=01;N405< 70 =8<8. >B @K1:8 <54;5==> ?;020NB C 4=0, @>B ?>;C>B:@KB, >=8 GB>B> A>18@0NB, 0 8=>340 4065 @>NBAO 2 ?5A:5.  :@><5 B>3>, >=8 A C4>2>;LAB285< ?>540NB @0AB5=8O. 'B> 65, 2KE>48B, >A=>2=0O 8E ?8I0 - @0AB8B5;L=>ABL 8 45B@8B? > 254L MB> 65 =5;5?>ABL! 0:85 <>3CB 1KBL @0AB5=8O 2 B5<=>9 ?5I5@5, :C40 A>2A5< =5 ?@>=8:0NB ;CG8 A>;=F0? !>2A5<? 5B, <K >H81;8AL, :0:>9B> A25B AN40 ?>?0405B, => =0H 3;07 53> =5 2>A?@8=8<05B. B0:, @0AB5=8O 2 ?5I5@0E <>3CB 1KBL. AB05BAO 4>1028BL, GB> 2 A0<8E 2>4>5<0E >18B05B =5A:>;L:> 284>2 @0:>>1@07=KE, 0 2 3@C=B0E ?5I5@ =0945=> 1>;55 425=04F0B8 284>2 >;83>E5B - @>4AB25==8:>2 M=E8B@5CA0. "5?5@L <K <>65< A45;0BL 2K2>4: >A=>2=0O ?8I0 A;5?KE ?5I5@=KE @K1 - 45B@8B, =57=0G8B5;L=CN 4>;N A>AB02;ONB @0AB5=8O; 2B>@>AB5?5==0O ?8I0 - B5 =5<=>3>G8A;5==K5 @0:>>1@07=K5, :>B>@K5 =0A5;ONB ?>475<=K9 <8@.  ?5I5@0E @K1:8 =8:>340 =5 =0540NBAO 4>AKB0. 5@5:>@< 2 =52>;5 2545B : ;N1>?KB=>9 70:>=><5@=>AB8 - G5< 1>;LH5 AJ5405BAO, B5< <5=LH5 CA208205BAO >@30=87<><. !@02=5=85 ?>:070;>, GB> ?@8 C<5@5==>< :>@<;5=88 A >1O70B5;L=K< 4>102;5=85< 2 @0F8>= 15;>3> E;510 >;>2>7@5;>ABL A;5?KE @K1 =0ABC?05B =0 810< <5AOF5, ?@8 >18;L=>< - ;8HL =0 2B>@>9 3>4; G0AB> ?>;>20O A8AB5<0 2>>1I5 =5 @0728205BAO, =0ABC?05B >68@5=85. >B : G5<C <>65B ?@825AB8 =57=0=85 M:>;>388! > GB> 65 MB> 70 @K1K, :0:>2> 8E =0CG=>5 =0720=85? ?5@2K5 A;5?K5 @K1K 1K;8 >1=0@C65=K 2 ?5I5@0E 5:A8:8 !0;L204>@>< >@>=04> 2 1936 3>4C. ">340 65 >=8 1K;8 ?>A;0=K 2 !( CG5=><C !..>@40=C 8 ?>;CG8;8 =0CG=>5 =0720=85 Anoptichthys jordani, GB> >7=0G05B 1573;070O @K10 >@40=0.  0?@5;5 8 8N;5 1942 3>40 1K;0 >@30=87>20=0 5I5 >4=0 M:A?548F8O 70 MB8<8 @K10<8, 8 =0 A59 @07 >B =8E 1K;> ?>;CG5=> ?>B><AB2>.  =0AB>OI5<C 2@5<5=8 2 5:A8:5 >1=0@C65=> H5ABL 284>2 ?5I5@=KE @K1 - ;81> A;5?KE, ;81> A> A;01> @0728BK<8 3;070<8. AB@5G0NBAO >=8 8 2 4@C38E <5AB0E. 5A:>;L:> 284>2 >18B05B 2 !( 2 7=0<5=8B>9 0<>=B>2>9 ?5I5@5, ?5I5@0E "5E0A0 8 5=A8;L20=88. -B8 @K1:8 >B=>AOBAO : :0@?>7C1K< 8;8 1;87:8< : =8< A5<59AB20<, <5:A8:0=A:85 - 2 1>;LH8=AB25 : E0@0F8=840<, A@548 1@078;LA:8E ?5I5@=KE @K1 5ABL ?@54AB028B5;8 A><>2, 0 2 D@8:5, 1;87 >=3>, >18B05B ?>475<=K9 284 10@1CA0. >;LH8=AB2> MB8E @K1 =5 8<55B >:@0A:8, 8 3;070 C =8E 2 1>;LH59 8;8 <5=LH59 AB5?5=8 =54>@0728BK, B0: :0: 2 B5<=>B5 ?5I5@ 7@5=85 =5 =C6=>. !B5?5=L =54>@0728B>AB8 3;07 =5@07@K2=> A2O70=0 A 8AB>@859 ?>O2;5=8O MB8E @K1 2 ?5I5@0E. =>65AB2> @K1 70?;K20NB 2 ?5I5@K 2@5<5=0<8, =51>;LH0O G0ABL :>340B> ?@>G=> 8 ?>AB>O==> ?>A5;8;0AL ?>4 75<;59, 0 =5:>B>@K5 8 A59G0A ?@>4>;60NB ?@>=8:0BL A ?>25@E=>AB8 2 ?>475<=K5 2>4>5<K. "0:, 2 D@8:5 =5@54:8 A;CG08, :>340 87 0@B5780=A:8E :>;>4F52 AB@CO 2K?;5A:8205B B8;O?89 8 E5<8E@><8A>2, A>25@H5==> =5>B;8G8<KE >B =075<=KE. 0H 8725AB=K9 8EB8>;>3 52 !5<5=>28G 5@3 ?>;CG8; >4=064K :>;NH5:, 2K1@>H5==KE 2>40<8 0@B5780=A:>3> :>;>4F0 2 60=:>5.  =488 (HB0B AA0<) 5ABL ?5I5@=K5 @07=>284=>AB8 >1KG=KE 4;O B5E 2>4>5<>2 10@1CA>2, :>B>@K5 >B;8G0NBAO ;8HL >:@0A:>9. 5@5A5;5=85 2 ?>475<=K5 2>4>5<K B5E @K1, :>B>@K5 =K=5 682CB B0< ?>AB>O==>, ?@>8AE>48;> 2 40;5:>< ?@>H;>< ?>@07=><C. 0?@8<5@, :C18=A:85 ?5I5@=K5 @K1K - <>@A:>3> ?@>8AE>645=8O. G5284=>, A=0G0;0 >=8 ?>A5;8;8AL 2 ?CAB>B0E :>@0;;>2KE @8D>2, ?>B>< @8DK ?>4=8<0;8AL, 2>4>5<K >?@5A=O;8AL, 8 @K1K ?>AB5?5==> ?@52@0I0;8AL 2 ?@5A=>2>4=KE ?5I5@=KE >18B0B5;59.  :0:>2 ?CBL, ?@>945==K9 @K10<8, ?>;CG5==K<8 <=>9 87 @038? %>@>H> 1K ?@>A;548BL MB0?K ?5@5A5;5=8O Anoptichthys jordani 2 ?5I5@K! 5 ?><>65B ;8 =0< 745AL ?@>F5AA 8E @07<=>65=8O? >=01;N405<. >B A0<5F 8I5B A0<:C. =8 >4=8 2 1>;LH>< 0:20@8C<5, 8 5<C, =025@=>5, B@C4=> =09B8 55 - 254L >= 157 3;07! > =5 =04> A?5H8BL A 2K2>40<8. !0<5F ?@>AB> 8AA;54C5B ?><5I5=85 - ?@83>4=> ;8 >=> 4;O =5@5AB0.  2>B B5?5@L >= ?><G0;AO : A0<:5 - B>G=> 8 ?@O<> : =59. K1:8 :>A=C;8AL 1>:0<8 8 @8=C;8AL 225@E, C40@OO 4@C3 4@C30 ?;02=8:0<8. # ?>25@E=>AB8 2>4K >=8 3@0F8>7=> ?5@525@=C;8AL, 8 ?5@20O 3@>74L 8:@K - A;>2=> 45A0=B ?0@0HNB8AB>2 - ?;02=> ?>?;K;0 2=87.  @K1K @07>H;8AL. >B>< A=>20 A0<5F 1KAB@> =0E>48B A0<:C - 87OI=K9 27;5B 225@E, 8 >?OBL 45AOB:8 :@>E>B=KE 65;B>20BKE ?0@0HNB>2 >?CA:0NBAO :> 4=C. -B> ?>2B>@O5BAO 4> 4204F0B8 @07, 8, =0:>=5F, A0<:0 CE>48B 2 3CIC @0AB5=89 - B5?5@L 55 >BBC40 =5 2K<0=8HL. C GB> 6, =5@5AB ?@>H5; C40G=>, >B;>28< @>48B5;59 8 ?5@5A048< 2 4@C3>5 ?><5I5=85. 5;> 2 B><, GB> A;5?K5 @K1K 8=>340 ?>540NB 8:@C (?@0240, ;8HL 2 B5E A;CG0OE, :>340 CA;>28O G5<B> =5 ?>4E>4OB 8;8 8E 15A?>:>8B HC<). "5?5@L ?@>25@8< B5<?5@0BC@C: 2326 !. M@0B>@ @01>B05B? A5 2 ?>@O4:5, >AB05BAO 640BL. '5@57 ACB:8 87 ?@8;8?H59 : :0<=O< 8 @0AB5=8O< 8:@K 2K:;52K20NBAO ;8G8=:8. >?@K302 =5:>B>@>5 2@5<O 2 25@B8:0;L=>< =0?@02;5=88, >=8 70<8@0NB, ?>28A=C2 =0 AB5:;5 8 ;8ABLOE. 4CB 4=8, ;8G8=:8 AB0=>2OBAO 2A5 :@C?=55, => 28AOB, ;8HL 87@54:0 ?5@5?@K3820O A <5AB0 =0 <5AB>.  ?OB><CH5AB><C 4=N 65;57K =0 3>;>25 ?5@5AB0NB 2K45;OBL :;59:>5 25I5AB2>, <>;>4L C65 =5 ?@8:@5?;O5BAO : ?@54<5B0< 8 =0G8=05B >AB>@>6=> ?;020BL >:>;> 4=0.  B>;L:> =0 2B>@CN =545;N >=0 70?>;=O5B 2AN B>;IC 2>4K. A;8 ?@83;O45BLAO : <0;L:0< ?>2=8<0B5;L=59, B> 284=K& 3;070! !0<K5 =0AB>OI85 3;070. > 2>B =0A:>;L:> >=8 284OB 8 70G5< >=8 <0;L:0<? >?@>1C5< 2KOA=8BL. ><5AB8< ;0<?C =5 A25@EC, 0 A1>:C 0:20@8C<0. A5 <0;L:8 ?>?;K;8 : >A25I5==>9 AB5=:5. > ?>G5<C? 'B>1K >B25B8BL =0 MB>B 2>?@>A, 2=5A5< 2 2>4C 8=DC7>@8NBCD5;L:C. C40 428=C;0AL 8=DC7>@8O? ">65 : A25BC. "5?5@L ?>=OB=>: <0;L:8 ?;K2CB : A25BC ?>B><C, GB> A25B>;N182K5 8=DC7>@88 8 <5;:85 2>4>@>A;8 A:0?;820NBAO 8<5==> 2 <0;><0;LA:8 >A25I5==KE C3;0E ?5I5@=>3> 2>4>5<0. > 284OB ;8 <0;L:8 ?;020NI8E 2>:@C3 =8E 8=DC7>@89? -B> A><=8B5;L=>. 0;L:8 7@OG8E @K1, :@><5 =5>=>2KE, ?>2545=85 :>B>@KE AE>4=> A ?>2545=85< 0=>?B8EB8A>2, ?;020NB 70 >B45;L=K<8 8=DC7>@8O<8, ?>4E>4OB : =8< A >?@545;5==>9, C4>1=>9 AB>@>=K, 8=>340, AKBK5,- B>;L:> :>AOBAO =0 =8E. -B> ;53:> 70<5B8BL ?@8 =01;N45=88.  2>B <0;L:8 0=>?B8EB8A0 A;>2=> =8G53> =5 284OB, >=8 E20B0NB ;8HL B>B :>@<, :>B>@K9 A5; 8< =0 =>A. >MB><C =04>, GB>1K 2 0:20@8C<5 ?>AB>O==> 1K;> <=>3> 8=DC7>@89. =8 CAB@5<;ONBAO : 1>:>2><C A25BC, <0;L:8 ?;K2CB BC40 65, 2@570NBAO 2 3CIC 8=DC7>@89 8 =0AKI0NBAO. 5C65;8 2 ?@>F5AA5 M2>;NF88 =5 2>7=8:;> GB>B>, :><?5=A8@CNI55 0=>?B8EB8A0< ?>B5@N =5=C6=>3> 2 ?5I5@0E 7@5=8O? >=01;N405<. ! B@5BL59 =545;8 ?>2545=85 ?>4@>AH8E <0;L:>2 87<5=8;>AL. "5?5@L >=8 C65 =5 B0: 6<CBAO : >A25I5==>9 AB>@>=5, A2>1>4=> 70?;K20NB 8 2 B5<=K5 CG0AB:8 0:20@8C<0, A<5H=> ?5@542830NBAO 2=87 3>;>2>9 24>;L 53> AB5=>:. =>340 >=8 A?CA:0NBAO 24>;L AB5:;0, ?@868<0OAL : =5<C =5 1>:0<8, 0 B>;L:> A?8=>9. >G5<C? 0725 =5;L7O ?;KBL C AB5=:8, GCBL >BABC?O, GB>1K A2>1>4=> H525;8;8AL ?;02=8:8, 8 ?>25@=C2H8AL : =59 =5 A?8=>9, 0 1>:><? 5;L7O, ?>B><C GB> =0 1>:0EB> 8 @0A?>;>65= >48= 87 70<5=ONI8E 7@5=85 >@30=>2. -B> 1>:>20O ;8=8O - 55 <>6=> C2845BL C ;N1>9 @K1K. 'B> 65 MB> 70 0??0@0B? 4>;L 1>:>2 @K1, 0 C =5:>B>@KE 8 =0 3>;>25 ?@>E>4OB A59A<>A5=A>@=K5 :0=0;K, 2 3;C18=5 :>B>@KE @0A?>;>65=K >A>1K5 GC2AB28B5;L=K5 :;5B:8 - =52@><0ABK. ;5B:8 A>548=5=K A ?>25@E=>ABLN B5;0 8 A 2=5H=59 A@54>9 B>=:8<8 :0=0;LF0<8, 70?>;=5==K<8 A;87LN. K1K =8:>340 =5 1K20NB =5?>4286=K, >=8 ?>AB>O==> 42830NB ?;02=8:0<8, 601@0<8, @B><. -B8 42865=8O 2K7K20NB A;01K5 :>;510=8O 2>4K, :>B>@K5 8 C;02;820NBAO =52@><0AB0<8, ?>MB><C @K1K ;53:> =0E>4OB 4@C3 4@C30. 5 =0BK:0NBAO >=8 8 =0 @0AB5=8O, :0<=8, 4@C38E @K1. ;02=8:8 A>740NB :>;510=8O, 0 =52@><0ABK C;02;820NB C65 >B@065==K5 >B >:@C60NI8E ?@54<5B>2 2>;=K. >;CG05BAO >G5=L A>25@H5==K9 ?@81>@ - 384@>;>:0B>@, ?>72>;ONI89 @K10< >?@545;8BL =0?@02;5=85 B5G5=8O, 871530BL ?@5?OBAB289 8 =0E>48BL ?8IC. >B ?>G5<C <0;L:8 0=>?B8EB8A>2 B5?5@L =0G8=0NB A2>1>4=> >B?;K20BL >B A25B0 - =52@><0ABK ?@54C?@5640NB 8E > 1;87:>< ?@8ACBAB288 8=DC7>@89. 0 2B>@>< <5AOF5 687=8 C :@>H5: =0G8=05B @01>B0BL 5I5 >4=> 25AL<0 ?>;57=>5 ?@8A?>A>1;5=85 - 2:CA>2K5 B>G:8.  @0725 @0=LH5 >=8 >BACBAB2>20;8 8 @K1:8 =5 >ICI0;8 2:CA0 ?8I8? 5B, :>=5G=>, 2:CA ?8I8 >=8 >ICI0;8, => B>;L:> @B><, B0< C =8E 1K;8 2:CA>2K5 B>G:8, B0<, :AB0B8, >=8 =0E>4OBAO 8 C G5;>25:0. =>?B8EB8A0< 65 MB>3> <0;>, 8 A> 2@5<5=5< 2:CA>2K5 B>G:8 @072820NBAO ?> 2A5<C B5;C, 4065 =0 E2>AB>2>< ?;02=8:5. !B>8B 40D=88 8;8 =5<0B>40< >:070BLAO 21;878 E2>AB0, :0: @K1:0 ;>2:> ?>2>@0G8205BAO 8 E20B05B 4>1KGC. "5?5@L ?@>2545< 5I5 >48= M:A?5@8<5=B, :0A0NI89AO 7@5=8O 0=>?B8EB8A>2. >AB028< ?>?5@5: 0:20@8C<0 AB5:;>, @0745;82 53> =0 >4=C B@5BL 8 425 B@5B8.  1>;LHCN G0ABL ?><5AB8< =5:>@<;5=KE 2 B5G5=85 ACB>: H5AB8A5<8=5 45;L=KE 0=>?B8EB8A>2. "C40 65 4;O :>=B@>;O 70?CAB8< <0;L:>2 4@C38E @K1 B>3> 65 2>7@0AB0.  2 <5=LHCN G0ABL 0:20@8C<0 ?CAB8< AB0N 40D=89. "5?5@L 4@C3CN AB>@>=C 0:20@8C<0 >A25B8< ;0<?>9 8& 'B> B0:>5? >G5<C 2A5 @K1K 1@>A8;8AL : AB5:;C, 70 :>B>@K< ?;020NB 40D=88? >G5<C 7@OG85 - ?>=OB=>, 0 2>B A;5?K5? E 2>B 2 G5< 45;>: G5@57 I5;8 <564C AB5:;>< 8 AB5=:0<8 0:20@8C<0 A;5?K5 AC<5;8 A ?><>ILN =52@><0AB>2 >1=0@C68BL 40D=89. 5B, B0: 45;> =5 ?>945B: >?KB 4>;65= 1KBL ?>AB02;5= G8AB> 8 0::C@0B=>, 8=0G5 2K2>40< =5;L7O 1C45B 4>25@OBL. >2B>@8< ?>43>B>2:C 0:20@8C<0, => @0745;ONI55 AB5:;> 70:@5?8< 2 ACE>< 0:20@8C<5 =0 ?;0AB8;8=5. 0;L5< H;0=3>< =5<=>3> 2>4K 2 >4=C ?>;>28=C. !B5:;> 45@68BAO E>@>H>. 0;8205< >4=>2@5<5==> 2 >15 G0AB8 0:20@8C<0 2>4C. "5?5@L A;5?K5 @K1K =5 A<>3CB >1=0@C68BL 40D=89. > >=8 A<>3CB 8E C2845BL - 254L 3;070B> C =8E 5ABL! B0:, 2:;NG05< ;0<?C.  GB> 65? A5 7@OG85 @K1K <5GCBAO C AB5=:8, 70 :>B>@>9 ?;OH5B 40D=8O, 0 3;070ABK5 A;5?K5 84CB 2 ?@>B82>?>;>6=CN AB>@>=C, : A25BC. >B B515 8 3;070! 5C4828B5;L=>, GB> A @>AB>< @K1>: >=8 =5 B>;L:> =5 C25;8G820NBAO, 0 B0: 8 >AB0NBAO G5@=K<8 B>G:0<8. > <5@5 ?>4@0AB0=8O @K1:0< C65 =5 E20B05B B>3> <875@=>3> =0A5;5=8O B>;I8 2>4K, :>B>@>5 5ABL 2 ?5I5@=KE 2>4>5<0E.  A B@5BL53> <5AOF0 >=8 ?5@5E>4OB =0 ?8B0=85 45B@8B><, >;83>E5B0<8. "5?5@L >=8 ?;020NB 1;87:> C 4=0, ?>2AN4C A>18@0O ?8IC, 8 A25B 8< C65 =8 : G5<C. ;070 =0G8=0NB @07@CH0BLAO 8 2A:>@5 A>2A5< 70@0AB0NB :>659. > 270<5= @072820NBAO :0:85B> 4@C385 >@30=K, ?><>30NI85 >@85=B8@>20BLAO 2 ?@>AB@0=AB25. 'B> MB> 70 >@30=K? 0 MB>B 2>?@>A >B25B0 5I5 =5B, 2 ;01>@0B>@8OE @07=KE AB@0= <8@0 0=>?B8EB8A>2 5I5 87CG0NB. >65B 1KBL, MB> >@30=K >1>=O=8O? # ?@82575==KE <=5 0=>?B8EB8A>2 >B ?@>ABC4K @0728;AO 3@81>:, 8 53> 38DK (=8B8) 70:@K;8 ;52CN =>74@N >4=>9 A;5?>9 @K1:8. <5==> MB8< 1>:><, MB>9 AB>@>=>9 3>;>2K 8 =0BK:0;0AL @K1:0 =0 2A5 ?@54<5BK - A;>2=> C =55 1K; 702O70= ;52K9 3;07.  ?>A;5 2K74>@>2;5=8O MB>B :@5= 2;52> A@07C 8AG57. 4=0:> >1>=O=85 =5 >1JOA=O5B =5:>B>@KE 70304>: 2 ?>2545=88 A;5?KE @K1. A;8 3>;>4=K< 0=>?B8EB8A0< 1@>A8BL :>@<, >=8 ?>GC2AB2CNB 53> ?@8ACBAB285 =5 A@07C, 0 G5@57 57 A5:C=4. 0?0E?  5A;8 1@>A8BL :>@< 2 <0;5=L:89 0:20@8C<? ">65 57 A5:C=4.  >3@><=K9 - B> 65 A0<>5.  5A;8 ?>425A8BL :>@< 2 >4=>< C3;C, 0 0=>?B8EB8A>2 7045@60BL 2 ?@>B82>?>;>6=>< 8 A ?><>ILN 0M@0B>@0 CAB@>8BL <54;5==>5 B5G5=85 2>4K >B @K1 : :>@<C? I5 =5 A>25@H8B 2>40 :@C3>2>@>B 2 0:20@8C<5, 5I5 =5 ?@8=5A5B B5G5=85 70?0E :>@<0, 0 G5@57 57 A5:C=4 @K1K C65 1C4CB 7=0BL, GB> :>@< 5ABL. AB0B8, 2 >1KG=>< 0:20@8C<5 >=8 =0E>4OB :>@< @0=LH5 <=>38E 7@OG8E @K1, 1KAB@55 4@C38E C=8GB>60NB 8 <0;L:>2. 4=064K O 2845;, :0: 425 A;5?K5 @K1K ?;020;8 70 =5@5ABCNI59 A0<:>9 682>@>4OI59 @K1:8 8 ?> <5@5 @>645=8O <0;L:>2 BCB 65 8E ?>540;8. "0: GB> 65 MB> - >1>=O=85?  ?>:0 CG5=K5 8ICB >B25B =0 A2>9 2>?@>A, 0=>?B8EB8AK 7040NB =0< =>2K5 70304:8. 5402=> 1K;> >1=0@C65=>, GB> >=8 >B;8G0NB A25B >B B5<=>BK 8& 157 3;07. ?@>G5<, 2 MB>< =5B =8G53> A25@EJ5AB5AB25==>3>. K 254L 2845;8, :0: 8=DC7>@88 CAB@5<8;8AL : A25BC, 0 @0725 C =8E 5ABL 3;070? 0:>=5F, 2@O4 ;8 3;07 :0: >?B8G5A:89 ?@81>@ 2>7=8: 2<5AB5 A ?5@2K<8 682K<8 ACI5AB20<8 =0 ?;0=5B5.  5A;8 A>3;0A8BLAO, GB> >= ?>O28;AO 2 ?@>F5AA5 A>25@H5=AB2>20=8O 682KE >@30=87<>2, B> =0< ?@845BAO ?@87=0BL 8 B>, GB>, >G5284=>, 682K5 ACI5AB20 <>3;8 4;8B5;L=K9 ?5@8>4 687=8 8 157 3;07 >B;8G0BL A25B >B B5<=>BK. 1I0O GC2AB28B5;L=>ABL : A25BC,- ?8H5B 8725AB=K9 A?5F80;8AB 2 >1;0AB8 18>A?5;5>;>388 ?@>D5AA>@ .0=5;L,- =5A><=5==>, >?5@560;0 @0728B85 3;07, 8 MB0 GC2AB28B5;L=>ABL 4>;6=0 1K;0 >A;01;OBLAO ?> <5@5 B>3>, :0: A25B>2>A?@8OB85 A>A@54>B>G820;>AL 2 ?>AB>O==> @072820NI8EAO A?5F80;L=KE 7@8B5;L=KE >@30=0E. BAN40 A;54C5B, GB> ?5I5@=K5 682>B=K5 4>;6=K 1K;8 C=0A;54>20BL A?>A>1=>ABL >ICI0BL A25B =57028A8<> >B >@30=>2 7@5=8O. #G5=K5 ?@54?>;030NB, GB> =5:>B>@K5 :;5B:8 A?8=K 0=>?B8EB8A>2 A?>A>1=K @07;8G0BL A25B 8 B5<=>BC. B0:, :0: <K 2KOA=8;8 87 18>3@0D88 <>;>48 A;5?KE @K1, @0=55 >=8 1K;8 O2=> 7@OG8<8. #40;>AL CAB0=>28BL 8 284 =075<=>9 @K1:8, :>B>@0O =5:>340 ?>?0;0 2 ?5I5@K, 0 70B5<, 87 ?>:>;5=8O 2 ?>:>;5=85, ?>AB5?5==> CB@0B8;0 3;070. -B> ?>;>A0BK9 0AB80=0:A. >MB><C 8 0=>?B8EB8A>2 >B=5A;8 : @>4C Astyanax. @8 @52878OE, CB>G=5=8OE 8 ?5@58<5=>20=8OE =0CG=KE =0720=89 ACI5AB2C5B >?@545;5==>5 ?@028;>: ?5@28G=>5 (40==>5 ?@8 ?5@2>< =0CG=>< >?8A0=88) 284>2>5 =0720=85 =5>1E>48<> A>E@0=OBL. > 2KH;0 70<8=:0 - 0AB80=0:A>2 =5A:>;L:> 284>2, :0: 65 ?>:070BL, GB> ?5I5@=0O 68B5;L=8F0 ?@>87>H;0 8<5==> >B ?>;>A0B>3>? @8H;>AL 40BL MB>9 @K1:5 B@>9=>5, => C6 B5?5@L 01A>;NB=> B>G=>5 8 ?> 2A5< ?@028;0< =0720=85 - Astyanax fasciatus jordani.  B5?5@L ?>72>;LB5 ?@54>AB028BL A;>2> 8725AB=><C ?CB5H5AB25==8:C7>>;>3C 925=C !0=45@AC, :>B>@K9 2 >4=>9 87 ?5I5@ >AB@>20 "@8=8404 >1=0@C68; ?@>7@0G=CN ?5I5@=CN @K1C :>A:>@0=48N 9@8G0 8 4065 ?@54?@8=O; ?>?KB:8 55 ?>9<0BL. ">A;5 4>;38E 8 15A?;>4=KE ?>8A:>2 <K A40;8AL 8 ?@5:@0B8;8 >E>BC& >340 2A5 1;03>?>;CG=> 2K;57;8 =025@E, O 1@>A8; ?>A;54=89 B>A:CNI89 273;O4 - 8 GB> 65! > 4=C 10AA59=0 25;8G5AB25==> 8 =5A?5H=> A:>;L78;0 B5=L, B>GL2B>GL :0: >B <0;5=L:>3> 48@8601;O 3@0D0 &5??5;8=0! ! 3@><:8< 2>?;5< O A=>20 @8=C;AO 2=87, 8 157=0456=0O ?>3>=O ?@>4>;60;0AL, ?>:0 <K, 4>2545==K5 4> ?>;=>3> 87=5<>65=8O 8 >BG0O=8O, =5 ?@87=0;8 A51O ?>15645==K<8. > 8 =0 MB>B @07 O =5 C45@60;AO 8 2=>2L >3;O=C;AO - =5B, =5 284=> 4065 B5=8. -B> AB@0==>5 15A?;>B=>5 A>740=85, >B1@0AK20NI55 ;8HL B5=L 8 =52848<>5 <8@C, A>E@0=8;> 2 =5?@8:>A=>25==>AB8 2A5 B09=K, :>B>@K<8 2;045;>& 5 <>3C =5 ?@825AB8 745AL 4C@0F:89 45BA:89 AB8H>:, :>B>@K9 A;>68;AO C <5=O =0 >1@0B=>< ?CB8 2 ;035@L: =0 ?@>7@0G=0, A;>2=> ;L48=:0, >O A0@48=:0=52848<:0. / =5 70AB0; 55 2G5@0, / =5 2840; 55 A CB@0 0: O <5GB0N, GB>1 >=0 =5 AB0;0 =0:>=5F 284=0!" 'B> 65, >AB05BAO 2A;54 70 !0=45@A>< <5GB0BL, GB>1K <K C2845;8 2 =0H8E 0:20@8C<0E 2A;54 70 <5:A8:0=A:>9 4@C38E 8=B5@5A=59H8E ?5I5@=KE A0@48=>:=52848<>:. 0209B5 >B4>E=5< >@0 =0< A45;0BL ?@820; 8 >1AC48BL, :0: A>45@60BL 2 0:20@8C<0E :0@?>2KE 8 E0@0F8=>2KE @K1. ;O =8E ?>4E>4OB ;N1K5 ?> @07<5@C 2>4>5<K, 70A065==K5 2>4=K<8 @0AB5=8O<8 B0:, GB>1K 1K;8 8 3CABK5 70@>A;8, 8 A2>1>4=K5 ?@>AB@0=AB20 4;O ?;020=8O. 0=8>, 10@1CAK, E0@0F8=>2K5 A<>B@OBAO :@0A8255 =5 ?@8 ?0@=>< A>45@60=88, 0 ?@8 AB09=>< - 810 8 1>;55 @K1 >4=>3> 2840. !B0O - MB> 18>;>38G5A:>5 ?@8A?>A>1;5=85 4;O 2K6820=8O @K1, A2>53> @>40 :>;;5:B82=K9 <>73. >@>9 ?@8 A?>:>9=>9 >1AB0=>2:5 2 0:20@8C<5 AB0O, :070;>AL 1K, 8AG5705B, @K1:8 ?;020NB ?>>48=>G:5 8 70=OBK :B> G5<. > MB> 2?5G0B;5=85 >1<0=G82>, ?@>AB> 2 40==K9 <><5=B =5B =04>1=>AB8 2 A?;>G5=88. > AB>8B 2=5AB8 2 0:20@8C< :>@<, A<5=8BL G0ABL 2>4K, ?>4A048BL 157>184=CN, => 1>;55 :@C?=CN @K1C, :0: AB0O <><5=B0;L=> D>@<8@C5BAO 8 A>E@0=O5BAO, ?>:0 A8BC0F8O =5 =>@<0;87C5BAO.  ?>@>9 >=0 3@C??8@C5BAO 8 157 2848<KE 4;O 0:20@8C<8AB0 ?@8G8=. # >?8A0==KE E0@0F8=>2KE @K1>: AB08 ?@>ABK5, ;845@ - A8BC0B82=K9. -B> 7=0G8B, GB> 2A5 @K1:8 2 AB05 @02=K, 0 2>73;02;ONB 55 2 @07;8G=KE A8BC0F8OE @07=K5 ;845@K2>60:8. 0?@8<5@, A;520 =0?@02> 2 0:20@8C<5 42865BAO AB0O =5>=>2KE @K1. !0<0O ?>A;54=OO >A>1L 2=570?=> 45;05B ?>2>@>B =0704, 70 =59 2>;=0<8 MB0 :><0=40 @0A?@>AB@0=O5BAO =0 2AN AB0N, 8 2>B C65 MB0 @K1:0 ?@8 42865=88 A?@020 =0;52> AB0=>28BAO ;845@><. # ?5I5@=KE @K1 =04>1=>AB8 2 AB0OE :0: 70I8B=>< AC?5@>@30=87<5 =5B, ?>MB><C >=8 2A5340 ?;020NB 2@>7L. # :0@?>2KE AB08 8=K5, 85@0@E8G5A:85, 2> 3;025 AB>8B ;845@, 702>5202H89 MBC 2KAHCN ABC?5=L ?>A;5 4>;3>3> 2KOA=5=8O >B=>H5=89 A> 2A5<8 @K10<8 AB08. 0: 2KOA=ONB >B=>H5=8O @K1K, <K ?><=8< 87 @0AA:07>2 > F8E;840E. AB5AB25==>, C 40=8> 8 10@1CA>2 A<5@B>C189AB2> <>6=> =01;N40BL B>;L:> 2 8A:;NG8B5;L=KE A;CG0OE. 0B> A>?5@=8G5AB2>, 83@0 ?;02=8:0<8 8 >:@0A:>9 ?@>8AE>4OB 2A5 2@5<O (=5A254CI89 G5;>25: 2>AE8I05BAO: 83@0NB @K1:8!). >4G8=ONI85AO 40=8> ?@8?>4=8<0NB ?5@54=NN G0ABL B5;0, ?>4AB02;OO ?>1548B5;N 3>@;> 8 1@NH:>. #B25@645=85 =5:>B>@KE 02B>@>2, GB> ?>4G8=5==K5 @K1:8 B0: 8 ?;020NB, =525@=>, MB0 ?>70 2>7=8:05B B>;L:> =0 <><5=B 2KOA=5=8O >B=>H5=89. !C<0B@0=A:85 10@1CAK ?@8 ?>4G8=5=88 <>3CB ?@8=OBL 25@B8:0;L=>5 ?>;>65=85 3>;>2>9 2=87 8;8 225@E 8 70ABKBL. "0:CN 65 ?>7C >=8 ?@8=8<0NB, :>340 ?@>AOB 4@C3CN @K1C (:>=5G=>, A2>53> 2840) ?>G8AB8BL 1>:0 8 ?;02=8:8. -B8 10@1CAK, :AB0B8, A:;>==K ?@>872>48BL A0=8B0@=CN >1@01>B:C 8 @K1 4@C38E 284>2, E>BO B5 =5 2A5340 8E ?>4?CA:0NB; ?>@>9 65 >=8 70=8<0NBAO 8 ?@O<K< @071>5<, I8?;NB =8B5284=K5 ?;02=8:8 A:0;O@89 8 ;018@8=B>2KE. 01;N40O 70 AB09=K< ?>2545=85< @K1, <>6=> C2845BL <=>3> 8=B5@5A=>3>. > ?@8 MB>< C =5<=>3>G8A;5==KE AB09 4>;65= 1KBL 2 0:20@8C<5 4>AB0B>G=K9 ?@>AB>@. A;8 <K ?><5AB8< A>B=N @K1 @07=KE 284>2 2 AB>;8B@>2CN ?>AC48=C, B> =8G53> =5 C2848<. 8G53> =5 284OB 8 @K1>@072>4G8:8, C :>B>@KE 2 0:20@8C<0E 2K@0I820NBAO A>B=8 @K1. 0: C65 >B<5G0;>AL, 38@8=>E59;>2 @5:><5=4C5BAO A>45@60BL ?>>48=>G:5. -B> 65 ?@028;> >B=>A8BAO : 27@>A;K< <>@C;8CA0<. > C6820NBAO 8 B5 8 4@C385 ?@0:B8G5A:8 A> 2A5<8 0:20@8C<=K<8 @K10<8. 015> <>6=> A>45@60BL ?> =5A:>;L:C >A>159, => >1O70B5;L=> 2 2>4>5<5 A C:@KB8O<8: G5< G8I5 0:20@8C<, B5< >AB@55 ABKG:8 <564C MB8<8 @K10<8. %0@0F8=>2K5 @K1:8 - A0<K5 0::C@0B=K5 >18B0B5;8 0:20@8C<0. 0@1CAK ?>@>9 @>NBAO 2 3@C=B5, <>3CB ?>4@KBL @0AB5=8O. !>25BCN A E0@0F8=>2K<8 A>45@60BL <5;:8E 40=8> 8 @0A1>@, 0 87 10@1CA>2 >4=>3> ?OB8?>;>A>3> (Barbus pentazona hexazona) - 53> >1@07 687=8 1;865 : =8<, G5< : A>@>48G0<. 5:>B>@K5 E0@0F8=>2K5 (A;5?K5, :>=3>, E5<83@0<<CAK) <>3CB ?>I8?0BL 8 ?>?>@B8BL ;8ABLO @54:8E 2>4=KE @0AB5=89.  0:20@8C<5 65;0B5;L=> ?>445@6820BL A8;L=>5 42865=85 0M@0B>@0 8;8 D8;LB@0. @><5 A2>53> ?@O<>3> =07=0G5=8O, B0:>5 42865=85 2;8O5B =0 ?>2545=85 @K1: >=8 @0A?>;030NBAO 3>;>2>9 ?@>B82 B5G5=8O, 8=>340 F5;>9 AB059, 8 <>3CB G0A0<8 B0: 1>@>BLAO A B5G5=85<. "0:>5 ?>2545=85 83@05B A0=8B0@=CN @>;L: B5G5=85 A<K205B ;8H=NN A;87L 8 <5;:85 A>@8=:8 A 8E B5;0. A5 A:070==>5 > A>45@60=88 <5;:8E :0@?>2KE 8 E0@0F8=>2KE =8 2 :>59 AB5?5=8 =5 >B=>A8BAO : 45:>@0B82=K< 7>;>BK< @K1:0< 8 :>8. !>2<5I0BL 8E A B@>?8G5A:8<8 @K10<8 - 25@E 0:20@8C<=>9 1573@0<>B=>AB8. E A>45@60B 2 G0=0E 8 10AA59=0E; 5A;8 65 ?><5I0NB 2 0:20@8C<, B> 2 >B45;L=K9, A <O3:>9 8 4>AB0B>G=> 3CAB>9 @0AB8B5;L=>ABLN; =8:0:8E >AB@KE ?@54<5B>2 2 2>4>5<5 1KBL =5 4>;6=>. K1K >G5=L ?@>6>@;82K 8 ?>AB>O==> @>NB 3@C=B, ?>MB><C 2 0:20@8C<5 =04> G0AB> ?@>2>48BL C1>@:C 8 70<5=OBL 2>4C. -B8 AB@0H=K5 ?8@0=L8 "@84F0BL ;5B =0704, :>340 O 3>B>28; ?5@2>5 8740=85 :=838 0=8<0B5;L=K9 0:20@8C<, > ?8@0=LOE <=5 ?@8H;>AL @0AA:070BL ?> ;8B5@0BC@=K< 8AB>G=8:0< 8 =54>;38< =01;N45=8O< 2 5@;8=A:>< 7>>?0@:5 8 0:20@8C<0E 15@;8=A:8E 0:20@8C<8AB>2. 0 A53>4=O MB0 3;020 157=0456=> CAB0@5;0.  40;L=59H5< MB8 @K1K ?>O28;8AL C =0H8E 0:20@8C<8AB>2.  <>5 ;8G=>5 7=0:><AB2> A =8<8 A>AB>O;>AL ?>GB8 15 ;5B =0704, 8 1K;> MB> B0:. * * * ->A;CH09,- A:070; <>9 ?@8OB5;L, B>65 ;5=8=3@04A:89 0:20@8C<8AB,- 0 BK =5 E>B5; 1K ?@8>1@5AB8 ?8@0=89? -(CB8HL?- CA<5E=C;AO O. -!>2A5< =5B. 45AL =0 AB@>8B5;LAB25 3>AB8=8FK @01>B05B 8=65=5@ 87 (25F88, 0 B5B:0 C =53> 2;045;8F0 7>><03078=0 2 !B>:3>;L<5. - >= ?@82>78B AN40 @54:8E @K1?- 4>3040;AO O. -@82>78B.  ?@>405B. =05HL 70G5<? 54@0<8 C2>78B 0:20@8C<=KE @K1 >BAN40. :07K205BAO, <=>38E @K1, :>B>@KE C =0A =0 @K=:5 <0;> F5=OB, 2 !B>:3>;L<5 =5B A>2A5<. 5G5@>< A>1@0;AO A5<59=K9 A>25B. K 4>;3> >1AC640;8 AB5?5=L >?0A=>AB8 ?8@0=89 4;O :064>3> 87 =0A. 'B> O 7=0; >1 MB8E @K10E? ">;L:> B>, GB> 2KG8B0; 2 :=830E > ?CB5H5AB28OE 2 .6=CN <5@8:C. >B ;5:A0=4@ C<1>;L4B. = A2845B5;LAB2C5B: -B> A0<K5 >?0A=K5 87 2A5E @K1. =8 =0?040NB =0 ;N459, :>340 B5 :C?0NBAO, 8 2K@K20NB C =8E :CA:8 <OA0. >B ?8H5B (><1C@3: E <>6=> =0720BL @5G=K<8 385=0<8, => ?> A@02=5=8N A =8<8 385=K 157>184=K, 0 3@8DK - A:@><=K5 A>740=8O. @>6>@;82>ABL 8E ?@52>AE>48B 2A5, GB> <>6=> A515 ?@54AB028BL. =8 =0?040NB =0 2AO:>5 682>B=>5, :>B>@>5 >B2068BAO ?>O28BLAO 2 8E >1;0AB8, 4065 =0 @K1, :>B>@K5 2 45AOBL @07 1>;LH5 8E A0<8E. =8 AJ540NB 1K:0 8;8 B0?8@0, 5A;8 >= ?>?045BAO 8E AB05,- ?8H5B C<8;0.- B <=>38E C:CA>2 8 ?>B5@8 :@>28 682>B=>5 B>=5B. =>340 B0?8@K ?>3810NB 2 @5:0E H8@8=>9 2A53> 3040 H03>2. >@>9 682>B=>5 2A5 65 4>AB8305B 15@530, => 2K;5705B - =0?>;>28=C A:5;5B. !8;0 8E 7C1=>9 A8AB5<K, CAB@>5==>9 2 2845 >AB@>9 ?8;K,- A>>1I05B 8725AB=K9 8AA;54>20B5;L D0C=K <07>=:8 0:A,- ?@52>AE>48B 2A5 >6840=8O. 0;:0 87 B25@4>3> 45@520 B>;I8=>9 2 ?0;5F ?5@5:CAK205BAO 8<8 2 >4=> <3=>25=85.  >?OBL (><1C@3: "4=8< 87 >?0A=59H8E 725@59 0<07>=A:8E ;5A>2 O2;O5BAO :>20@=K9 8 E8B@K9 O3C0@. -B0 87OI=0O ;>2:0O :>H:0 ;53:> ;0705B ?> 45@52LO< 8 =0?0405B =0 :@C?=KE 682>B=KE A25@EC. > ?8BL 2>4C O3C0@ A0< 845B A >?0A:>9. 5@54 B5< :0: :>A=CBLAO O7K:>< 2>4K, >= 4>;3> A<>B@8B 2 2>4C, AB0@0OAL @073040BL, GB> :@>5BAO 2 55 3;C18=5. >B>< >= A @07<0EC H;5?05B ?> 2>45 ;0?>9 - 45AOB:8 E8I=KE 4>@04> B>BG0A A?;K20NBAO A> 2A5E AB>@>=.  ?>:0 @K1K CAB@5<;ONBAO : MB><C <5ABC, O3C0@ 45;05B A:0G>: 2 AB>@>=C 8 CA?5205B 3;>B=CBL 2>4K. 0B5< 5I5 >48= C40@, 5I5 A:0G>:, 5I5 3;>B>:& > 2>B O3C0@ =0?8;AO. "5?5@L >= >?CA:05B 2 2>4C ;0?C 8, @0A?CAB82 :>3B8, 2K45@38205B 55. 0 15@53 ;5B8B 7075202H0OAO @K15H:0, :>B>@CN >= BCB 65 AJ5405B. > 3>@5 O3C0@C, 5A;8 >= @5H8;AO ?5@5?;KBL ?@>B>:C, 345 682CB 4>@04>, 8;8 ?8@0=L8, GB> 7=0G8B @071>9=8:8. K1:8 B>BG0A =0;5B0NB =0 =53> A> 2A5E AB>@>= 8 CA?520NB B0: 8A:CA0BL, GB> 725@L 381=5B. I5 1>;55 AB@0H=K< 682>B=K< MB>9 >1;0AB8 O2;O5BAO 3@><04=0O 7<5O 0=0:>=40 - 2>4O=>9 C402. @> =55 @0AA:07K20NB =525@>OB=K5 8AB>@88, 87 :>B>@KE <=>385, :>=5G=>, A:07:8. =0:>=4K @54:> =0?040NB =0 G5;>25:0, => 2A5 65 MB> >4=> 87 >?0A=59H8E ACI5AB2 >2>3> !25B0. >;>4K5 42CE<5B@>2K5 7<58 A28A0NB 3@>74LO<8 A =028AH8E =04 2>4>9 25B259. >4:0 ?;K25B ?> C7:>9 ?@>B>:5, 2K E>B8B5 ?>4B>;:=CBL 55 8 15@5B5AL 70 25B:C, 8 24@C3 >:07K205BAO, GB> MB> 7<5O, :>B>@0O BCB 65 ?> 20H5<C B5;C A>A:0;L7K205B 2 2>4C. >65B5 ?@54AB028BL A515, :0: MB> C60A=>! "0: 2>B, MB8 3830=BA:85 7<58, :0: <KHL :>B0, 1>OBAO @071>9=8:>2?8@0=89. / 2845;, :0: >4=0 7<5O ?>?0;0 2 AB0N MB8E @K1. =0 25@B5;0AL :>;5A><, 872820;0AL A?8@0;LN, ?>4=8<0;0AL ?;5BLN 225@E, => 2A5 1K;> =0?@0A=> - @K1K 70:CA0;8 55, >=0 CB>=C;0, 8 2>40 >:@0A8;0AL :@>2LN. 0 GB> 7<58, C6 =0 GB> ?@8@>40 701@>=8@>20;0 2 ?0=F8@L :@>:>48;>2, => 8 B5 4> A<5@B8 1>OBAO MB8E @K1. !B>8B :@>:>48;C 70<5B8BL 8E ?@81;865=85, :0: >= B>BG0A ?5@52>@0G8205BAO =0 A?8=C, A?0A0O <5=55 70I8I5==K5 ;0?K 8 1@NE>. / =5 7=0N 1>;55 A28@5?>3>, 1>;55 AB@0H=>3> E8I=8:0, G5< MB8 @5G=K5 385=K. 564C ?@>G8<, C 8=459F52 3C0@0=8 MB8 @K1K A;C60B <>38;LI8:0<8. > >1KG0N 3C0@0=8 E>@>=OB =5 B5;>, 0 A:5;5B C<5@H53>. "@C? 2 A5BOE >?CA:0NB 2 2>4C 8 C65 G5@57 45=L 2K=8<0NB G8ABK5 :>AB8".  2>B GB> ?5@5?5G0B0; =0H 565=545;L=8: 0 @C156>< 87 >4=>9 70@C156=>9 3075BK. -B> C65 A2845B5;LAB2> =0H8E 4=59. "5402=> 2 AB>;8F5 "08;0=40 1K;0 >1JO2;5=0 M:>;>38G5A:0O B@52>30. 0=3:>: ?@>=87K20NB :0=0;K, :>B>@K5 2 @09>=0E AB0@>3> 3>@>40 70<5=ONB C;8FK: ?> =8< @072>7OB B>20@K 2 <03078=K 8 =0 @K=:8, ?;K2CB <0@H@CB=K5 3>=4>;K, 70<5=ONI85 =075<=K9 >1I5AB25==K9 B@0=A?>@B, A=CNB N@:85 <>B>@=K5 2>4=K5 B0:A8; =0 :0=0;0E 8 682CB 2 BKAOG0E 70G0;5==KE ?> 15@530< ;>4>:, AB8@0NB 15;L5, <>NBAO, 2 =8E :C?0NBAO 27@>A;K5 8 45B8. -B>B 3>@>4 =540@>< =07K20NB 0780BA:>9 5=5F859.  2>B 2 MB8E :0=0;0E 24@C3 >1=0@C68;8 N6=>0<5@8:0=A:8E ?8@0=89 - AB@0H=CN 7C10ABCN @K1C, AB0O<8 =0?040NICN =0 2A5 682>5 2 2>45. %8I=8F0< =8G53> =5 AB>8B 70 <8=CBC @07>@20BL =0 :CA:8 :C?0NI53>AO @515=:0. >2848<><C, @K1K ?>?0;8 2 :0=0;K 87 0:20@8C<0 :0:>3>;81> ;N18B5;O. 0 >B;>2 =5720=KE 8 >?0A=KE ?8@0=89 1K;8 1@>H5=K >B@O4K ?>;8F88, ?>60@=8:>2, @K10:8 8 0:B828ABK 42865=8O 75;5=KE. & ';5=K A5<59=>3> A>25B0 4>;3> 274KE0;8, > G5<B> 4C<0;8, =>, 2 :>=F5 :>=F>2, @5H8;8 @8A:=CBL. K >6840;8 C2845BL >3@><=K9 184>=, 0 =0< ?@8=5A;8 42CE;8B@>2CN 10=:C, 2 :>B>@>9 <5B0;8AL A5@51@8ABK5 @K15H:8 @07<5@>< A ?OB0:. !0G:>< O =5 AB0; ?>;L7>20BLAO - 24@C3 2KA:>G0B 8 C:CAOB!- 8 ?5@5;8; A>45@68<>5 10=:8 ?@O<> 2 0:20@8C<. A:>@5 @K1:8 CA?>:>8;8AL, ?;02=8:8 8E ?>@>7>25;8. A5 G5BK@5 2<5AB5 ?;020;8, 2<5AB5 >B4KE0;8 A@548 @0AB5=89. / AB>O; C 0:20@8C<0 8 70G0@>20==> A<>B@5; =0 =8E: B0: 2>B >=8 :0:85, AB@0H=K5 @5G=K5 385=K, :>H<0@ 0<07>=A:8E 2>4& >60;C9, =8 >4=0 @K10 ?;0=5BK, 70 8A:;NG5=85< 0:C;, =5 A>1@0;0 AB>;L:> ;545=OI8E :@>2L A>>1I5=89, :0: ?8@0=L8. A;8 65 A<>B@5BL =0 =8E G5@57 AB5:;> 0:20@8C<0 - =8G53> AB@0H=>3>, @K1:8 :0: @K1:8. 065 :@0A82K5: A5@51@8AB>3>;C1K5 1>:0, ?C=F>20O 3@C4L 8 ?;02=8:8, =0 1>:0E B5<=K5 ?OB=0. ! 2>7@0AB>< >:@0A:0 ?8@0=89 87<5=8;0AL - 1>:0 ?>@>7>25;8 8 ?>:@K;8AL 7>;>BK<8 1;5AB:0<8. >@>9 =0AB@>5=85 @K1 <5=O;>AL, 8 >=8 24@C3 AB0=>28;8AL A>25@H5==> G5@=K<8.  A>G5B0=88 A ?C=F>2K<8 ?;02=8:0<8 MB> >G5=L 2?5G0B;O5B. 5 ?><=N A;CG0O, GB>1K :B>=81C4L, C28452 MB8E @K1, =5 ?>@060;AO 1K 8E :@0A>B>9. "5< 1>;55, GB> :>H<0@=KE 7C1>2 284=> =5 1K;>: 8E A:@K20;8 B>;ABK5 3C1K. >8 <>;>4K5 ?8@0=L8 ?@5:@0A=> A51O GC2AB2>20;8, E20B0;8 <>BK;O, =0 ;5BC ;>28;8 :CA>G:8 AK@>3> <OA0. CAB8; O 2 0:20@8C< 3C??8 - =5 >1@0I0NB 2=8<0=8O. >4A048; <5G5=>AF52 - A;>?0;8. A5;8; =5>=>2 - MBC <5;>GL =5 70<5G0NB. 0?CAB8; F8E;84 - ?8@0=L8 256;82> >1E>4OB =5C682G82KE A>A5459. =0G8B, <5;:CN @K1:C >=8 =5 B@>30NB, 0 A @02=K<8 - C6820NBAO. -B> E>@>H>, 0 B> G5BK@5 <0;5=L:85 @K15H:8 =0 1>;LH>9 0:20@8C< - :0:B> ?CAB>20B>& (;> 2@5<O, 8 =0ABC?8; <><5=B, :>340 0:20@8C<=K5 AB5:;0 AB0;8 ?>GB8 =5?@>3;O4=K<8 >B >1@0AB0=89.  0:20@8C< 87 >@3AB5:;0 A:@51:>< =0 4;8==>9 @C:>OB:5 =5 ?>G8AB8HL, =04> 70;570BL 2 2>4C @C:>9. BBO3820;, >BBO3820; O G8AB:C AB5:>;, => 40;LH5 =5:C40. !>1@0; O 2A5 A2>5 <C65AB2> 8 BI0B5;L=> ?@83>B>28;AO: =045; ?;>B=CN ?5@G0B:C, ?>25@E 70AB53=CB>9 =0 70?OABL5 @C10H:8 5I5 8 A28B5@ =0BO=C;. A;8 8 F0?=CB, B0: =5 70 3>;CN @C:C. K?@>2>48; 87 :><=0BK 4><>G04F52, 70:@K; 425@L 8 AC=C; @C:C 2 2>4C. 8@0=L8 256;82> >B>H;8 2 40;L=89 C3>; 0:20@8C<0. 52OBL ;5B ?@>68;8 C <5=O MB8 @K1K, 2K@>A;8 4> 4204F0B8 A0=B8<5B@>2, => =8 @07C =0H8 >B=>H5=8O =8G5< =5 1K;8 ><@0G5=K. / A>25@H5==> A?>:>9=> >?CA:0; =8G5< =5 70I8I5==CN @C:C 2 0:20@8C< 8 45;0; 2A5, GB> B@51>20;>AL. "0: 7=0G8B, A;CE8 > A28@5?>AB8 MB8E @K1 A8;L=> ?@5C25;8G5=K? C, MB> :0: A:070BL. !C48B5 A0<8. >340 ?8@0=L8 ?>4@>A;8, >=8 C65 =5 AB0;8 2A5340 >BABC?0BL ?5@54 A>A54O<8F8E;840<8. K, =025@=>5, 7=05B5, GB> C F8E;84 85@0@E8G5A:0O AB0O, 3;025=AB2CNI0O @K10 B@51C5B >B 2A5E ?>4G8=5=8O, 2B>@0O ?> @0=3C - >B 2A5E, :@><5 ?5@2>9, 8 B. 4.  >1I5<, F8E;84K 2A5 2@5<O 70=OBK 2KOA=5=85< >B=>H5=89, 2 B>< G8A;5 8 A ?8@0=LO<8. "5 B5@?5;8, B5@?5;8 MB> ?>?@0=85 8E 4>AB>8=AB20, 0 ?>B>< 27O;8 8 A;>?0;8 3;02=CN 2 AB05 F8E;84C. AB5AB25==>, ?> 70:>=0< 85@0@E88 ?>381HCN 70<5=8;0 @K10 2B>@>3> @0=30. '5@57 =5:>B>@>5 2@5<O ?8@0=L8 AJ5;8 8 55. , =5 >BA048 O F8E;84, >=8 2A5 1K;8 1K AJ545=K.  2>B ?@8G8=C =0?045=8O =0 3;02=CN F8E;84C 2 AB05 <=5 @073040BL B0: 8 =5 C40;>AL. A5 @K1K AKBK, 70=OBK A2>8<8 45;0<8, ?8@0=L8 <564C A>1>9 15A54CNB ?>A@54AB2>< ?>7 8 ?>:0G820=8O ?;02=8:>2, 0 F8E;84K ?> >1K:=>25=8N 2KOA=ONB >B=>H5=8O - ?>@>9 B> >4=0, B> 4@C30O ?>4?;K205B : ?8@0=LO<. '0I5, :>=5G=>, MB> 45;05B A0<0O ?5@20O, 3;02=0O @K10 2 AB05. A5 B8E>, <8@=>, ?8@0=L8 4065 >BE>4OB ?>4 =0?>@>< F8E;84. 4@C3 - 1C@C= 2>4K, 15H5=>5 :>;5A> 87 G5BK@5E ?8@0=89 8 =5B F8E;84K.  >?OBL 2A5 B8E> 8 <8@=>. > 2B>@>3> B0:>3> 65 1C@C=0 - G5@57 G0A, G5@57 45=L. =5 4C<05BAO, GB> 2 >1KG=>< @K1L5< @073>2>@5 ?>;>65=85< B5;0, ?;02=8:>2, >:@0A:>9 F8E;840 2 :0:>9B> <><5=B 4>?CA:05B >H81:C, :>B>@0O 8 A;C68B A83=0;>< 4;O =0?045=8O ?8@0=89. > 2 G5< >H81:0 - O B0: 8 =5 ?>=O;. ;8 2>B B0:85 A>1KB8O. >340 ?8@0=L8 ?>4@>A;8, A>45@60BL A =8<8 4@C38E @K1 AB0;> =52>7<>6=>.  =04>. 8@0=L8 ;>2:> E20B0NB <OA> =0 ;5BC, 15@CB :CA:8 8 A> 4=0, => 5A;8 GB>B> 70AB@5205B A@548 :0<=59 8;8 2 AB51;OE @0AB5=89, B> B0: B0< 8 >AB05BAO. 5 A>18@0NB >=8 8 C?02H53> <>BK;O. 'B>1K 2>40 =5 ?>@B8;0AL, :B>B> 4>;65= ?>418@0BL 2A5 >AB0B:8.  O @5H8; ?>4A048BL : ?8@0=LO< A80<A:8E :>A0B>:.  B5 3>4K MB> 1K;8 @54:85 8 4>2>;L=> 4>@>385 @K1K. >G5<C O >AB0=>28; =0 =8E A2>9 2K1>@? 0AAC645=8O <>8 1K;8 ?@8<5@=> B0:>2K: ?8@0=L8 0:B82=K 4=5<, 0 MB8 A><K - =>GLN, 4=5< 65 >=8 45@60BAO 2 C:@KB8OE. @><5 B>3>, :0: 8725AB=>, =0 3@C4=KE 8 A?8==>< ?;02=8:0E C :>A0B>: 8<5NBAO >AB@K5 O4>28BK5 H8?K. 0@0 27@>A;KE :>A0B>: (4> 17 A0=B8<5B@>2) CA?5H=> A>18@0;0 ?> =>G0< 70AB@O2H55 <OA>, 4>1K20;0 87 3@C=B0 <>BK;O. -B> ?@>4>;60;>AL =5A:>;L:> <5AOF52.  24@C3 GB>B> 2 8E ?>2545=88 ?8@0=LO< =5 ?>=@028;>AL - A0<5F :>A0B:8 ?>;CG8; AB@0H=CN @0=C 2>:@C3 A?8==>3> ?;02=8:0. @8H;>AL :>A0B>: C40;8BL. ">340 O @5H8; 8A?KB0BL 27@>A;KE :;0@80A>2 (4;8=0 8E 1>;55 25 A0=B8<5B@>2). > ?>:0 O 2K;02;820; 4;O ?5@5A04:8 2B>@>3> A><0, ?5@2K9 1K; B0: 8A:CA0=, GB> A?0AB8 53> =5 C40;>AL.  =0E>48;AO A ?8@0=LO<8 2A53> 5- 7 <8=CB. 0:>=5F, O 2K?CAB8; 2 0:20@8C< <5;:8E B>@0:0BC<>2 - 24@C3 ?@8682CBAO?& @868;8AL 2A5, A?>:>9=> ACI5AB2>20;8 @O4>< A E8I=8F0<8 157 2AO:8E M:AF5AA>2. >;55 B>3>, >:070;>AL, GB> >=8 ?>;57=K A2>8< A>A54O<. !B>8B ?8@0=LO, ?;02=8:0<8 ?>H525;8205B, 0 B>@0:0BC< 2L5BAO 2>:@C3, GB>B> A 55 1>:>2 A>A:@51K205B. !2>53> @>40 A0=8B0@=0O >1@01>B:0. > ?>?@>1C9B5 4>1028BL 2 2>4C E>BL :0?;N :@>28 (O 2=>A8; 2 0:20@8C< 5<:>ABLN 220 ;8B@>2 AB>;>2CN ;>6:C 2>4K, 2 :>B>@>9 <K;8 AK@>5 <OA>), 8 ?8@0=L8 ?@84CB 2 ?>;=>5 =58AB>2AB2>.  2 B> 65 2@5<O, :0: O C65 3>2>@8;, >=8 =8:>340 =5 45;0;8 ?>?>;7=>25=89 0B0:>20BL <>N @C:C. >=5G=>, 8 O AB0@0;AO =5 4>A0640BL 8<. =0O, GB> ?8@0=L8 A?>A>1=K <>;=85=>A=> =0?040BL, O 2A5340 :@05< 3;070 A;548; 70 =8<8 - :0: 2 B5@@0@8C<5 A 03@5AA82=K<8 7<5O<8. C B0: :840NBAO >=8 2 2>45 =0 2A5 682>5 8;8 =5B? 0NAL, O 4065 ?>H5; =0 4>2>;L=> 65AB>:89 >?KB: 1@>A8; 2 0:20@8C< 682CN 15;CN <KHL.  GB> 65? K1K ?>3;O4K20;8 =0 10@0EB0NICNAO C ?>25@E=>AB8 :@>EC, => B0: 8 =5 ?@81;878;8AL : =59.  254L 4;O 27@>A;>9 >A>18 <KHL - 2A53> =0 420 3;>B:0& @0240, =04> 70<5B8BL, GB> >?KB <>9 1K; =5 A>2A5< G8ABK<. 725AB=>, GB> =0 ?>2545=85 E8I=8:>2 2;8O5B B0:>9 D0:B>@, :0: >15A?5G5==>ABL ?8I59.  :@878A=KE A8BC0F8OE, :>340 :>@<>2 =5 E20B05B, 03@5AA82=>ABL 8E @57:> 2>7@0AB05B.  <>8 ?8@0=L8 =5 8A?KBK20;8 =54>AB0B:0 2 <OA5.  B> 65 2@5<O 8E 70<5H0B5;LAB2> ?@8 2845 ?;020NI59 <KH8 =5 ?>4B25@6405B A>>1I5=89, GB> MB8 E8I=8:8 =0?040NB 2 2>45 =0 2A5 682>5. "5?5@L > 2708<>>B=>H5=8OE 2=CB@8 A0<>9 G5B25@:8. >340 @K1K ?>4@>A;8, AB0;> OA=>, GB> MB> A0<:0 8 B@8 A0<F0. ;O <5=O 4> A8E ?>@ =5?>=OB=>, :0:0O C =8E AB0O - ?@>AB0O A8BC0B82=0O (A @07=K<8 ;845@0<8 2 @07=KE A8BC0F8OE) 8;8 85@0@E8G5A:0O. / 87CG0; 8 1>;55 <=>3>G8A;5==K5 AB08 ?8@0=89 2 70@C156=KE 0:20@8C<0E, => AB@C:BC@C 8E B0: 8 =5 ?>AB83. 0:>9 1K >=0 =8 1K;0, => A@548 A0<F>2 A> 2@5<5=5< =0G0;0AL 1>@L10 70 A0<:C.  ?@8@>45 A8;L=K9 A0<5F ?@>AB> >B3>=O; 1K :>=:C@5=B>2, 2 0:20@8C<5 65 8< 4520BLAO =5:C40.  >?OBL ?8@0=L8 ?@>45<>=AB@8@>20;8 A2>8 >A>15==>AB8. 0: 8 2 A;CG05 A F8E;840<8, O =5 AC<5; C;>28BL ?CA:>2>9 <><5=B 4@0:8: GB> A;C68B 55 =0G0;><, :0: >?@545;ONB @K1K A0<>3> A;01>3>? > 2>B >?@545;8;8 - 2A5 B@8 =0;5B0NB =0 >4=>3>, C:CAK <>;=85=>A=K, E>;>AB>3> A68<0=8O G5;NAB59 =5 1K205B& 718B>3>, >:@>202;5==>3> (0 >B :@>28 =0?040NI85 5I5 1>;LH5 A28@5?5;8) A0<F0 ?@8H;>AL >BA048BL, 2K;5G8BL 8 >B?@028BL =0 68B5;LAB2> 2 <>A:>2A:89 :;C1 5?BC=. '5@57 =5:>B>@>5 2@5<O A@548 >AB02H8EAO A0<F>2 >?OBL 2KO28;AO A;0159H89. >340 O 25@=C;AO 87 :><0=48@>2:8, 4><0H=85 A C60A>< @0AA:070;8, :0: 425 ?8@0=L8 705;8 B@5BLN (=8:B>, :>=5G=>, =5 @5H8;AO 8 A0G:>< ;57BL 2 0:20@8C<). > >:070;>AL, 705;8 =5 4> :>=F0. 0 1>;LH8< :0<=5< O >1=0@C68; 5;5 682CN @K1C: 2A5 ?;02=8:8 >1J545=K, 3C1K >1>@20=K, =0 1>:0E 8 A?8=5 - 3;C1>:85 C:CAK, =0 3@C48 - @20=0O @0=0. / ?5@5=5A 154=O3C 2 4@C3>9 0:20@8C<, >= BO65;> 4KH0;. !:068B5, :B> A?>A>15= 2K:0@01:0BLAO 87 B0:>3> A>AB>O=8O? 54L MB>B >3@K7>: 4065 45@60BLAO =>@<0;L=> =5 <>3, 7020;820;AO =0 1>:. > 2K68;. / B0:>9 682CG5AB8 C @K1 =5 7=0N. ">;L:> C ?8@0=89. #4828B5;L=> 1KAB@> 70@0AB0NB C =8E @0=K. G5284=>, MB> A?5F8D8G5A:>5 ?@8A?>A>1;5=85 7C10ABKE @K1 : 687=8 2 AB05: 254L 4065 A;CG09=>5 A>?@8:>A=>25=85 A 8E 7C10<8 2545B : B@02<5, 0 2 AB05 ?@>8AE>4OB 8 ?@54=0<5@5==K5 ABKG:8. A;8 1K C ?8@0=89 =5 1K;> B0:>9 ?>B@OA0NI59 A?>A>1=>AB8 : 1KAB@><C 70682;5=8N @0=, >=8 1K ?@>AB> 2K<5@;8. AB0B8, > 7C10E. >340 >1:CA0=K 2 4@0:5 3C1K, >B:@K205BAO MB> AB@0H=>5 >@C685: 15;K5 B@5C3>;L=8:8 2KA>B>9 45 <8;;8<5B@>2. 5@E=89 B@5C3>;L=8: 2E>48B 2 ?07K <564C =86=8<8, :@><:8 =0AB>;L:> >AB@K5, GB> 2 ?@>H;>< 25:5 8=459FK <07>=:8 8A?>;L7>20;8 G5;NAB8 MB8E @K1 2<5AB> 1@8B2. '5;NAB8 459AB2CNB 42C<O A?>A>10<8. 5@2K9 - ?@>AB>5 A<K:0=85, ?@8 MB>< 2A5, GB> >:07K205BAO 2> @BC, A@07C >B@5705BAO >B 2A53> >AB0;L=>3>. @8 2B>@>< - A><:=CBK5 G5;NAB8 5I5 8 A<5I0NBAO 2 3>@87>=B0;L=>< =0?@02;5=88, 7C1K @01>B0NB :0: =>68 M;5:B@>1@8B2K 8;8 A5=>:>A8;:8, ?@8G5< 459AB2CNB 157>B:07=>, >B:CAK20O 1>;55 ?;>B=K5, G5< <OA>, B:0=8 - 68;K, :>AB8 8 ?@. >B 8 AC48B5 B5?5@L, 459AB28B5;L=> ;8 AB@0H=K MB8 =5>1KG=K5 @K1K 8;8 A;CE8 > =8E A8;L=> ?@5C25;8G5=K. 5 7=0N, :0: =5@5ABOBAO ?8@0=L8,- G53> =5 2845;, B>3> =5 2845;.  2>B GB> 2845;, ?>2540N. !B>O; C <5=O 2 0:20@8C<5 ?;>A:89 :0<5=L, >= 1K; ?@8A;>=5= : 704=59 AB5=:5, 8 70 =8< ?>;CG8;>AL C:@KB85.  2>B 70<5G0N, GB> ?0@0 <>8E @K1 (420 8A:CA0==KE 8 2K;5G5==KE A0<F0 C65 1K;8 >B?@02;5=K 2 :;C1 5?BC=) ?@>O2;O5B ?>2KH5==K9 8=B5@5A : 53> ?>25@E=>AB8. > GC2AB2C5BAO, GB> :@CB>9 A:;>= <5H05B @K10<. >;>68; O :0<5=L ?>4@C3><C, 8 >15 @K1K AB0;8 CA8;5==> 53> G8AB8BL. 0B5< A0<5F 70=O;AO @0AG8AB:>9 7>=K 2>:@C3 :0<=O. 04> A:070BL, GB> <>;>4K5 ?8@0=L8 : @0AB5=8O< >B=>AOBAO 157@07;8G=>, 0 A<>B@OBAO =0 D>=5 75;5=8 25;8:>;5?=>.  24@C3 A0<5F =0G0; ?;0=><5@=> 8 F5;5=0?@02;5==> C=8GB>60BL 2A5, GB> @>A;> 2>:@C3 :0<=O. = ;>68;AO =0 1>: 8 ?5@5:CAK20; G5@5H:8 ;8ABL52 =5 345=81C4L, 0 C A0<>3> :>@=528I0. A;8 20< ?@8E>48;>AL =5 >G5=L >AB@K<8 =>6=8F0<8 ?KB0BLAO >B@570BL G5@5H:8 =5:>B>@KE 0=C180A>2 8 ME8=>4>@CA>2, 2K 7=05B5, :0:>5 CA8;85 =04> ?@8;>68BL. > GB> MB> 4;O ?8@0=L8 A 55 7C10<8?8;0<8! >340 2A5 1K;> A@570=>, A0<5F A>3=0; 2AN A:>H5==CN 75;5=L 2 >48= C3>;.  ?>B>< ?>H;8 B0=FK. AB0=CB @K1K =04 :0<=5< =0:;>==> 4@C3 : 4@C3C 8 :@C60BAO, A>?@8:0A0OAL 0=0;L=K<8 >B25@AB8O<8. 15 >=8 AB0=>2OBAO A>2A5< G5@=K<8: ?@8 ?C=F>2KE ?;02=8:0E MB> >G5=L :@0A82>. =8, 2?@>G5<, G0AB> G5@=5;8 2 7028A8<>AB8 >B =0AB@>5=8O. >945HL 2 :><=0BC A 3>AB5<, B>B C2848B :>=B@0AB G5@=>3> A :@0A=K<, 0E=5B, 1@>A8BAO : 0:20@8C<C, 0 ?8@0=L8 C65 ?>A25B;5;8 2 ?@8ACBAB288 GC60:0. 5 7=0N, :0: =5@5ABOBAO ?8@0=L8 C 4@C38E 0:20@8C<8AB>2,- >G5284=>, ?>A;5 AB8<C;8@CNI59 38?>D870@=>9 8=J5:F88, 0 >=0, CA:>@OO A>7@520=85 ?>;>2KE ?@>4C:B>2, <>65B 8A:060BL ?>2545=85 @K1.  2>B <>8 ?8@0=L8 (Serrasalmus nattereri) O2=> B0:8< >1@07>< 3>B>28;8AL : =5@5ABC (>=8 254L 1K;8 =5 >B 8=J5F8@>20==KE @>48B5;59, 8E 2K;>28;8 2 <07>=:5, 4>AB028;8 2 !B>:3>;L<, 0 >BBC40 2 5=8=3@04). > G53>B> 8< O2=> =5 E20B0;>. >340B> 2 !( ?8@0=89 2?5@2K5 @0725;8 2 =52>;5 2 0:20@8C<5 >1J5<>< 5000 ;8B@>2. # <5=O 65 ?@8E>48;>AL 220 ;8B@>2 =0 ?0@C. >, 4C<0N, =5 2 >1J5<5 1K;> 45;>. !0<:0 ?>;=5;0, >=0 O2=> =018@0;0 8:@C, 0 A0<5F 24@C3 70E8@5; 8 2A:>@5 ?>381. "0: =8G53> C <5=O 8 =5 ?>;CG8;>AL. 8@0=L8 2 ?>4>B@O45 %0@0:>284=K5 (Characoidei) >1@07CNB A0<>AB>OB5;L=>5 A5<59AB2> 8@0=L52K5 (Serrasalmidae), =>, :@><5 ?@54AB028B5;59 :@>2>604=KE @>4>2, ?8B0NI8EAO <OA>< ?>72>=>G=KE, 2 =5< 5ABL 8 2?>;=5 <8@=K5 @K1K. 8;>A><0 (Mylossoma duriventre) ?8B05BAO 8 682>B=>9, 8 @0AB8B5;L=>9 ?8I59. -B8 :@C?=K5 (1>;55 25 A0=B8<5B@>2), ?>E>685 =0 48A: @K1K, A5@51@8ABK5, A @>7>20BK< >BA25B>< G5HC9 8 ?C=F>2>9 3@C4LN, =0 :@C?=KE 682>B=KE =5 =0?040NB. 8;5CAK (Myleus rubripinnis) - A5@51@8ABK9, 3>;C1>9 8 7>;>B>9, 2A5 B@8 A ?C=F>2K<8, >B>@>G5==K<8 G5@=K<8 =5?0@=K<8 ?;02=8:0<8 - ?8B0NBAO A>2A5< 70102=>: ?;>40<8 45@52L52, ?040NI8<8 2 2>4C.  B0:8< 65 ?;>4>O4=K< >B=>A8BAO :@C?=0O (1>;55 40 A0=B8<5B@>2) :>;>A><0 (!>lossoma nigripinnis) - C =55 :@0A82> A>G5B0NBAO A5@51@8ABK9 8 G5@=K9 F25B0. 4=064K 2 59?F83A:>< 7>>?0@:5 O C2845; AB0N @07=>2>7@0AB=KE <5B8==8A>2 C4828B5;L=>9 :@0A>BK: =0 3>;C1>< D>=5 G5@=K5 ?OB=0, 0 3@C4L 8 =5?0@=K5 ?;02=8:8 ?C=F>2K5. 5B8==8AK B>65 0AB8B5;L=>O4=K5 @K1K, ?8B0NI85AO 2>4=K<8 B@020<8. !5@51@8ABK9 <5B8==8A (Metynnis maculatus) @53C;O@=> @072>48BAO 2 =0H59 AB@0=5. ">;L:> 5A;8 274C<05B5 8E 7025AB8, @0A?@>I09B5AL A> 2A5<8 @0AB5=8O<8, ?>4G8ABCN 2A5 2KAB@83CB 8 AJ54OB.  2>B 5I5 >48= >@838=0; 87 MB>3> A5<59AB20. @85760N :0:B> 2 <>A:>2A:89 :;C1 5?BC= A =0<5@5=85< 25@=CBL A515 >4=>3> 87 2K74>@>252H8E A0<F>2 ?8@0=L8, 0 @C:>2>48B5;L :;C10 ...@>74>2 3>2>@8B, GB> 25@=CBL =5 <>65B: ?>40@8; 2 >48= 87 7>>?0@:>2 AB@0=K. -%>G5HL, O B515 4@C3CN @K1:C 40<? ">;L:> GB> 87 @078;88 25@=C;0AL =0H0 <>A:>2A:0O M:A?548F8O, >=8 B0< 2 <07>=:5 :>5GB> =0;>28;8. >B MBC >48=>:CN @K1:C <>3C B515 >B40BL. !<>B@N: GB>B> B0:>5 ?8@0=L52>5 8 2 B> 65 2@5<O A?8==>9 8 0=0;L=K9 ?;02=8:8 2KBO=CBK, ?>GB8 :0: C A:0;O@89, B>;L:> @K10 8E =0:;>==> 45@68B. -8;5CA GB> ;8? C, 40209. ">;L:> 345 O 1C4C 5<C ?;>4K 4>1K20BL? 8<>9, =0?@8<5@. @8257 @K15H:C 4><>9 (>=0 2A53> A0=B8<5B@>2 A5<8 1K;0), ?CAB8; 2 0:20@8C<. !86C, 4C<0N, G5< :>@<8BL.  >=0 >3;O45;0AL, 8 24@C3 <>;=85=>A=K9 1@>A>: - :@C?=0O 35;>AB><0 >B;5B05B 2 AB>@>=C, 0 2 2>45 :@C60BAO A18BK5 A 55 1>:0 G5HC9:8. K15H:0 ;>28B G5HC9:8, 604=> 8E ?>68@05B. 8=C;AO O :=838 2>@>H8BL: >:07K205BAO, :> <=5 ?>?0; :0B>?@8>= (Catoprion mento), ?8B0NI89AO @K1L59 G5HC59. >765 O ?>4A<>B@5;, :0: :0B>?@8>= @071>9=8G05B. >68BAO =0 1>: (:0: ?8@0=LO, A:0H820NI0O @0AB5=8O), ?>4?;K205B : :@C?=>9 @K15 (<5;:8E :0B>?@8>= =5 70<5G05B), 45;05B 1@>A>:, 8 =86=OO G5;NABL, :0: 1@8B20, A@5705B G5HCN ?>;>A>9 >B E2>AB0 : 3>;>25. >=5G=>, >B >4=>3> B0:>3> 1@8BLO 65@B20 =5 381=5B. > GB> 65 45;0BL 40;LH5, 254L MB>B 70<>@A:89 3>ABL 2A5E <>8E @K1 @0745=5B! C<0;, 4C<0; 8 ?@84C<0;. >:C?0N 2 <03078=5 B@5A:C, E5:0 8;8 4@C3CN <>@A:CN @K1C (<>@A:CN - GB>1K ?0@078B>2 2 0:20@8C< =5 70=5AB8), A=8<0N :>6C A G5HC59, @0AAB8;0N 55 =0 4=5 0:20@8C<0, 0 :@0O :0<=O<8 ?@868<0N. 0B>?@8>= 2KE>48B 87 70@>A;59, 345 A;548; 70 <>8<8 <0=8?C;OF8O<8, AB0=>28BAO 225@E E2>AB>< 8 =0G8=05B ?>I8?K20BL ;0:><CN G5HCN. 0 B>< <K 8 ?>;048;8.  @K1K 1K20NB >4=>;5B=8<8 "5?5@L ?>7=0:><8<AO A 5I5 >4=>9 ?>?C;O@=>9 C 0:20@8C<8AB>2 3@C??>9 @K1.  =0G=5< >?OBL A M:A?548F88 2 40;L=85 AB@0=K& @8A<>B@8<AO : 70@>A;O< ?;020NI8E @0AB5=89 2 =51>;LH>< ?@8B>:5 >=3>. K =025@=O:0 C2848< 2A:>@5 =5B>@>?;82CN, A;>2=> ?>425H5==CN : ?>25@E=>AB8, @K1:C. "5;> 55 2KBO=CB>5, 4;8==>5, => =5 A60B> A 1>:>2, 0, =0>1>@>B, ?@8?;NA=CB> A25@EC, B0: GB> 1@>A05BAO 2 3;070 H8@>:0O A?8=0, ?;02=> ?5@5E>4OI0O 2 B0:CN 65 H8@>:CN, BC?> >:0=G820NICNAO 3>;>2C. -B0 @K1:0 - >48= 87 ?@54AB028B5;59 @>40 Epiplatys, GB> 2 ?5@52>45 >7=0G05B H8@>:>A?8==0O @K10. 0AA<>B@8< B5?5@L AB@>5=85 M?8?;OB8A0 A1>:C. !@07C 2 3;070 1@>A05BAO C4828B5;L=0O ;8=8O A?8=K. ;O 4@C38E @K1 E0@0:B5@5= A?8==>9 ?>4J5< 8 ?>;>389 A?CA: : E2>ABC. # M?8?;OB8A0 =8G53> MB>3> =5B - H8@>:0O ?;>A:>ABL ;10 8 A?8=K :0: 1K A@570=K ?@O<>9 ;8=859. >B @0A?>;>65= =0 A0<>< :>=F5 3>;>2K 8 >B:@K205BAO :25@EC. A5 ?@8A?>A>1;5=> C MB>9 @K1:8 4;O ACI5AB2>20=8O C ?>25@E=>AB8. !?8=0 ?;>B=> ?@860B0 : ?>25@E=>AB=>9 ?;5=:5, 3;070 284OB 2A5, GB> ?@>8AE>48B 2=5 2>4K.  A?8==>9 ?;02=8:, >= 254L 1C45B B>@G0BL 87 2>4K 8 >1=0@C6820BL <5AB>=0E>645=85 @K1K? 5B, MB>3> =5 4>;6=> 1KBL.  2>B ?>AB5?5==>, 87 ?>:>;5=8O 2 ?>:>;5=85, A?8==>9 ?;02=8: ?5@5<5I05BAO 2A5 40;LH5 8 40;LH5 >B 53> >1KG=>3> <5AB0 ?>A@548 A?8=K 8, =0:>=5F, >:07K205BAO =0 A0<>< 55 :>=F5, 345 H8@>:0O G0ABL ?5@5E>48B 2 E2>AB>2>9 AB515;L. 45AL >= C65 =5 <5H05B, =0>1>@>B, :>340 @K1:5 =04> ?>9<0BL C ?>25@E=>AB8 <CEC 8;8 101>G:C, >=0 C40@O5B > 2>4C A@07C B@5<O 1>;LH8<8, 2<5AB5 @0A?>;>65==K<8 ?;02=8:0<8 - E2>AB>2K<, A?8==K< 8 0=0;L=K< - 8 ?>;CG05B 4>AB0B>G=K9 4;O A:0G:0 B>;G>:. -?8?;OB8AK ?@8=04;560B : A5<59AB2C 0@?>7C1K5 (Cyprinodontidae).  ;N18B5;LA:8E 0:20@8C<0E G0AB> 2AB@5G05BAO >48= 87 284>2 M?8?;OB8A>2 - Epiplatys dageti monroviae, :>B>@K9 @0=LH5 =07K20;AO . chaperi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phlocheilus. =8 8<5NB B0:>5 65 AB@>5=85 B5;0 8 B>65 ?@8=04;560B : 682CI8< C ?>25@E=>AB8 2840<. ?;>E59;CAK >682;ONBAO : 25G5@C - 254L 8<5==> 2 MB> 2@5<O ;5B05B <>H:0@0. :@C >=8 <5GCB 2 3CI5 @0AB5=89, => 2K18@0NB =5 70@>A;8 >:>;> 15@530, 0 ?;020NI85 @0AB5=8O. >G5<C ?;020NI85? -B> B>65 8<55B A2>9 A<KA;. !0<5F ?@5A;54C5B A0<:C, 8 >=0, ?@>?;K20O A@548 70@>A;59 @0AB5=89, <5G5B 8:@C. !0<5F ?;K25B A7048 8 ?>;8205B 8:@C <>;>:0<8& !B>?!  ?>?04CB ;8 <>;>:8 =0 8:@C? 54L <=>385 8:@8=:8 CA?520NB ?@>20;8BLAO 2 3;C18=C 70@>A;59, ?>:0 A0<5F ?@>15@5BAO A:2>7L =8E 2A;54 70 A0<:>9. 0: 65 1KBL? @8@>40 ?>4C<0;0 8 >1 MB><. B0:, A0<:0 <5G5B 8:@C, :>B>@0O ?>28A05B C =55 =0 B5;5 F5;>9 3@>74LN =0?>4>185 28=>3@040. "0:CN 3@>74L =5 B0: C6 B@C4=> 4;O A0<F0 ?>;8BL <>;>:0<8. @>48@0OAL 40;LH5 A:2>7L G0IC @0AB5=89, A0<:0 B5@O5B 8:@8=:8, => B5?5@L >=8 C65 >?;>4>B2>@5=K 8 <>3CB AK?0BLAO :C40 C3>4=>. '5@57 >4=C- B@8 =545;8 87 8:@K 2KE>48B <>;>4L, :>B>@0O B>65 ?>@0605B A2>59 25;8G8=>9 - MB> A>2A5< AD>@<8@>202H85AO @K1:8, >=8 A@07C <>3CB ?@5:@0A=> ?;020BL 8 ?8B0BLAO. "5?5@L 704048<AO B0:8< 2>?@>A><: 0 GB> 1K ?@>87>H;>, 5A;8 1K 2>4>5<, 345 2K<5B0;8 8:@C 0?;>E59;CAK, AB0; ?5@5AKE0BL? 54L 2 B@>?8:0E MB> 2?>;=5 2>7<>6=>. :07K205BAO, <0;L:8 A@07C ?> 2KE>45 87 8:@K <>3CB A;54>20BL 70 >BABC?0NI59 2>4>9 =0 3;C18=C.  8:@0? ?;>E59;CAK 2K<5B0;8 55 =0 ?;020NI85 @0AB5=8O, 0 MB0 3@C??0 @0AB5=89 B0:65 4>;LH5 >AB05BAO 2 2>45, 254L >=0 =5 A2O70=0 A 3@C=B>< :>@=O<8 8 <>65B ?;KBL 2<5AB5 A 2>4>9. # 1;87:>3> @>4AB25==8:0 0?;>E59;CA0 - 68B5;O 2>4>5<>2 /2K >@8780A0 (Orizias melastigmus) =5A:>;L:> 8=>5 ?@8A?>A>1;5=85 : :>;51;NI5<CAO C@>2=N 2>4K. K1:0 MB0 6825B =0 @8A>2KE ?>;OE, >1 MB>< 3>2>@8B 55 =0720=85: orizias - @>645==0O @8A><. =0 B0: 65 <5G5B 8:@C, 8 8:@0 ?>28A05B =0 B5;5 28=>3@04=>9 3@>74LN. > 3@>74L MB0 28A8B 7=0G8B5;L=> ?@>G=55, 8 2A5 @0728B85 2 8:@8=:5 ?@>8AE>48B =0 B5;5 A0<:8. 07C<55BAO, A0<:0 2A5340 A<>65B >B>9B8 =0 3;C18=C, :>340 C@>25=L 2>4K ?>=878BAO.  2<5AB5 A =59 C?;K2CB =0 157>?0A=>5 <5AB> 8 8:@8=:8. 5AL ?@>F5AA @0728B8O 8:@0 >@8780A0 ?@>E>48B 70 425=04F0BL 4=59, 0 @0A?0405BAO 3@>74L =0 45AOBK9>48==04F0BK9 45=L. !0<:0 @>=O5B 55 =0 157>?0A=><, 4>AB0B>G=> 3;C1>:>< <5AB5. >MB><C 2K:;N=C2H0OAO 87 8:@8=>: <>;>4L B0:0O 65 :@>E>B=0O, :0: C 2A5E @K1, 0 =5 A25@EA:>@>A?5;0O, :0: C 0?;>E59;CA>2. =B5@5A=0O MB0 @K1:0 =5402=> >1=0@C65=0 8 2 =0H8E A@54=50780BA:8E @5:0E. I5 1>;55 C4828B5;L=CN ?@8A?>A>1;5==>ABL : 2>4>5<0< A :>;51;NI8<AO C@>2=5< 2>4K ?@>O2;ONB 4@C385 @>4AB25==8:8 0?;>E59;CA>2 - 0D@8:0=A:85 0D8>75<8>=K. =8 >G5=L :@0A82K: :@0A=K5, A8=85, 65;BK5, ?>60;C9, =5 =09B8 F25B0, :>B>@>3> =5 1K;> 1K 2 8E >:@0A:5.  ?KH=K5 @07=>F25B=K5 ?;02=8:8, A;>2=> <0;5=L:85 7=0<5=0. D8>75<8>= B0: 8 ?5@52>48BAO - <0;5=L:89 =>A8B5;L 7=0<5=8. 82CB >=8 =5 B>;L:> 2 @5G:0E 8 ?@C40E, => 8 2 ;C60E. C 0 5A;8 B0:0O ;C60 2KA>E=5B, 254L MB> <>65B 1KBL? 0, 8<5==> B0: 8 ?@>8AE>48B. C68 60@:8< ;5B>< 2KAKE0NB, 0 @K1K& @K1K 381=CB.  MB>, ?>60;C9, 5AB5AB25==>. K 7=05< =5<0;> >4=>;5B=8E @0AB5=89. =8 2K@0AB0NB 87 A5<O= 25A=>9, @072820NBAO 8 ?;>4>=>AOB ;5B>< 8, A1@>A82 A5<5=0, 381=CB >A5=LN.  =8:><C 2 3>;>2C =5 ?@8E>48B AG8B0BL, GB> AC4L10 MB8E >4=>;5B=8E @0AB5=89 C60A=0.  @0725 =5 <>3CB 1KBL >4=>;5B=85 682>B=K5? >3CB, :>=5G=>. >;LH8=AB2> =0A5:><KE, =0H8 87OI=K5 101>G:8 - 2A5 MB> >4=>;5B:8. >G5<C 65 =5 1KBL >4=>;5B=8< @K10<? D8>75<8>=K, 8;8, :0: 8E @0=LH5 =07K20;8, DC=4C;CAK (>B A;>20 DC=4 - 4=>), 8 5ABL >4=>;5B=85 @K1K. =8 ?>O2;ONBAO 87 8:@K, :>340 ;C68 =0?>;=ONBAO 2>4>9 ?@8 4>64OE 8;8 @07;820E @5:. 0: 0?;>E59;CAK 8 M?8?;OB8AK, >=8 A ?5@2KE 65 4=59 C65 AD>@<8@>202H85AO, ?>4286=K5 8 0:B82=> ?8B0NI85AO @K1:8. D8>75<8>=K 1KAB@> @0ABCB 8 : ?5@8>4C 70ACE8 CA?520NB A>7@5BL 4;O @07<=>65=8O 8 >B=5@5AB8BLAO. C60 ?5@5AKE05B, 8 @K1:8 381=CB. > >AB0;0AL 8:@0, 87 :>B>@>9 =0 A;54CNI89 3>4 ?>O28BAO ?5AB@>5 :@0A82>5 ?>B><AB2>.  5A;8 ;C60 =5 ?5@5A>E=5B? ">340 >4=>;5B=85 @K1:8 ?@>682CB 8 3>4, 8 420, 8 B@8. > =0 2AO:89 A;CG09 >=8 2A5B0:8 ?@8A?>A>18;8AL 8 25AL F8:; @0728B8O ?@>E>4OB 70 >48= A57>=. 0: 65 A>E@0=O5BAO 8:@0 C MB8E @K1? '0ABL 87 =8E, :0:, =0?@8<5@, Aphyosemion australe, :>B>@K9 6825B 2 D@8:5, 0 >B=N4L =5 2 2AB@0;88 (australe - N6=K9), <5GCB A2>N 8:@C 2 3CIC 2>4=KE @0AB5=89. >2848<><C, MB0 @K1:0 5I5 =5 2?>;=5 >4=>;5B=OO, E>BO 25AL F8:; @0728B8O C =55 B>65 CA:>@5=. > 8 2 B>;AB>< A;>5 2>4=KE @0AB5=89 8:@0 <>65B ?5@5640BL 4> ?5@8>40 4>6459. !:06C 4065 1>;LH5: ?>:0 =5 ?>94CB 4>648, 87 8:@8=:8 =5 =0G=CB 2K:;52K20BLAO <0;L:8, ?>B><C GB> 2 =52KA>EH5< 2>4>5<5 : :>=FC ?5@8>40 70ACE8 2>40 >1KG=> =5A2560O, 2 =59 <0;> :8A;>@>40 8 1C@=> ?@>B5:0NB ?@>F5AAK 3=85=8O. @C385 0D8>75<8>=K <5GCB 8:@C 2 3@C=B - >=8 70:0?K20NB 55 2 <O3:89 ?5A>: 8;8 B>@D E2>AB>2K<8 ?;02=8:0<8. A>15==> 8=B5@5A=> ?@>B5:05B =5@5AB C 0<5@8:0=A:8E @K1 - F8=>;5180A0 (Cynolebias nigripinnis) 8 ?B5@>;5180A0 (Pterolebias longipinnis). # F8=>;5180A0 4>2>;L=> >1KG=0O, A60B0O A 1>:>2 D>@<0 B5;0; >:@0A:0 =0?><8=05B A8=55 =>G=>5 =51>, CAK?0==>5 725740<8. B5@>;5180AKA0<FK ?>E>68 =0 A0<F>2 1>9F>2KE @K1>:: =0 H>:>;04=>7>;>B8AB>< D>=5 A8=85, D8>;5B>2K5, G5@=K5, :@0A=K5 F25B0. K1:8 2K18@0NB ?>4E>4OI89 3@C=B, 70B5< A0<5F, A25@:0O :@0A>G=K< =0@O4><, ?@83;0H05B A0<:C : =5@5ABC. AB02 @O4><, >=8 :0: 1K =K@ONB A 3>;>2>9 2 <O3:89 B>@D 8 2 ?@>18BCN O<:C >B:;04K20NB >4=C 8:@8=:C. !?CABO 1015 A5:C=4 ?>:07K205BAO A0<5F, 2A:>@5 : =5<C ?>4?;K205B A0<:0, 8 @K1:8 ?>2B>@ONB 2A5 A=0G0;0. < ?@54AB>8B B0:8< A?>A>1>< =8 <=>3> =8 <0;> @07<5AB8BL >:>;> 200 8:@8=>:. @0240, 2 1;03>?@8OB=>5, =5 >G5=L ACE>5 2@5<O 3>40 =5@5AB @0ABO38205BAO =0 =545;8. :@0 MB8E @K1 @0728205BAO 2 B5<=>B5, 8, GB>1K ?>B><AB2> ?>;CG8;>AL :@5?:>5, O@:> >:@0H5==>5, >=0 =C6405BAO 2 =5:>B>@>< >E;0645=88 8 ?>4ACH820=88. 5 =04>, >4=0:>, ?>=8<0BL MB8 A;>20 1C:20;L=>. A;8 =5@5AB ?@>8AE>48; ?@8 24 !, B> 20 ! - C65 =5:>B>@>5 >E;0645=85, 0 15 ! - 4065 1>;LH>5. :@0 65 2K45@68205B :@0B:>2@5<5==>5 ?>=865=85 B5<?5@0BC@K 4065 4> 5 ! (MB> C B@>?8G5A:8EB> @K1!). 'B> :0A05BAO ?>4ACH820=8O, B> 2?>;=5 4>AB0B>G=>, 5A;8 B>@D =0 23 4=O >AB0=5BAO 2;06=K<, => 157 2>4K. >=5G=>, 8:@8=:8 >4=>;5B=8E @K1 CAB@>5=K =5 B0:, :0: C >1KG=KE, 8=0G5 >=8 =5 2K45@60;8 1K ?>4ACH820=8O. =8 8<5NB >1>;>G:8 >A>1>9 AB@C:BC@K, >G5=L ?@>G=K5 (2 M:A?5@8<5=B0E 2K45@6820NB =03@C7:C 500 3@0<<>2). !;>= B0:CN 8:@8=:C =5 @074028B.  ?B8F0 87 ?K;8 =5 2K:;N5B: =0 2=5H=5< A;>5 5ABL :;59:85 2>@A8=:8, : :>B>@K<, :0: B>;L:> 8:@8=:0 ?0405B =0 3@C=B, ?@8AB0NB <5;:85 ?5AG8=:8, G0AB8FK 3@C=B0. :@8=:0 ?>:@K205BAO ?;>B=>9 :>@>G:>9 8 AB0=>28BAO :0: ?5AG8=:0. > A0<>5 8=B5@5A=>5 ?@>8AE>48B 2 8:@8=:5 40;LH5: A =0ABC?;5=85< ACE>3> ?5@8>40 2=5H=OO >1>;>G:0 @0AA;08205BAO 8 <564C ?@>G=>9 ?5AG0=>9 8 ?@>G=>9 2=CB@5==59 >1>;>G:0<8 >1@07C5BAO 35@<5B8G=K9 H0@8:. =CB@8 =53> - A2>5>1@07=0O 684:0O A@540, 2 :>B>@>9 70@>4KH C65 =5 7028A8B >B 70ACE8. >4>1=0O :>=AB@C:F8O A ?@>G=>9 >1>;>G:>9 8 684:>9 2=CB@5==59 A@54>9 E0@0:B5@=0 A>2A5< =5 4;O @K1L59 8:@K, 0 4;O O8F ACE>?CB=KE =0A5:><KE 8 ?@5A<K:0NI8EAO. 0E>4OAL =0 M2>;NF8>==>9 ;5AB=8F5 =865 75<=>2>4=KE, >4=>;5B=85 @K1:8 >B:;04K20NB O9F0, :>B>@K5 ?> A;>6=>AB8 :>=AB@C:F88 =5 CABC?0NB O9F0< OI5@8FK. C G5< =5 75<=>2>4=K5 =0>1>@>B! :@0 >4=>;5B=8E @K1, :0: ?>:070;8 8AA;54>20=8O, 8<55B G5BK@5 AB0488 @0728B8O.  ?>:>OI59AO 8:@8=:5 2 ?>4E>4OI8E CA;>28OE =0G8=05BAO @0728B85 M<1@8>=0, :>B>@K9, ?@>94O G5@57 B@8 AB0488, 2=>2L 2>72@0I05BAO : ?5@8>4C ?>:>O. 5?>4ACH5==0O 8 =5>E;0645==0O 8:@8=:0 4>;3> =5 1C45B @072820BLAO, B0: 65 :0: 8 3>B>20O : 2K:;52C <>;>4L =5 2K945B 87 8:@8=:8, ?>:0 =5 1C4CB A>740=K ?>4E>4OI85 CA;>28O. BAN40 <>6=> 70:;NG8BL, GB> ;N18B5;L0:20@8C<8AB ?@8 @072545=88 MB8E @K1 <>65B ;81> CA:>@OBL, ;81> B>@<>78BL @0728B85 O9F0 8 M<1@8>=0. >MB><C B@C4=> B>G=> C:070BL A@>: @0728B8O 8:@K. =0 <>65B @072820BLAO 2 0:20@8C<=KE CA;>28OE 8 >48=420 <5AOF0, 0 8=>340 55 @0728B85 70BO38205BAO =0 1>;LH89 A@>:. -B> <>65B A;CG0BLAO 8 =57028A8<> >B 2>;8 G5;>25:0, ?> =5 2KOA=5==K< ?>:0 ?@8G8=0<. > 2>B 8:@0 ?@>H;0 2A5 B@8 AB0488: ?>:>9 O9F0, @0728B85 M<1@8>=0, ?>:>9 M<1@8>=0. 0: 65 B5?5@L @071C48BL M<1@8>=, 70AB028BL 53> 2K9B8 87 8:@8=:8?  ?@8@>45 MB> ?@>8AE>48B B0:. 4CB 4>648, <O3:0O A2560O 2>40 70;8205B 4=> ;C68. @>A0G820OAL 2 B>@D, >=0 ?@8>1@5B05B GCBL :8A;CN @50:F8N. @>E>4OB 45=L, 420, B@8 - 2 2>45 ?>O28;8AL <8@804K 10:B5@89 8 8=DC7>@89. A5! #A;>28O A>740=K, 8 2A5 8:@8=:8 @07>< ?5@5E>4OB 2 ?>A;54=NN AB048N A2>53> @0728B8O: 2K:;52 <>;>48. -B> ?@>8AE>48B >G5=L 1KAB@> - <>;>4L A;>2=> B>@>?8BAO @>48BLAO 8<5==> 2 MB8E CA;>28OE. 5AL ?@>F5AA 2K;C?;5=8O 87 8:@K - A:>;L:> 1K 55 =8 1K;> 8 2 :0:85 1K A@>:8 =8 >B:;04K20;8 55 @>48B5;8 - ?@>B5:05B 2A53> 70 15 G0A>2.  2>B C65 2 ;C65 :8H0B N@:85 ?5AB@K5 <0;L:8. > MB> 2 ;C65.  2 0:20@8C<5? "CB C6 ?@8E>48BAO <C4@8BL. @8<5=ONB CA8;5==CN 0M@0F8N, 8=>340 2 2>4C 4>102;ONB B@8?0D;028=. > <0;L:8 <>3CB C?>@AB2>20BL, =5 65;0O @>640BLAO. ">340 1@>A0NB =0 ?>25@E=>ABL 2>4K ACE>9 :>@<, :>B>@K9 1KAB@> @07;0305BAO, 8 2 2>45 >1@07CNBAO BCG8 10:B5@89. >B :>340 ?@>1C640NBAO M<1@8>=K! 4=0:> :> 2A5< MB8< CE8I@5=8O< ?@81530NB @54:>. >AB0B>G=> ?>4;8BL 2 0:20@8C< A 8:@>9 <O3:>9 2>4K A GCBL :8A;>20B>9 8;8 =59B@0;L=>9 @50:F859 8 ?>4=OBL B5<?5@0BC@C 4> 2426 !, :0: =0G=5BAO <0AA>2K9 2K:;52. D8>75<8>=K, F8=>;5180AK, ?B5@>;5180AK 8 4@C385 @K1K MB>3> A5<59AB20 ?>;L7CNBAO 2A5 1>;LH59 ?>?C;O@=>ABLN C ;N18B5;59 0:20@8C<0 :0: 1;03>40@O A2>59 >:@0A:5, B0: 8 8=B5@5A=59H5<C >1@07C 687=8.  ?>4E>4OI8E CA;>28OE MB8 >4=>;5B=85 @K1:8 682CB =5 >48= 3>4, 0 =5A:>;L:>. :20@8C<8ABK =0CG8;8AL ?5@5AK;0BL 8E 8:@C 2 >1KG=KE ?>GB>2KE :>=25@B0E.  <0;5=L:89 ?>;8MB8;5=>2K9 ?0:5B ?><5I0NB 8:@C 2<5AB5 A ?>4ACH5==>9 B>@DO=>9 :@>H:>9 8 >B?@02;ONB 2 ?@>AB>< 0280:>=25@B5. 82CG5ABL MB8E 0280?0AA068@>2 ?>@078B5;L=0.  1963 3>4C O ?>;CG8; 87 @5745=0 :>=25@B A 8:@8=:0<8. 0A?8AK20OAL 70 70:07=>5 ?8AL<>, ?@>AB028; 2@5<O - 10 G0A>2 CB@0. B?CAB82 ?>GB0;L>=0, =0;8; 2 10=:C >BAB>O2HCNAO <O3:CN 2>4C B5<?5@0BC@>9 22 ! 8 2KAK?0; BC40 B>@DO=CN B@CEC. -B> 1K;0 =5 ?5@20O ?>AK;:0 A 8:@>9, :>B>@CN <=5 ?@8A;0;8 B0:8< ?CB5<, ?>MB><C O ?>4C<0;: 02B@0 4>;6=K 2K;C?8BLAO <0;L:8. 0:>2> 65 1K;> <>5 87C<;5=85, :>340 2 ?>;>28=5 425=04F0B>3> 2 2>45 C65 ?;020;8 2>A5<L :@>E>B=KE F8=>;5180A>2!  MB> ?>A;5 2>AL<8 4=59 ?CB8 2 :>=25@B5! :@><5GCI85 :0@?>7C1K5 >G5=L 8=B5@5A=K 8 4;O @07;8G=KE =0CG=KE 8AA;54>20=89. 01;N45=8O 70 8:@>9 2 A>AB>O=88 ?>:>O ?><>30NB 2KO28BL @O4 >1I8E 70:>=><5@=>AB59 0=018>70. 53:>ABL ?5@52>7:8 8:@K 8 =5A;>6=>5 2K:0@<;820=85 <0;L:>2 ?>72>;ONB =01;N40BL 70 ?>2545=85< 682>3> >@30=87<0 2 A0<KE =5>1KG=KE A8BC0F8OE, =0?@8<5@ 2 CA;>28OE =525A><>AB8 =0 >@18B0;L=KE :>A<8G5A:8E AB0=F8OE. 0CG=0O F5==>ABL 0D8>75<8>=>2 8 8E A>1@0BL52 2 =0H8 4=8 2A5 1>;55 2>7@0AB05B.  A2O78 A 8AA;54>20=8O<8 ?@5A=>2>4=KE 2>4>5<>2 D@8:8 2 0:20@8C<K ?>?040NB =>2K5 284K MB>3> A5<59AB20, 2 B>< G8A;5 =58725AB=K5 @0=LH5 O@:> >:@0H5==K5 284K 0D8>75<8>=>2, @>;>DD88 8 4@. 0 @C156>< ACI5AB2CNB >1I5AB20 ;N18B5;59 8:@><5GCI8E :0@?>7C1KE. ';5=K MB8E >1I5AB2 A2O70=K <564C A>1>9 8 ?>AB>O==> >1<5=820NBAO ?8AL<0<8 A ?0:5B8:0<8 ACE>9 8:@K& >B =0?8A0; MB8 A;>20 8 2 AB@0E5 >AB0=>28;AO.  45;> 2>B 2 G5<. =>3> ;5B =0704 >?C1;8:>20; O 2 6C@=0;5 0C:0 8 687=L AB0BLN >1 >4=>;5B=8E @K10E. >65, GB> BCB =0G0;>AL, @540:F8N 7020;8;8 ?8AL<0<8, 0 2A:>@5 8 <=5 ?5@5?@028;8 420 >3@><=KE <5H:0. / =5 ?>;5=8;AO, => =5 =0 >B25BK, 0 =0 ?>4AG5B - B>;L:> 2 MB8E <5H:0E (?>B>< 4>A;0;8 5I5) >:070;>AL 426 ?8A5< A ?@>AL1>9 ?@8A;0BL 8:@C 8 ;8HL 2>A5<L A 2>?@>A0<8 > 18>;>388 MB8E @K1. >B =0 MB8 2>A5<L O 8 >B25B8;.  GB> 1K;> >B25G0BL >AB0;L=K< G5BK@5< A>B=O<? 065 5A;8 1K O ?@52@0B8; A2>8 0:20@8C<K 2 D01@8:C ?@>872>4AB20 ACE>9 8:@K, C4>2;5B2>@8BL 2A5E 1K;> 1K =52>7<>6=>. >=OB=> 65;0=85 ;N18B5;O 0:20@8C<0 70?>;CG8BL 8=B5@5ACNI8E 53> @K1. > =5 ;CGH5 ;8 A0<><C ?@>O28BL 8=8F80B82C 8 ?>?KB0BLAO A>740BL >1I5AB2>?  :>340 2K A<>65B5 ?@54;>68BL GB>B> A2>8< B>20@8I0< ?> C2;5G5=8N, B>340 8 >=8 1C4CB ?@54;030BL 20<.  5I5 2>B > G5< O E>B5; 1K A:070BL. >B 45@6C 2 @C:0E B>;ABCN :=83C 82C;CAK !B0@>3> !25B0 - MB> B>;L:> >1 >4=>;5B=8E @K10E 87 788 8 D@8:8.  =0?8A0; 55 1>;LH>9 7=0B>: MB8E @K1 >@35= (55;L, <564C ?@>G8<, 35=5@0; 40BA:>9 0@<88. 5 ?>AB5A=O;AO =0 25AL <8@ (:=830 8740=0 2 !() ?@87=0BLAO, GB> A2>5 A2>1>4=>5 2@5<O ?>A2OI05B 0:20@8C<0<. 0: 60;L, GB> C =0A 8=K5 1>;LH85 ;N48 4> A8E ?>@ AB5A=ONBAO ?C1;8G=> >1JO28BL > ?>4>1=KE C2;5G5=8OE. @5645 2A53> MB> >B=>A8BAO : CG5=K<.  :0: >=8 <>3;8 1K >1>30B8BL 8 =0HC, 8 <8@>2CN 0:20@8C<=CN ;8B5@0BC@C! CABO:8, > :>B>@KE AB>8B ?>3>2>@8BL !54K5 3>;>2K A:;>=ONBAO : <0;5=L:><C 0:20@8C<C, ?>4 A2>40<8 >4=>3> 87 70;>2 @8B0=A:>3> <C75O @0740NBAO 2>73;0AK C482;5=8O: -1@0B8B5 2=8<0=85, 465=B;L<5=K, =5B =8 >4=>9 @K1:8, ?>2B>@ONI59 >:@0A:C 4@C38E. --B8 @K1:8 <>3;8 1K AB0BL :>@>;520<8 @K1L53> <8@0, 1C4L >=8 ?>:@C?=55. - A0<:8 A>25@H5==> =527@0G=K5, A5@K5, =0<=>3> :@C?=55 A0<F>2. 0: 2K 4C<05B5, 3>A?>40, G5< >1JOA=8BL B0:CN @07=8FC @07<5@>2? -8AB5@ C??8, B0: 2K ?>;0305B5, GB> MB8 @K1:8 871028;8 =0A5;5=85 >AB@>20 "@8=8404 >B B@>?8G5A:>9 ;8E>@04:8? -0, O ?>;030N, GB> MB> B0:,- 3>2>@8B <8AB5@ C??8, 1>B0=8:, :>B>@K9 B>;L:> =0 4=OE 25@=C;AO A 40;5:>3> >AB@>20 "@8=8404 8 2<5AB5 A 25;8:>;5?=>9 :>;;5:F859 B@>?8G5A:8E @0AB5=89 ?@8257 2 >=4>= 682KE :@>E>B=KE @K1>:. -65=B;L<5=K,- ?@>4>;605B >=, :>340 ?>GB5==K5 G;5=K >@>;52A:>3> >1I5AB20 A=>20 @0A?>;030NBAO 2 :@5A;0E,- O 4>;65= >1@0B8BL 20H5 ?@>A25I5==>5 2=8<0=85 =5 B>;L:> =0 >B<5G5==K5 C65 20<8 C4828B5;L=K5 >A>15==>AB8 MB8E @K1>:. / E>B5; 1K A:070BL, GB> :@>E>B=K5 68B5;8 B@8=8404A:8E @5: 5E0;8 2 2@>?C 2 >G5=L B5A=>9 10=:5.  ?CB8 :>@01;L B@8 @070 8A?KBK20; AB@0H=CN :0G:C, ?@8G5< >48= @07 <K ?5@5=5A;8 ?@O<>B0:8 C60A0NI89 HB>@<.  2>B, =5A<>B@O =0 4>@>6=K5 =5?@8OB=>AB8, @K1:8 745AL, 2 >=4>=5. 7 MB>3> <>6=> 70:;NG8BL, GB> B@>?8G5A:85 3>ABL8 <>3;8 1K 68BL 8 2 0:20@8C<0E @8B0=A:>3> <C75O.  =5 B>;L:> 68BL, 465=B;L<5=K. 5AB=K5 68B5;8 CB25@640NB, GB> MB8 @K15H:8 =5 <5GCB 8:@C, 0 @>60NB 682KE 45B5=KH59, :>B>@K5 BCB 65 =0G8=0NB ?;020BL.  70;5 @0740;AO A<5E. !>;84=K5 A54>2;0AK5 CG5=K5 A<5NBAO >B 4CH8. 82KE 45B5=KH59! 8AB5@ C??8 - 1>B0=8:, 5<C ?@>AB8B5;L=> =5 7=0BL <=>385 ?>4@>1=>AB8 87 687=8 @K1, => 2A5 65 =5;L7O 4>?CA:0BL B0:8E ;O?ACA>2. 82KE 45B5=KH59 @K1K @>60NB, >1 MB>< 7=0;8 5I5 4@52=85 3@5:8. > 682>@>4OI85 @K1K - MB> 0:C;0, A:0B, 0 =5 B@>?8G5A:85 <0;O2:8. 5;L7O 65 B0: ?@>AB>4CH=> 25@8BL BC75<F0< 8 >15I0BL 682>@>645=85 <0;L:>2 2 0:20@8C<5. > ?@>AB>4CH=K<8 >:070;8AL :0: @07 70A;C65==K5 0:045<8:8. 0;5=L:0O @K1:0 A >AB@>20 "@8=8404 8 2 A0<>< 45;5 >:070;0AL 682>@>4OI59. A:>@5 2 0:20@8C<0E @8B0=A:>3> <C75O ?;020;> C65 =5 H5ABL ?0@ @K1>: A 40;5:>3> >AB@>20, 0 A>B=8 3C??8 - B0: =0720;8 MB8E @K1>: 2 G5ABL CG5=>3>, :>B>@K9 ?@8257 8E 2 2@>?C 2 1866 3>4C. C??8 - MB> @0A?@>AB@0=5==>5 =0720=85 @K1:8, 0 =0CG=>5 72CG8B 8=0G5 - Poecilia (Lebistes) reticulata. >4>2>5 =0720=85 7=0G8B 87<5=G820O, 284>2>5 - A5BG0B0O. C??8 ?@8=04;560B : >B@O4C 0@?>7C1>>1@07=K5 (!Cprinodontiformes), 1>;LH8=AB2> 682>@>4OI8E 2E>48B 2 A5<59AB2> 5F8;852K5 (Poeciliidae). 82>@>645=85 2 0:20@8C<5! 0725 MB> =5C4828B5;L=>? B> =5 E>G5B =01;N40BL C A51O 4><0 MB> O2;5=85?  52@>?59A:85 0:20@8C<8ABK 1@>A8;8AL =0 ?>8A:8 =>2KE ?@54AB028B5;59 8=B5@5A=>3> A5<59AB20. C??8 H8@>:> @0A?@>AB@0=5=K 2 2>4>5<0E 280=K, 5=5ACM;K, >AB@>2>2 0@104>A 8 "@8=8404. 7 .6=>9 8 &5=B@0;L=>9 <5@8:8 ?5@5A5;8;8AL 2 0:20@8C<K ;N18B5;59 8 @>4AB25==8:8 3C??8: 87 >:@5AB=>AB59 8>450=59@> B0:0O 65 <0;5=L:0O @K1:0 A G5@=K<8 1@K730<8 =0 A5@>< D>=5 B5;0 38@0@48=CA Phalloceros caudimaculatus (=0720=0 B0: 2 G5ABL 5AB5AB2>8A?KB0B5;O 8@0@40), 87 20B5<0;K 8 A >AB@>20 C10 65;B>A5@0O, 8=>340 A G5@=K<8 :@0?8=:0<8 30<1C78O - Gambusia affinis affinis (=0 <5AB=>< =0@5G88 30<1C78=> - ?CABO:, > :>B>@>< =5 AB>8B 8 3>2>@8BL).  1907 3>4C 87 .6=>9 5:A8:8 ?5@5A5;8;8AL 2 ;N18B5;LA:85 0:20@8C<K ?;OB8?5F8;88. =8 >:070;8AL >G5=L 87<5=G82K.  :>@>B:89 A@>: 2 2@>?C ?>?0;8 A5@K5 @K1:8 A ?OB=0<8 @07=>3> F25B0: >A=>2=0O D>@<0 - pulchra (:@0A820O), 0 B0:65 F5;0O 25@5=8F0 5AB5AB25==KE 20@80=B>2 >:@0A:8 - rubra (:@0A=0O), nigra (G5@=0O), 75;5=0O, G5@=0O A 65;BK<8 8 :@0A=K<8 ?OB=0<8, :@0A=0O A G5@=K<8 ?OB=0<8 8 <=>385 4@C385. >B 345 1K;> H8@>:>5 ?>;5 45OB5;L=>AB8 4;O A:@5I820=8O 8 2K2545=8O =>2KE D>@<. 4=0 70 4@C3>9 AB0;8 ?>O2;OBLAO 2 0:20@8C<0E F25B>2K5 20@80F88, :0:8E =5 A>740;0 A0<0 ?@8@>40. !:@5I820BL ?;OB8?5F8;88 1K;> >G5=L ?@>AB>: >=8 =5 B@51>20;8 B0:8E >3@><=KE 0:20@8C<>2, :0: 7>;>BK5 @K1:8, @>A;8 3>@074> 1KAB@55 8, =0:>=5F, 4020;8 A>2A5< AD>@<8@>202H8EAO <0;L:>2, :>B>@KE ;53:> 2K@0I820BL. 4=> B>;L:> C4@CG0;> A5;5:F8>=5@>2: D>@<0 C ?;OB8?5F8;88 1K;0 A0<0O >1KG=0O.  <564C B5< 4>B>H=K5 8AA;54>20B5;8 B@>?8G5A:8E @K1 C65 8A:0;8 >@838=0;L=CN ?> D>@<5 @K1:C. I5 2 1848 3>4C ?>O28;>AL >?8A0=85 <5G5=>AF0 - 682>@>4OI59 @K1:8 A 4;8==K< <5G5284=K< >B@>AB:>< >B =86=59 G0AB8 E2>AB>2>3> ?;02=8:0. 725AB=> 1K;>, GB> <5G5=>AF52 =0H;8 2 @5:0E B;0=B8G5A:>3> ?>15@56LO 5:A8:8. > A:>;L:> =8 :@C68;8 2 MB>< @09>=5 035=BK 0:20@8C<=KE D8@<, =8:0: =5 <>3;8 =09B8 MBC @K1:C. @0240, C40;>AL 70257B8 2 2@>?C A0<>:, : A>60;5=8N, =5>?;>4>B2>@5==KE, 0 2>B A0<FK :0: 2 2>4C :0=C;8.  =0G0;5 1909 3>40 ?@028B5;LAB2> 5:A8:8 >B:@K;> =>2K9 ?>@B CM@B>5E8:>.  2>B 2 >:@5AB=>ABOE MB>3> ?>@B0 <>@O:8 52@>?59A:8E AC4>2 ;5B>< B>3> 65 3>40 ?>9<0;8 =0:>=5F <5G5=>AF52. -B> 1K;8 O@:85 AB@>9=K5 @K1:8 87C<@C4=>75;5=>9 >:@0A:8 A 28H=52>9 ;8=859 24>;L 1>:>2 B5;0 8 25;8:>;5?=K< G5@=K< <5G><. =8 1K;8 GC45A=K A0<8 ?> A515, => :0:>20 65 1K;0 @04>ABL 0:20@8C<8AB>2, :>340 2KOA=8;>AL, GB> @K1:8 MB>3> @>40 ;53:> A:@5I820NBAO A ?;OB8?5F8;8O<8. ! B5E ?>@ 2 0:20@8C<0E ?>O28;8AL =52840==K5 2 ?@8@>45 <5G5=>AFK - :@0A=K5, 15;K5, 65;BK5, G5@=K5 8 A>G5B0NI85 2A5 MB8 F25B0 2 @07=>< ?>@O4:5 8 A @07=K<8 >BB5=:0<8. !59G0A <5G5=>A5F (Xiphophorus helleri) - >4=0 87 A0<KE ?>?C;O@=KE 0:20@8C<=KE @K1. AB0B8, ?>;030NB, GB> 2 52@>?59A:8E 0:20@8C<0E MB8E @K1 =K=5 1>;LH5, G5< =0 8E @>48=5, 345 >=8 2AB@5G0NBAO 4>2>;L=> @54:>. G5=L 1>;LHCN ?>?C;O@=>ABL ?@8>1@5;8 8 ?;OB8?5F8;88 (Xiphophorus maculatus). K;> CAB0=>2;5=>, GB> >=8 >B=>AOBAO : B><C 65 @>4C, GB> 8 <5G5=>AFK (2>B ?>G5<C >=8 B0: ;53:> A:@5I820NBAO <564C A>1>9). C??8 65 AB0;8 ?@>AB> =570<5=8<K<8 4;O =0G8=0NI8E 0:20@8C<8AB>2. <5==> A =8E =0G8=05BAO 7=0:><AB2> <=>38E ;N18B5;59 A ?>42>4=K< <8@><. B 3C??8 ;N18B5;L ?5@5E>48B : ?;OB8?5F8;8O< 8 <5G5=>AF0<.  :>340 >A2>8B 8 8E, <>65B ?>?@>1>20BL A>45@60BL <>;;85=5789, :>B>@K5, :0: 8 3C??8, >B=>AOBAO : @>4C Poecilia. !B0@>5 =0720=85 @K1>: MB>3> @>40 - Mollienesia (2 G5ABL CG5=>3>18>;>30 .>;;85=0). 7 H5AB8 284>2 MB8E :@0A82KE @K1>: 2 0:20@8C<0E =081>;55 ?>?C;O@=0 381@84=0O D>@<0 - G5@=0O <>;;8 (Poecilia sphenops). %>@>H85 M:75<?;O@K A>25@H5==> G5@=K5 8 >G5=L MDD5:B=K =0 D>=5 75;5=KE @0AB5=89. AB@5G0NBAO 2 0:20@8C<0E 8 4@C385 284K 682>@>4>:. 0?@8<5@, <0;5=L:0O @K1:0 D>@<>70 - Heterandria formosa (A0<:8 =5 1>;55 4, A0<FK 4> 2 A0=B8<5B@>2) 8 1>;LH>9 (4> 15 A0=B8<5B@>2), ?>E>689 =0 IC:C 15;>=57>:A (Belonesox belizanus).  =5:>B>@KE 4@C38E 682>@>4:0E O @0AA:06C =865. 5;>=57>:A - E8I=8:. AB0;L=K5 682>@>4OI85 @K1:8 MB>3> A5<59AB20 2A5O4=K. =8 ;N1OB A>;=5G=K9 A25B, 3CABCN 75;5=L, A256CN ?@>7@0G=CN 2>4C B5<?5@0BC@>9 =5 =865 20!.  ?8I5 8E >1O70B5;L=> 4>;6=K 1KBL @0AB8B5;L=K5 :>@<0 - 75;5=K5 2>4>@>A;8 (>=8 8E A>A:01;820NB A> AB5=>: 0:20@8C<0 8 ;8ABL52 @0AB5=89) 8;8 15;K9 E;51. 82>@>4:8 =C640NBAO 2 2>45 65AB:>ABLN >B 5 4> 12, 0 <>;;85=5789 ;CGH5 A51O GC2AB2CNB ?@8 65AB:>AB8 15. @8 A>1;N45=88 =5>1E>48<KE CA;>289 A>45@60=8O 682>@>4OI85 @K1:8 ?>4>;3C 682CB 2 0:20@8C<0E (?@>4>;68B5;L=>ABL 8E 687=8 36 ;5B). A;8 65 MB8 CA;>28O =0@CH0NBAO, @K1:8 701>;520NB. =8 A68<0NB ?;02=8:8 8 ?>4>;3C :0G0NBAO =0 >4=>< <5AB5 87 AB>@>=K 2 AB>@>=C. 82>@>4OI85 4>2>;L=> ?@>AB> @07<=>60NBAO. 540@>< A =8E @5:><5=4CNB =0G8=0BL 0:20@8C<=CN ?@0:B8:C. > MB8<8 65 @K10<8 70=8<0NBAO 0:20@8C<8ABK A0<>9 2KA>:>9 :20;8D8:0F88. @>B82>@5G85? 0: A:070BL.  GB>, 5A;8 =0< A=>20 ?@>G5ABL > 682>@>4OI8E @K1:0E, => C65 8=0G5? >?KB05<AO ?>=OBL, GB> MB> 70 @K1K, :0:85 >1I518>;>38G5A:85 70:>=K, ?@>1;5<K 8 70304:8 A2O70=K A =8<8.  5A;8 <K AC<55< B0: ?@>G5ABL MBC 3;02C, =0< <=>3>5 AB0=5B ?>=OB=>.  G0AB=>AB8, <K ?>9<5<, ?>G5<C ?@5420@8B5;L=> =04> 1K;> ?>7=0:><8BLAO A> <=>38<8 4@C38<8 @K10<8, C7=0BL > @07=KE D>@<0E 2708<>A2O759 @K1 8 A@54K, =0:>=5F, >@85=B8@>20BLAO 2 ?@>1;5<0E 0:20@8C<0 157 2AO:8E 70B@C4=5=89. B0:, 7=0:><8<AO 2=>2L A 682>@>4OI8<8 @K10<8.  4;O =0G0;0 ?>72>;8< 7040BL A515 2>?@>A: 0 459AB28B5;L=> ;8 >=8& 682>@>4OI85? K C65 7=05< 4>2>;L=> <=>3> > @07=>>1@07=KE D>@<0E CE>40 @K1 70 8:@>9 8 <0;L:0<8.  GB> B0:>5 8:@0, :0:>2K 55 ?>B@51=>AB8? >B <K =01;N405< =5@5AB @K1. !0<:0 >B;>68;0 =0 ?5A>: 8;8 @0AB5=8O 8:@C, A0<5F BCB 65 A?5H8B ?>;8BL 55 <>;>:0<8. 'B> 65 ?@>8AE>48B 40;LH5? >A;5 >?;>4>B2>@5=8O 8:@8=:0O9F> =0G8=05B 45;8BLAO, >1@07CNBAO 425 :;5B:8 - 420 1;0AB><5@0, ?>B>< G5BK@5, 2>A5<L, H5AB=04F0BL, B@84F0BL 420&  >?;>4>B2>@5==>9 8:@8=:5 =0G0;AO ?@>F5AA @0728B8O 70@>4KH0 - M<1@8>=0. 0G0;> 45;5=8O O9F5:;5B:8 8 5ABL ?5@2K9 >?0A=K9 <><5=B 2 687=8 8:@8=:8.  MB> 2@5<O @57:> C25;8G8205BAO ?>3;>I5=85 8:@>9 :8A;>@>40, =C6=0 >?@545;5==0O B5<?5@0BC@0, A>>B25BAB2CNI85 ?>:070B5;8 0:B82=>9 @50:F88 2>4K 8 65AB:>AB8. > <5@5 @0728B8O M<1@8>=0 2>7@0AB0NB B@51>20=8O 8:@8=:8 : >:@C60NI8< CA;>28O< - 59 =C6=> 2A5 1>;LH5 :8A;>@>40, @>2=0O B5<?5@0BC@0, A;01>5 B5G5=85 8 B. 4. 5704>;3> ?5@54 2K:;52>< ;8G8=:8 2>7=8:05B 2B>@>9 >?0A=K9 <><5=B 2 687=8 8:@K: A =0G0;>< >1@07>20=8O A5@4F0 8 <CA:C;0BC@K M<1@8>=0 C25;8G8205BAO ?>B@51=>ABL 2 :8A;>@>45. 0B5< ?@>8AE>48B 2K:;52 87 8:@8=:8 2 @57C;LB0B5 @07@CH5=8O 55 >1>;>G:8 >A>1K< D5@<5=B><, 2K45;O5<K< 65;570<8 2K;C?;5=8O, @0A?>;>65==K<8 =0 3>;>25 M<1@8>=0. K:;N=C2H0OAO ;8G8=:0 ?> D>@<5 <0;> =0?><8=05B A2>8E @>48B5;59. "5;> 55 ?@>=870=> :@>25=>A=K<8 A>AC40<8, >B 1@NH:0 2=87 >BE>48B >3@><=K9 65;B>G=K9 <5H>:. 0ABC?05B B@5B89 >?0A=K9 <><5=B: :@>H:0 28A8B 8;8 ?@OG5BAO 2 C:@><=>< <5AB5, >=0 5I5 =5 A?>A>1=0 =8 ?8B0BLAO, =8 A?0A0BLAO >B 2@030.  MB> 2@5<O 4KE0=85 >ACI5AB2;O5BAO =5?>A@54AB25==> G5@57 :>6C 8 :@>25=>A=K5 A>AC4K. >:0 >=0 28A8B 8;8 ?@OG5BAO, A =59 ?@>8AE>4OB >G5=L 1>;LH85 87<5=5=8O: D>@<8@CNBAO ?;02=8:8, 601@K, >@30=K ?8I520@5=8O, 0 65;B>G=K9 <5H>: 2 :>=F5 :>=F>2 8AG5705B A>2A5<.  B>340 =0ABC?05B G5B25@BK9 >?0A=K9 <><5=B - ;8G8=:0 ?@52@0I05BAO 2 <0;L:0 8 >B =5?>4286=>3> A>AB>O=8O ?5@5E>48B : ?;020=8N. @8G5< @57:> 2>7@>AH0O 2 MB>B <><5=B ?>B@51=>ABL 2 :8A;>@>45 70AB02;O5B 53> 2A5 2@5<O A>74020BL 2>:@C3 A51O 42865=85 2>4K. 7@>A;K5 @K1K A>740NB B>: 2>4K @01>B>9 @B0, 6015@=>3> 0??0@0B0, C <0;L:0 >=8 A;01K, 8 ?>MB><C >= A0< 42865BAO : 2>45. 770 M=5@38G=KE 42865=89 >= B5@O5B : MB><C 2@5<5=8 ?>;>28=C 25A0 ?> A@02=5=8N A 25A>< ?@8 2K:;525. A5 682>B=K5 ?8B0NBAO 4;O 2>AAB0=>2;5=8O 70B@0G5==>9 M=5@388; 4>;65= =0G0BL 0:B82=> ?8B0BLAO 8 =0H <0;5:. ><5=B ?5@5E>40 <>;>48 : 0:B82=K< ?>8A:0< :>@<0 - MB> ?OBK9 >?0A=K9 ?5@8>4. 0945BAO ;8 ?>4E>4OI0O ?8I0? 54L <=>385 @K1K =0G8=0NB ?8B0=85 B>;L:> A >?@545;5==KE 284>2 :>@<0. >B :0:>9 A;>6=K9 ?CBL ?@>E>48B 2 A2>5< @0728B88 @K10 >B 8:@8=:8 4> <0;L:0. K C65 2845;8, GB> @K1K ?>@07=><C ?@5>4>;520NB A;>6=>ABL MB>3> ?CB8 - >4=8 <5GCB <8;;8>=K 8:@8=>:, 87 :>B>@KE 2K6820NB B>;L:> 810 %, 4@C385 >E@0=ONB 8:@C 8 ;8G8=>: 8 4065 =>AOB 8E 2> @BC.  682>@>4:8? 0: ?@8A?>A>18;8AL >=8? 4=> 2@5<O ?>;030;8, GB> C ?5F8;852KE ;>6=>5 682>@>645=85: 8:@0 ?@>AB> 7045@68205BAO 2 >@30=87<5 A0<:8, => @0728205BAO ?@8<5@=> B0: 65, :0: C 4@C38E @K1 2 A2>1>4=>9 2>45 8;8 C =5:>B>@KE F8E;>2KE 2> @BC. >A;54CNI85 8AA;54>20=8O ?>:070;8, GB> 45;> A;>6=55. # 3C??8, =0?@8<5@, D>;;8:C;O@=0O 15@5<5==>ABL: M<1@8>= @0728205BAO 2 >A>1>< ?C7K@L:5D>;;8:C;5 8 B>;L:> ?5@54 A0<K< =5@5AB>< 2K;C?;O5BAO 87 O9F52>9 >1>;>G:8 2 ?@>A25B O8G=8:0, 0 70B5< A;54C5B 8 @>645=85. $>;;8:C;O@=0O >1>;>G:0 ?@>=870=0 A5BLN :0?8;;O@=KE A>AC4>2 <0B5@8=A:>3> >@30=87<0, 0 B>=:0O ?5@28G=0O >1>;>G:0 O9F0 =0E>48BAO 2 B5A=>< :>=B0:B5 A D>;;8:C;O@=>9. # 70@>4KH0 @0728205BAO <>I=0O A5BL A>AC4>2 =0 ?>25@E=>AB8 65;B>G=>3> <5H:0 8 2 :>65 B5;0. ! ?><>ILN MB8E A>AC4>2 70@>4KH 4KH8B 70 AG5B <0B5@8=A:>3> >@30=87<0. "0:8< >1@07><, 3>2>@8BL > ;>6=>< 682>@>645=88 (7045@6:5 8:@K 2 1@NH:5 A0<:8, =5 A2O70==>9 A 55 >@30=87<><) =5 ?@8E>48BAO - 745AL <K 8<55< 45;> A 1>;55 A;>6=K< O2;5=85< - 548=AB2>< :@>2>B>:0 A8AB5<K A>AC4>2 A0<:8 8 70@>4KH0. 5 A>2A5< OA=0 ?@8G8=0 2>7=8:=>25=8O B0:>3> ?@8A?>A>1;5=8O, :0: 682>@>645=85. A;8 >=> AD>@<8@>20;>AL :0: >B25B >@30=87<0 =0 =5CAB>9G82K9 C@>25=L 2>4K 2 <5;:8E 2>4>5<0E, B> :0: B>340 >1JOA=8BL, GB> AB08 <=>38E 682>@>4OI8E @K1 2KE>4OB 2 <>@5? 0: >1JOA=8BL 682>@>645=85 C B0:8E @K1, :0: ?@80?5;;0, :A5=>B>:0, 0;LD0@>? =8 682CB 2 1KAB@KE 8 ?>;=>2>4=KE @5:0E 5:A8:8, 8 8< ?5@5AKE0=85 2>4>5<0 =8:0: =5 C3@>605B.  >1I5<, ?@>1;5<0 682>@>645=8O C MB8E @K1 5I5 645B @07@5H5=8O. ;O 2=CB@5==53> >?;>4>B2>@5=8O C A0<F>2 AD>@<8@>20;AO A?5F80;L=K9 >@30= - 3>=>?>489, >1@07>20==K9 A25@=CBK<8 2 B@C1>G:C B@5<O ?5@54=8<8 ;CG0<8 0=0;L=>3> ?;02=8:0. >;>:8, 8;8 A?5@<0, ?>?040O 2 B5;> A0<:8, G0AB8G=> >?;>4>B2>@ONB 8:@C, G0AB8G=> 65 >AB0NBAO ?@> 70?0A. >MB><C A0<:8 682>@>4>: <>3CB >B >4=>3> A?0@820=8O A A0<F>< <5B0BL <0;L:>2 4> H5AB8 @07. # 2A5E @>4>2 MB>3> A5<59AB20 CAB@>9AB2> 3>=>?>4852 @07=>5, ?>MB><C 5AB5AB25==>5 <56@>4>2>5 A:@5I820=85 =52>7<>6=>. ">, GB> =54>ABC?=> ?@8@>45, <>65B A45;0BL G5;>25:. >A:>2A:85 8EB8>;>38 5I5 2 19391941 3>40E A:@5AB8;8 3C??8 A <>;;85=57859 8 ?>;CG8;8 A>2A5< =>2CN @K1C.  A>60;5=8N, =8 >48= 87 MB8E 381@84>2 =5 >:070;AO A?>A>1=K< : @07<=>65=8N. @C3>5 45;>, :>340 <K A:@5I8205< @K1>: >4=>3> 2840, GB>1K ?>;CG8BL =>2CN 20@80F8N >:@0A:8 8 D>@<K. !0<K5 1>;LH85 CA?5E8 4>AB83=CBK A5;5:F8>=5@0<8, @01>B0NI8<8 A 3C??8. -B> >:070;>AL 8=B5@5A=K< =5 B>;L:> 4;O ;N18B5;59, => 8 4;O CG5=KE, 87CG0NI8E 70:>=K =0A;54AB25==>AB8. A=>2K MB8E 70:>=>2 =5>1E>48<> 7=0BL 2A5<, :B> 2A5@L57 70=8<05BAO A5;5:F859 3C??8. >7L<5< 4;O M:A?5@8<5=B0 A0<:C 7>;>B8AB>9 >:@0A:8 8 >1K:=>25==>3> A5@>3> A0<F0.  =0CG=>9 ;8B5@0BC@5 4;O >1>7=0G5=8O A0<F0 C?>B@51;O5BAO 7=0: (7=0: 0@A0 - I8B 8 :>?L5), 0 A0<:8 - 7=0: (7=0: 5=5@K - 75@:0;> A @CG:>9). B0:, <K 8<55< ?5@2>5 ?>:>;5=85 3C??8 (>1>7=0G8< 53> ;0B8=A:>9 1C:2>9 ) - 7>;>B0O A0<:0 E A5@K9 A0<5F (7=0: E >7=0G05B A:@5I820=85).  53> ?>B><AB25 (>1>7=0G8< 53> F1) 1C45< 8<5BL: 2A5 @K1:8 A5@K5, 87 =8E ?>;>28=0 A0<>: 8 ?>;>28=0 A0<F>2.  8E ?>B><AB25 (F2): 75% A5@KE ! 8 A0<F>2, 25% 7>;>BKE A0<>: 8 A0<F>2. 0: 2848<, A5@0O >:@0A:0 ?@5>1;0405B. >65B 1KBL, =04> 1K;> 4;O A:@5I820=8O 27OBL A5@CN A0<:C 8 7>;>B>3> A0<F0? 5B, 8 2 MB>< A;CG05 <K ?>;CG8< B5 65 @57C;LB0BK. @87=0:, E0@0:B5@=K9 4;O 2A5E ?>:>;5=89 8 ?>402;ONI89 2A5 >AB0;L=K5, =07K205BAO 4><8=0=B=K<, 0 ?@87=0:, 8AG570NI89 2 F1 8 ?@>O282H89AO 2 F2,- @5F5AA82=K<. @5645 G5< 70=OBLAO A5;5:F859 3C??8, =04> 7=0BL =5:>B>@K5 4><8=0=B=K5 8 @5F5AA82=K5 ?@87=0:8 (:064K9 4><8=0=B=K9 ?@87=0: ?@>B82>AB>8B @5F5AA82=><C). ><8=0=B0 5F5AA8O !5@0O >:@0A:0 >;>B0O >:@0A:0 !5@0O >:@0A:0 BACBAB285 >:@0A:8, 0;L18=>A @C3;K9 E2>AB 0>AB@5==K9 E2>AB @C3;K9 E2>AB %2>AB 28;:>9, 255@><, H;59D>< >@<0;L=0O >:@0A:0 E2>AB0 :@0A:0 A ?@5>1;040=85< G5@=>3> F25B0 >@<0;L=0O >:@0A:0 E2>AB0 A0<>: &25B=0O >:@0A:0 E2>AB0 A0<>: !?8==>9 ?;02=8: ;5=B>284=K9 !?8==>9 ?;02=8: :@C3;K9 >@<0;L=K9 8 :0@;8:>2K9 @07<5@ 830=B87<, C25;8G5==K9 @07<5@  A?5F80;L=>9 ;8B5@0BC@5 >?8A0=0 <0AA0 4><8=0=B=KE ?@87=0:>2, G0AB> >G5=L 45B0;L=>. N18B5;N B@C4=> ?><=8BL 2A5 4><8=0=BK, =>, 7=0O >A=>2=K5 87 =8E, <>6=> 25AB8 A5;5:F8N A>7=0B5;L=> 8 ?> 70@0=55 704C<0==>9 ?@>3@0<<5. 5;L7O, :>=5G=>, AB028BL =5>ACI5AB28<K5 7040G8, A:065<, ?@52@0B8BL 7>;>BKE 3C??8 2 G5@=KE 8;8 3>;C1KE. C6=> B0:65 2=8<0B5;L=> ?@83;O4K20BLAO : @57C;LB0B0< 2 F1 8 F2. =>340 4;O CA8;5=8O =5>1E>48<>3> ?@87=0:0 ?>;57=> A:@5I820BL A0<:C  8 A0<F0 F1. 8;8 A0<F0 P 8 A0<:C F1. A;8 C @K1 >1=0@C6820NBAO ?@87=0:8, :>B>@K5 ?5@540NBAO B>;L:> ?> <C6A:>9 8;8 B>;L:> ?> 65=A:>9 ;8=88, ?@8E>48BAO <8@8BLAO A @07=8F59 >:@0A:8 A0<>: 8 A0<F>2. 5F5AA82=K5 ?@87=0:8 ?@>O2;ONBAO ?>@>9 4065 =5 2 F2 8 F, 0 2 7=0G8B5;L=> 1>;55 ?>74=8E ?>:>;5=8OE. "0:, 75;5=K5 3C??8 (A5;5:F8>==0O D>@<0 A <5B0;;8G5A:875;5=K< >B;82><) 40NB 2 ?>B><AB25 7>;>BKE, 0 ?>;CG5@=K5 - A5BG0BKE. >MB><C, =0G8=0O A5;5:F8N, 65;0B5;L=> 7=0BL ?@>8AE>645=85 20H8E @K1 8;8 >ACI5AB28BL 8E 35=5B8G5A:89 0=0;87 ?> ?>B><AB2C. !5;5:F8O 682>@>4>:, :0: 8 7>;>BKE @K1>:, =5@07@K2=> A2O70=0 A 8A:CAAB25==K< >B1>@>< ;CGH8E M:75<?;O@>2. !0<F>2 >B18@0NB ?> D>@<5 ?;02=8:>2 8 8E >:@0A:5, :0G5AB2> A0<:8 >?@545;ONB ?> :0G5AB2C 55 ?>B><AB20. ;87:>@>4AB25==>5 A:@5I820=85 (1@0BL52 8 A5AB5@, @>48B5;59 8 45B59) =07K205BAO 8=1@848=3><, >=> 2545B : ?>AB5?5==><C 2K@>645=8N ?>B><AB20. >MB><C, =0G8=0O @01>BC A 3C??8, A;54C5B ?>AB028BL >?KB =5 A >4=>9 ?0@>9, 0 A 42C<O 8;8 B@5<O, 8 ;CGH85 M:75<?;O@K 87 F2 A:@5AB8BL <564C A>1>9. !5;5:F8O 682>@>4OI8E @K1 - MB> >3@><=0O 8 >G5=L A5@L57=0O @01>B0. =0 B@51C5B 8725AB=>3> 7=0=8O 18>;>388 8, @07C<55BAO, A>25@H5=AB20 2 C?@02;5=88 B0:8< ?@81>@><, :0: 0:20@8C<. 54L 4065 A0<K5 >1KG=K5 3C??8 A>2A5< 8=0G5 2K3;O4OB, 5A;8 8E A>45@60B ?@8 B5<?5@0BC@5 26 ! 2 B0:>< :>;8G5AB25 2>4K, GB>1K =0 >4=C @K1:C ?@8E>48;>AL 34 ;8B@0, 8, :>=5G=>, AKB=> :>@<OB. "5< 1>;55 =C640NBAO 2 ?>4>1=KE CA;>28OE :0?@87=K5 381@84K. >B ?>G5<C <>6=> AG8B0BL, GB> 3C??8- A;>6=0O 8 ?@8E>B;820O @K1:0. 01>B0 A 3C??8 B@51C5B 1>;LH>3> :>;8G5AB20 2A?><>30B5;L=KE 5<:>AB59: A0<:8 4>;6=K 68BL >B45;L=>, <>;>4L B>65 87>;8@CNB, >BA06820NB 8 B>;L:>B>;L:> >?@545;82H8EAO A0<F>2. 48= A>25BA:89 35=5B8: 2 HCB:C =07K20; =01>@ B0:8E 10=>: A 3C??8 3C??8B5:>9. 0B> :0:>5 25;8:>;5?=>5 7@5;8I5 - 1>;LH>9 0:20@8C< A A>B=5942C<O ?KH=>E2>ABKE @07=>F25B=KE A0<F>2. 5<0;> 8=B5@5A=KE 2>?@>A>2, A2O70==KE A 682>@>4OI8<8 @K10<8, 2AB05B 8 ?5@54 CG5=K<8. >;;85=578O, :>=5G=>,- @K1:0 ?@5A=>2>4=0O, 2AB@5G05BAO >=0 8 2 CABLOE @5:.  2>B =5402=> F5;K5 :>AO:8 <>;;85=5789 >1=0@C68;8 2 32 :8;><5B@0E >B 15@530 <>@O, 2 A>;5=>9 <>@A:>9 2>45. @54?>;030NB, GB> >=8 2KE>4OB 2 >B:@KB>5 <>@5, GB>1K >A2>1>48BLAO >B ?0@078B>2, :>B>@K5 =5 2K45@6820NB 2KA>:>9 A>;5=>AB8 2>4K.  <>;;85=5789 2K45@6820NB. >B 8 AC48B5, :0:85 MB> @K1K - ?@5A=>2>4=K5 8;8 <>@A:85.  5ABL 5I5 8 ?5I5@=K5 284K, >=8 A>2A5< A;5?K5. 5G5=>AFK - =5 B>;L:> ?>?C;O@=K5 >18B0B5;8 ;N18B5;LA:8E 0:20@8C<>2. E BI0B5;L=> 87CG0NB 2 =0CG=KE ;01>@0B>@8OE.  =5 A;CG09=>.  ?><5B0E MB8E @K1 2AB@5G0NBAO 420 B8?0 A0<F>2 - >4=8 <5;:85, 4@C385 :@C?=K5. 5;:85 - ?>4286=K, 0:B82=> ?@5A;54CNB A0<>:, 40NB 1>;LH>5 ?>B><AB2>.  :@C?=K5 - >G5=L 2O;K, :0: 1C4B> 1>;L=K. # 682>@>4OI8E @K1 >1KG=> A0<:0 :@C?=55 A0<F0. -B8< >15A?5G8205BAO 1>;55 <=>3>G8A;5==>5 8 7@5;>5 ?>B><AB2>. B:C40 65 :@C?=K5 A0<F0?  MB> A0<:8, :>B>@K< =04>5;> 1KBL A0<:0<8. C<05B5, O HCGC? 8G53> ?>4>1=>3>. !@548 @K1 B0:>5 O2;5=85 2AB@5G05BAO, E>BO ?@8G8=K ?5@5<5=K ?>;0 =5 A>2A5< OA=K. K205B, GB> A0<F>< AB0=>28BAO A0<:0, C65 =5 @07 40202H0O ?>B><AB2>.  G5< 65 45;>? 7CG5=85< MB>3> 2>?@>A0 70=OBK CG5=K5. #65 <=>3>5 OA=>. # <5G5=>AF52 ?>; >?@545;O5BAO =5 2 8:@8=:5, 0 =0 2B>@><B@5BL5< <5AOF5 687=8. =0G8B, 2 :064>< <0;L:5 5ABL ?>;>2K5 65;57K 8 A0<:8, 8 A0<F0. @5>1;040NI55 @0728B85 B5E 8;8 4@C38E 7028A8B >B 2=5H=8E CA;>288. '5< 1>;55 =51;03>?@8OB=K CA;>28O, B5< 1>;LH5 1C45B 2 ?>B><AB25 A0<F>2.  =5 B>;L:> C <5G5=>AF52. 725AB=K9 =0< 0?;>E59;CA ?@8 @07=>9 B5<?5@0BC@5 8 ?;>B=>AB8 ?>A04:8 2 ?>B><AB25 405B @07=>5 A>>B=>H5=85 ?>;>2: >B 50 A0<F>2: 50 A0<>: 4> 100 A0<F>2: 3 A0<>:.  5I5 >48= A;>6=K9 2>?@>A: :0:>2> ?@54=07=0G5=85 A0<F>2 8 A0<>:? !CI5AB2C5B A;54CNI0O B>G:0 7@5=8O.  18>;>38G5A:>< @0728B88 2840 A0<:8 =5ACB 2 A2>59 35=5B8G5A:>9 ?@>3@0<<5 ?@87=0: CAB>9G82>AB8, >=8 >15A?5G820NB G8AB>BC 2840, A>E@0=5=85 2A5E 53> E0@0:B5@=KE G5@B. ;02=>5 4;O A0<:8 - ;N1>9 F5=>9 A>E@0=8BL 687=L 4;O ?@>4>;65=8O 687=8 2840 2 ?>B><AB25. =>5 =07=0G5=85 A0<F>2. A;8 1K 284 >1;040; B>;L:> CAB>9G82>ABLN, AB018;L=>ABLN, >= 1K ?>381 ?@8 <0;59H8E 87<5=5=8OE CA;>289 A@54K. >MB><C >= A>548=O5B 2 A515 B0:85 ?@>B82>@5G82K5 G5@BK, :0: AB@5<;5=85 : CAB>9G82>AB8 8 A?>A>1=>ABL <5=OBLAO, ?@8A?>A01;820BLAO : 87<5=ONI8<AO CA;>28O<. 07=0G5=85 A0<F>2 2840 70:;NG05BAO 2 ?>;CG5=88 MB>9 F5==>9 87<5=G82>AB8 8 ?5@540G5 55 ?>B><AB2C C65 :0: AB018;L=>3> 284>2>3> ?@87=0:0. #F5;52H85 @O4>< A BKAOGLN 8 BKAOGLN 65@B2 A0<FK 1C4CB >1;040BL =5>1E>48<>9 CAB>9G82>ABLN : =>2K< CA;>28O< 8 G5@57 A0<:C ?5@5404CB MB8 =>2K5 G5@BK ?>B><AB2C. 0: @01>B05B A;>6=59H89 <5E0=87< @53C;8@>20=8O G8A;5==>AB8 ?>;>2 40==>3> 2840? @8 CEC4H0NI8EAO CA;>28OE 2 ?>B><AB25 >:07K205BAO 7=0G8B5;L=> 1>;LH5 A0<F>2 - B>;L:> ;CGH85 87 =8E =5 ?>381=CB, ?@8A?>A>1OBAO 8 404CB ?>B><AB2>, 0 ?@8 8A:;NG8B5;L=> 1;03>?@8OB=KE CA;>28OE ?@5>1;040NB A0<:8. @8 =>@<0;L=KE, ?@82KG=KE 4;O 2840 CA;>28OE G8A;> ?>;>2 2 ?>B><AB25 >:07K205BAO ?@8<5@=> >48=0:>2K<. >4 2;8O=85< :0:8EB>, 5I5 4> :>=F0 =5 2KOA=5==KE >1AB>OB5;LAB2 C 7@5;>9 A0<:8 <>65B =0G0BL @072820BLAO ?>;>20O A8AB5<0 A0<F0, ?@8G5< 2 40;L=59H5< 53> <>6=> A:@5I820BL A ;N1>9 A0<:>9. >?@>A A>>B=>H5=8O ?>;>2 8=B5@5A5= 2> <=>38E A;CG0OE. #G5=K5 =0CG8;8AL @53C;8@>20BL G8A;> A0<F>2 8 A0<>: 2 ?>B><AB25 101>G:8H5;:>?@O40 (=8B8 C A0<F>23CA5=8F 8 A0<>:3CA5=8F =5>48=0:>2K ?> :0G5AB2C), 8, :>=5G=>, B0:>5 65 C?@02;5=85 A>>B=>H5=85< ?>;>2 ?>;57=> 1K;> 1K >A2>8BL 2 ?B8F52>4AB25 8 682>B=>2>4AB25. 82>@>4OI85 @K1:8 ?><>30NB @5H0BL 7040GC 87<5=5=8O ?>;0.  2>B 8 5I5 >48= =5?@>AB>9 2>?@>A, A2O70==K9 A 682>@>4OI8<8 @K10<8. KAB@>5 2>A?@>872>4AB2> 3C??8 ?@82;5:;> : MB8< @K1:0< =5 B>;L:> 35=5B8:>2, A5;5:F8>=5@>2, => 8 M2>;NF8>=8AB>2. 1 8E 8AA;54>20=8OE @0AA:07K205B (.@0C=;8 2 0<5@8:0=A:>< 6C@=0;5 U.S. news and world report. "'B> D>@<8@C5B >1@07 687=8 8 ?>2545=85 682KE ACI5AB2? !B> B@84F0BL A ;8H=8< ;5B =0704 '0@;7 0@28= ?@54;>68; A2>N M;530=B=CN 8 AB>;L:> @07 ?>425@302HCNAO 2?>A;54AB288 =0?04:0< B5>@8N, :>B>@0O 405B >B25B =0 MB>B 2>?@>A: 5AB5AB25==K9 >B1>@. K6820NB ;8HL B5 >A>18, :>B>@K5 =081>;55 ?@8A?>A>1;5=K : >:@C60NI59 A@545 - 8<5==> >=0 =0 ?@>BO65=88 M2>;NF88 8 >B;820;0 284K 2 ACI5AB2CNI85 =K=5 D>@<K. 4=0:> 4> A0<>3> ?>A;54=53> 2@5<5=8 8458 0@28=0 >AB020;8AL 157 4>:070B5;LAB2. K=5 2?5@2K5 8AA;54>20=8O 2 48:>9 ?@8@>45 G5B:> ?@>45<>=AB@8@>20;8 >A>15==>ABL B>3>, :0: @01>B05B M2>;NF8O. 5402=> . 57=8:, M:>;>3M2>;NF8>=8AB 87 0;8D>@=89A:>3> C=825@A8B5B0, >?C1;8:>20; @57C;LB0BK A2>53> >48==04F0B8;5B=53> M:A?5@8<5=B0 A 3C??8, 682CI8<8 2 @5:5 @8?> =0 >AB@>25 "@8=8404. -:A?5@8<5=B 4>:07K205B, GB> E8I=8:8 - >4=0 87 >A=>2=KE 4286CI8E A8; M2>;NF88, :0: 8 ?@54A:07K205B <0B5<0B8G5A:0O <>45;L, A ?><>ILN :>B>@>9 A>2@5<5==K5 18>;>38 1>;55 B>G=> D>@<C;8@CNB A>>1@065=8O 0@28=0. !>3;0A=> MB>9 <>45;8, 682>B=K5, :>B>@K5 AB0=>2OBAO 2> 27@>A;>< A>AB>O=88 4>1KG59 E8I=8:>2, 4>;6=K M2>;NF8>=8@>20BL 2 B0:>< =0?@02;5=88, GB>1K ?@>872>48BL :0: <>6=> 1>;LH5 45B59 8 :0: <>6=> @0=LH5. A;8 20H8 H0=AK C<5@5BL 2 <>;>4>AB8 4>AB0B>G=> 2KA>:8, 20< 206=> >17025AB8AL 45BL<8 ?>1KAB@55,- 3>2>@8B 57=8:. 45AL 8<55BAO, >4=0:>, 8 >3@0=8G5=85, ?>A:>;L:C G5< @0=LH5 >A>18 @07<=>60NBAO, B5< A:>@55 >=8, 5A;8 <>6=> B0: 2K@078BLAO, ?5@53>@0NB 8 B5< :>@>G5 8E 687=5==K9 ?CBL.  =0>1>@>B, 284K, <>;>4=O: :>B>@KE A?>A>15= ?5@5=5AB8 =0B8A: E8I=8:>2, A:;>==K >1702>48BLAO ?>B><AB2>< ?>765, D0:B8G5A:8 2K18@0O 2@5<O, GB>1K ?@>8725AB8 1>;55 ?>;=>F5==KE <;045=F52. -:A?5@8<5=B, :>B>@K9 . 57=8: @07@01>B0; 8 ?@>25; 2<5AB5 A> A2>8<8 :>;;530<8 87 0;8D>@=89A:>3> C=825@A8B5B0, =5A;>65=, => C1548B5;5=. AA;54>20B5;8 ?@>25@O;8 C?><O=CBCN <0B5<0B8G5A:CN <>45;L, ?@>AB> ?5@5<5I0O 200 3C??8 87 =86=53> 1L5D0 H5AB8<5B@>2>3> 2>4>?040 =0 @5:5 @8?>, 345 E8I=8F0F8E;840 ?>68@05B B>;L:> 27@>A;KE 3C??8, =0 53> 25@E=89 1L5D. 45AL 6825B 548=AB25==K9 E8I=8: - :8;;8D8H (B0: 2 !( =07K20NB 751@>2>3> DC=4C;CA0. 2B.), @K10C189F0, :>B>@0O >E>B8BAO ;8HL =0 <>;>4KE 3C??8. '5@57 60 ?>:>;5=89 M:A?5@8<5=B0;L=K5 3C??8 M2>;NF8>=8@>20;8 2 A2>59 =>2>9 >:@C60NI59 A@545 B>G=> B0:, :0: ?@54A:07K205B <>45;L. K1:8 B5?5@L 4>AB830NB ?>;>2>9 7@5;>AB8 =0 9 4=59 ?>765, G5< 8E @>4AB25==8:8 2=87C 2>4>?040, 8 :> 2@5<5=8 ?5@2KE @>4>2 8<5NB 1>;LH85 @07<5@K.  ?5@2>< ?><5B5 >=8 ?@>872>4OB 1>;55 <5;:8E <0;L:>2, ?>2848<><C, A>E@0=OO A51O 4;O 40;L=59H59 @5?@>4C:B82=>9 45OB5;L=>AB8". !0<FK 682>@>4OI8E @K1 >1KG=> >G5=L 0:B82=K 8 ?>AB>O==> 2LNBAO 2>:@C3 A0<>:. >B>20O : >?;>4>B2>@5=8N A0<:0 2K?CA:05B 2 2>4C >A>1K9 A5:@5B, ?@82;5:0NI89 A0<F>2. A;8 87 A>AC40, 345 A>45@60BAO 7@5;K5 A0<:8, 4>1028BL =5<=>3> 2>4K 2 0:20@8C< A A0<F0<8, >=8 ?@84CB 2 ?>;=>5 =58AB>2AB2>. !0<FK B>65 2K45;ONB 2 2>4C >A>1>5 25I5AB2> - :>?C;8=, :>B>@>5 >:07K205B 2;8O=85 =0 7@5;KE A0<>:: >=8 =0G8=0NB ?;020BL =0:;>==> 4;O >1;53G5=8O 22>40 3>=>?>48O 2 ?>;>2>5 >B25@AB85. 0: 2848<, =0 682>@>4OI8E @K10E 87CG0NB 5I5 8 E8<8G5A:85 25I5AB20, ?@8 ?><>I8 :>B>@KE 2708<>459AB2CNB 682>B=K5. > E8<8G5A:0O 8=D>@<0F8O > 3>B>2=>AB8 : A?0@820=8N, >1;53G0NI0O =0E>645=85 @K10<8 4@C3 4@C30 2 2>4>5<5, =5 70<5=O5B B8?8G=K5 4;O <=>38E @K1 D>@<K AB8<C;OF88 A0<:8. !0<5F @0A?@02;O5B ?;02=8:8, A25@:05B 2A5<8 F25B0<8 @04C38, AB@5<8B5;L=> =>A8BAO 2>:@C3 871@0==8FK. -B> 42865=85 :065BAO AB@5<8B5;L=K<, E0>B8G=K< - B> >= A25@EC, B> A1>:C, B> =04, B> ?>4& 4=0:>, :>340 : 8AA;54>20=8N ?>4:;NG8;8 :8=>:0<5@C, 0 70B5< AB0;8 ?@>A<0B@820BL >BA=OBCN ?;5=:C 2 70<54;5==>< B5<?5, >:070;>AL, GB> <5B0=8O A0<F0 2>:@C3 A0<:8 2>2A5 =5 E0>B8G=K, >=8 AB@>3> @53;0<5=B8@>20=K 8 >4=0 D83C@0 G5B:> A;54C5B 70 4@C3>9. "0=5F A0<F0"682>@>4:8" - AB@>3>5 8A?>;=5=85 >?@545;5==>3> >1@O40.  :064K9 @07 >= 53> ?>2B>@O5B. A5 A0<FK 3C??8 1C4CB B0=F520BL A2>9 B0=5F, 0 =5 :0:>9B> 4@C3>9, 81> >= 70:@5?;5= 2 8E 35=5B8G5A:>9 ?0<OB8, 0 2A5 <5G5=>AFK - A2>9. =0G5 A0<:0 =5 ?>4?CAB8B : A515 :020;5@0. "5?5@L, :>340 <K ?>7=0:><8;8AL A =5:>B>@K<8 18>;>38G5A:8<8 >A>15==>ABO<8 682>@>4OI8E @K1, <>6=> ?>?>;=8BL >?8A0=85 8E =5:>B>@K<8 =>2K<8 2840<8, ?>O282H8<8AO 2 0:20@8C<0E ;N18B5;59 2 ?>A;54=85 3>4K. >B, =0?@8<5@, 0;LD0@> (Alfaro cultratus). -B8 @K1:8 4;8=>9 4> 10 A0=B8<5B@>2 8<5NB 2KBO=CB>5, A60B>5 A 1>:>2 B5;> A25B;>:>@8G=52>3> F25B0 A 3>;C1K< >B;82><, 4;8==>5 @K;> A 25@E=8< @B>< - >G5=L C4>1=K< 4;O AE20BK20=8O C?02H8E =0 2>4C =0A5:><KE. 0 E2>AB>2>< AB51;5 A=87C G5HC9:8 >1@07CNB E0@0:B5@=K9 2K@>AB. @8 273;O45 A1>:C >= ?>E>6 =0 ;57285 =>60, => MB> A:>@55 =>6=K: <564C G5HC9:0<8 5ABL 65;>1>:, :C40 A0<5F C18@05B 4;8==K9 3>=>?>489.  3>=>?>489 C MB8E @K1>: =5>1KG5=: C >4=8E A0<F>2 >= A 70381>< =0 :>=F5 2;52>, C 4@C38E - 2?@02>. !>>B25BAB25==> 8 A0<:8 <>3CB ?@8=8<0BL ;81> ;52>AB>@>==8E, ;81> ?@02>AB>@>==8E A0<F>2. >B><C A>45@60BL MB8E @K1 =04> AB059. 8<89 2 =0H8E 0:20@8C<0E 2AB@5G05BAO 420 2840. 4=0 87 =8E - Poecilia nigrofasciata, =0 <>9 273;O4, >G5=L :@0A820 - O@:>75;5=0O 8;8 75;5=>65;B0O, 70 6015@=K<8 :@KH:0<8 ?> 1>:0< ?@>E>4OB 910 25@B8:0;L=KE G5@=KE ?>;>A (C A0<F0 >=8 O@G5), A?8==>9 ?;02=8: 2 G5@=KE ?OB=0E 8 HB@8E0E. @C30O - Poecilia vittata A:@><=55: A5@0O, A >;82:>2K< >B;82>< A?8=0, ?> B5;C @071@>A0=K @07=>9 25;8G8=K G5@=K5 ?OB=0 (C A0<F0 8E 1>;LH5). -B>B 284 2AB@5G05BAO 2 0:20@8C<0E 3>@074> G0I5, G5< ?5@2K9 (B>B >:070;AO B@C4=55 8 2 A>45@60=88, 8 2 @072545=88).  2>B 5I5 >4=0 @54:0O 3>ABLO 2 0:20@8C<5 - ?@80?5;;0 (Priapella intermedia). =0 =5 1;5I5B 1C9AB2>< :@0A>:, 55 =04> C<5BL C2845BL. -B0 @K1:0 4;O 0:20@8C<=KE MAB5B>2. >@?CA 8 A0<F0 8 A0<:8 =56=>>@0=652>3>, 0?5;LA8=>2>3> F25B0. !?8=:0 8 1>:0 B5<=55 8770 4C65: ?> :@0O< :064>9 G5HC9:8, 1@NH:> G8AB>0?5;LA8=>2>5. @8A 3;070, :>=G8: @K;0 8 25@E 3>;>2K 3>@OB 3>;C1K< F25B><. "0:85 65 HB@8E8, >G5=L O@:85, =0 ?5@54=8E ;CG0E 2A5E ?;02=8:>2, 25@E 8 =87 E2>AB>2>3> AB51;O, 25@E=85 8 =86=85 ;CG8 E2>AB>2>3> ?;02=8:0 B>65 3>@OB 3>;C1K<. G5=L :@0A820O, =56=0O, 87OI=0O @K10. > 2K:;NG8B5 1>:>2>9 A25B 8 ?5@54 20<8 >:065BAO A5@>65;B>20B0O @K15H:0 A 3@O7=>15;K<8 :@0O<8 ?;02=8:>2.  B>;L:> 25@E=89 ?>;C>1>4 3;07 A25@:05B 3>;C1K< ?@8 >A25I5=88 A25@EC. @80?5;;K - AB09=K5 @K1K, 2 5AB5AB25==KE 2>4>5<0E 45@60BAO =0 AB@5<=8=5. !0<FK A>25@H0NB 1>:>2K5 ?@K6:8 8 0B0:CNB A0<>:. '0AB> @K1:8 ?>4A:0:820NB :25@EC (0:20@8C< A;54C5B 70:@K20BL).  A>AB02C 2>4K >=8 1>;55 B@51>20B5;L=K, G5< @0A?@>AB@0=5==K5 ?5F8;84K,- 2>40 4>;6=0 1KBL A@54=59 65AB:>AB8. !0<FK 4>AB830NB 4;8=K 5 A0=B8<5B@>2, A0<:8 - 7. !0<:8 2K=0H820NB ?>B><AB2> 56 =545;L. >;>4L >B=>A8B5;L=> :@C?=0O (>:>;> 10 <8;;8<5B@>2) A 25;8:>;5?=K<8 A25@:0NI8<8 3;070<8. 1KG=> 1K205B 610 <0;L:>2, :0: 8A:;NG5=85 - 1620. 0@C156=K5 02B>@K AG8B0NB ?@80?5;;C ?@>1;5<=>9 @K1>9 - A0<:0 ?>68@05B A2>5 ?>B><AB2>. -B> 8 =5C4828B5;L=>. >4>1=> 40=8> 8 @O4C 10@1CA>2, MB8 @K1K =5@5ABOBAO =0 AB@5<=8=5, 8, 5AB5AB25==>, <0;L:8 >B=>AOBAO B5G5=85<. >MB><C C @K1:8<0B5@8 =5 2>7=8:05B B>@<>7OI53> @5D;5:A0 =0 A2>5 ?>B><AB2> - 2 ?@8@>4=KE CA;>28OE >=0 A2>8E <0;L:>2 =8:>340 =5 2848B. 0;L:8 45@60BAO C ?>25@E=>AB8 2>4K, ?@OGCBAO 2 ?;020NI8E @0AB5=8OE. 5@2K< :>@<>< 4;O =8E 2?>;=5 <>65B 1KBL 87<5;LG5==0O ACE0O 40D=8O.  ?@8@>45 ?@80?5;;K ?8B0NBAO =0A5:><K<8, =0E>4OI8<8AO =0 ?>25@E=>AB8 2>4K.  ?>A;54=55 2@5<O 70 @C156>< 2>7=8:;8 >1I5AB20 0:20@8C<8AB>2, 70=8<0NI8EAO 8A:;NG8B5;L=> 48:8<8 682>@>4OI8<8 @K10<8.  22>7OB 8E ?>AB>O==>. #65 7=0:><K9 G8B0B5;O< ..(0H8= ?>?>;=8; A>AB02 =0A5;5=8O <>8E 0:20@8C<>2 H5ABLN =>2K<8 682>@>4:0<8, ?>9<0==K<8 2 2>4>5<0E &5=B@0;L=>9 <5@8:8.  >A:25 ?>;CG8;8 @0A?@>AB@0=5=85 @K1:8 87 A5<59AB20 C4552K5 (Goodeidae) - :A5=>B>:0 75=0, 8;8 :@0A=>E2>AB0O - A 1>;LH8< :@0A=>>@0=652K< ?OB=>< =0 E2>AB>2>< AB51;5, A5@0O 3C45O, 3;O=F520O 0<5:0. !>2A5< :>@>B:0O >AB0=>2:0 :20@8C<K 4;O 8:@><5GCI8E 8 682>@>4OI8E :0@?>7C1>>1@07=KE >1KG=K5: E>@>H> >A25I5==K5, A 2>4=>9 @0AB8B5;L=>ABLN. ;O 682>@>4OI8E =5>1E>48<>, GB>1K 2 0:20@8C<0E @>A;8 =87H85 2>4>@>A;8, >A>15==> 4;O <>;;85=5789, 8E <0;L:8 =5 2K@0ABCB =>@<0;L=> 157 75;5=>9 ?>4:>@<:8. 0@?>7C1>>1@07=K5 ;53:> ?@>ABC60NBAO >B @57:8E ?5@5?04>2 B5<?5@0BC@K, 0 8:@><5GCI85 : B><C 65 =5 ;N1OB 8 A<5=K 2>4K. 0;L:8, 2K:;N=C2H85AO 87 ACE>9 8:@K, 4>;6=K ?5@2K5 420 <5AOF0 @072820BLAO 2 B>9 2>45, 2 :>B>@>9 2KH;8 87 8:@K, A2560O 2>40 <>65B 2K720BL 8E <0AA>2CN 3815;L. !0<>: 682>@>4OI8E @K1 (4065 A5;5:F8>==KE 3C??8) ?5@54 =5@5AB>< A;54C5B >BA048BL 2 >B45;L=K9 0:20@8C< A <5;:>;8AB=K<8 @0AB5=8O<8. @5;>ABL A0<:8 >?@545;ONB B0:: ?@8 273;O45 A1>:C E>@>H> 70<5B=> B5<=>5, >1KG=> B@5C3>;L=>5, ?OB=> =0 1>:0E 1@NH:0 2>7;5 0=0;L=>3> ?;02=8:0 - MB> ?@>A25G820NB M<1@8>=K; ?@8 273;O45 A25@EC 284=>, GB> :@0O ?>;=>3> 1@NH:0 2K40NBAO 2 AB>@>=K, G0AB> 1@NH:> 2K3;O48B 4065 C3;>20BK<. 0:0=C=5 =5@5AB0 @K1:0 AB0=>28BAO 15A?>:>9=>9, <5G5BAO 225@E2=87 C AB5=:8 0:20@8C<0. "5<?5@0BC@0 2>4K =5 4>;6=0 1KBL =865 24 !, 8=0G5 ?>B><AB2> 1C45B =5?>;=>F5==K<, 0 C <>;;85=5789 <>65B ?@>87>9B8 ?@56452@5<5==K9 2K1@>A <0;L:>2 - >=8 ;81> 1C4CB ?>;70BL ?> 4=C, ;81> ?>381=CB A@07C. @>4>;68< =0H5 ?CB5H5AB285 #20605<K9 G8B0B5;L! K A 20<8 70:0=G8205< =0H5 ?CB5H5AB285 ?> ?>42>4=><C <8@C. => 1K;> >3@0=8G5=> >?@545;5==K<8 @0<:0<8. >?5@2KE, AB5:;O==K<8 AB5=:0<8 0:20@8C<0 - O @0AA:070; B>;L:> > B5E @0AB5=8OE 8 682>B=KE, :>B>@KE <>6=> A>45@60BL 2 4><0H=5< 45:>@0B82=>< 2>4>5<5. >2B>@KE, >1J5<>< :=838, :>B>@CN 2K 45@68B5 2 @C:0E. 0 8 2>>1I5 2AO:>5 ?CB5H5AB285 8<55B =5 B>;L:> =0G0;>, => 8 :>=5F. > 5A;8 20< 1K;> 8=B5@5A=>, O C25@5=, =0 MB>< 2K =5 >AB0=>28B5AL. B> ?>7=0; ?@5;5ABL ?>AB865=8O C4828B5;L=KE B09= 682>9 ?@8@>4K, B>B C65 =8:>340 =5 A<>65B >AB0=>28BLAO. -B> ?@5:@0A=>5 >ICI5=85, :>340 B51O 2;5G5B 2A5 40;LH5 8 40;LH5 ?> 4>@>35 =0=8O. @54;030N 20< =0G0BL =>2>5 ?CB5H5AB285 8;8, B>G=55, ?@>4>;68BL C65 =0G0B>5, => =0 MB>B @07 C65 ?> 4@C38< :=830<. 2B>@0< MB8E :=83 O 8 ?5@540N MAB0D5BC. '8B09B5, C7=0209B5, ?>3@C609B5AL 2 <8@ =>2KE 7=0=89 > ?@8@>45. !G0AB;82KE 20< AB@0=AB289! QTWzYZ[r^ci|j$l&lLl&ortxyz|x2‚Xփ&&&&&& &&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&gdc6|gdc6|nTqVqJuLuuuwwxxZx\x}}V}X}24:<bd‚Ă46XZxzփ؃fhVXbd >@ BD<>fhآڢhxMuh:)OhD] h_khb^r b֗8ZV,®lV(&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&gdc6|,.HJrt&(8:>@ln8:XZ24θиVX.0 ^`npJLLN24prnpJLDF68v x   h j      hD] h_khba(Vp2<X<rZ"JL6F v *  &&&&&&& &&& &&&&& &&& &&&&&&&&gdc6|gdc6|        L N \ ^ > @     . 0   D F 4 6 X Z " $ $" &" " " ) ) + + , , <- >- - - h0 j0 6 6 : : ; ; = = t@ v@ XF ZF L L O O Q Q T T U "U >U @U Zd \d fg hg h h h h i i j j dq fq s s ,s .s Zs \s s s s s t t h_khbhD]a         X ! *# .' * Z. / r2 5 9 b= C HF ~H 0K N P T jU W &&&&&&& &&&&&&&&&&&& &&&&&&&&&gdc6|W \ ^ c \f g g h h h i i k 8m o ,s s 0t w w $y y { ڂ n &&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&& &&&&& &gdc6|gdc6|t z z   ։ ؉ v x < > Ȑ ʐ ~   " V X   P R t v v x ȧ ʧ D F Ʋ Ȳ ع ڹ j l z | r t   0 2 z |     : < v x 6 8         V' X' ' ' ^* hD] h_khban ֜ v  ( < > & \ * Z L N > &&&&&& &&&&&&&&& & &&& &&& &&&&gdc6|gdc6|> B r R ^       F  p f" >$ ' @, . 5 9 < ? X@ &&&&&&&&&&&&& && &&& &&&&& &&&&&gdc6|^* `* R- T- - - ". $. . . H/ J/ 82 :2 &7 (7 = = K K L L N N Q Q U U [ [ ^ ^ c c g g g g Ri Ti l l n n u u u v ^{ `{  F H       0 2   " $ 2 4   8 : ʳ ̳ h_khbhD]aX@ A DF I hL N 0T 8U U (Y X_ ` Bc `i *l p |t x *{ .}  b 8 n F &&&&&&&& &&& &&&&&&&&&&&&&& &gdc6|gdc6|F Ě \ 0 l д v ( l ` &&&&&&&&&&& &&&&&&&&&&&&&&&gdc6|gdc6|        2 4 b d 0 2   H J l n R T ^ ` D F     & ( H J T V j l B D   ~    j l     0 2 0 0 R1 T1 1 1 4 4 6 6 .9 hD] h_khba  t &  ^ B " :   b  F  6 z  T h V% & 0) / 7 &&&&&&&&&&& &&&&&&&&&&&& &&& & &gdc6|7 8 9 ; E I M O V ,Y [ ] b ve j Pm Xq t | } 4 ʂ @ T p &&&&&& &&&&&& &&&& &&&&&&& &&&gdc6|gdc6|.9 09 >< @< B B B B @E BE LI NI I I M M N N ^O `O P P &R (R zU |U W W pY rY Z Z (^ *^ a a e e f f i i k k Nn Pn s s s s ^| `| } } H~ J~   t v & (   X Z 4 6 . 0 r t j l h_khbhD]a  X   4 ģ . r z ^ 6 l & Z D &&&&&&&&&&&&& &&&&&&&&&&&&&& &gdc6|l x z z |   j l b d   L N " $ \ ^ P R ^ ` H J t v P R X Z       H J z | \ ^ X Z   # # |$ ~$ $ $ "& $& + + B/ D/ p/ r/ / / / / / / / hD] h_khbaD  j x  t  N    T       &&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&& &&&&gdc6|gdc6|    &! F# & &( * + B/ / / b0 1 B4 5 $6 n6 27 88 0; ; < ? A TC 0F LG zH &&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&gdc6|/ / 80 :0 1 1 H1 J1 f1 h1 B4 D4 V4 X4 4 4 4 4 5 5 $6 &6 F6 H6 p7 r7 7 7 ; ; V< X< v< x< D D *H ,H K K K K U U W X c c d d h h Hl Jl q q x x 2 4  F H h j Ї ҇ ؑ ڑ   8 : ޒ r t ԓ ֓   h_khbhD]azH bJ L @N O R >T U `X Y ` b ~f l Np r rt Nx { ʀ   j 6 ̍ j &&&&&&&& &&& &&&&&&&&&&&&&&&gdc6|gdc6| ؑ 8 ޒ r  2 4 n Қ n < f   ʮ P z ֶ  < V &&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&gdc6| D F   2 4 < > 6 8   z |   & ( < > 0 2 Ծ ־ 6 8 < > f h d f    H J \ ^ z | 6 8 2 4   ( * ^ ` T V              hD] h_khbaV  : 4 @ >  t B ~  j d  &&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&gdc6| $ x T     z   x   ~ 4# ^' ) r* + , - 6/ 0 2 V4 4 &&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&gdc6|gdc6|   H J         f h # "# X# Z# $ $ ( ( + + . / / / F0 H0 1 1 N3 P3 8 8 : : zB |B 2F 4F F F ZG \G H H H H zI |I J J W "W ^ ^ &` (` d d xe ze f f m m q q z "z | | $ &   0 2 F H F H   h_khbhD]a4 7 8 2< LA D E K bM Q &U Y ^ a e i m o Lt w x z < ̅  ؉ l 6 &&&&& &&&&&&&&&&&&&&& &&&&&& &&gdc6|6 f  P R t < \ T * r 4 6 ` ~ h < &&&&&&&&& &&& &&&&&&&&&&&&gdc6|gdc6|gdc6|  ֱ ر   h j | ~ " , .   < > N P 4 6   h j   p r     ''(hD] h_khba N L  4 < h @ J . R  L 8  t &&& &&&&&&&&&&& &&&&&&&&&&&&&&gdc6|ZnZ    pDdZ`!n%'f*2++z36;BC4E.GH&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&& &&& &&&&&gdc6|((>*@*t+v+66??T@V@AA.G0GIIrKtKPPVVYY__T_V_``ggmmbndnrr t tTzVz||jlfhJL46$&ƦȦ.0pr>@\^z|24df